High-Temperature Particle-to-sCO2 Heat Exchanger - Energy

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High-Temperature Particle-to-sCO2 Heat Exchanger SuNLaMP 1507 Presented by: Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept. Contributors: Kevin J. Albrecht Matthew Carlson Solex Thermal Science Vacuum Process Engineering SAND2019-XXXX Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525. Photos placed in horizontal position with even amount of white space between photos and header Photos placed in horizontal position with even amount of white space between photos and header

Introduction High-temperature particle receivers are being pursued to provide heat for sCO2 Brayton cycles 2

Problem Statement Indirect sCO2 Receiver Particle-to-sCO2 heat exchangers do not exist ReMain Compressor Compressor G HX sCO2 700 C at 20 MPa Challenges Hot Storage Turbine Cold Storage Gas High-T Low-T Cooler Recuperator Recuperator Heliostat Field Solarized sCO2 recompression Brayton cycle Particle-side heat transfer Thermomechanical stresses Materials High operating temperatures and pressures Erosion Costs 3

Objectives and Approach Evaluate and downselect among alternative designs using Analytic Hierarchy Process (Ho et al., 2018) Construct, and test prototype particle heat exchanger that can heat sCO2 to 700 C at 20 MPa for 100 kW prototype Integrate final design with Sandia’s falling particle system Heat Exchanger Advantages Disadvantages Fluidized Bed (Babcock & Wilcox) High heat-transfer coefficients Energy and mass loss from fluidization Moving packed bed shell/tube (Solex Thermal Science) Gravity-fed particle flow; low erosion Low particle-side heat transfer Moving packed bed (shell/plate (Vacuum Process Engr) High potential surface area for particle contact; low erosion Requires diffusion-bonding of plates 4

Key Outcomes and Impact Teamed with industry to design fluidized and movingpacked-bed particle/sCO2 heat exchangers Measured particle/wall heat transfer coefficient at 200 W/m2-K for shell-and-plate design Performed particle flowability tests at 600 C Designed 100 kWt sCO2 flow system for integration with heat exchanger Impact: Demonstration of first solarized heating of sCO2 using particles (summer 2019) 5

Integrated System Solex/VPE/Sandia particle/sCO2 shelland-plate heat exchanger Heat duty 100 kW Tparticle,in 775 C Tparticle,out 570 C TsCO2,in 550 C TsCO2,out 700 C 0.5 kg/s Preheater Coriolis mass flowmeters Pump Particle receiver testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM Water cooler High-Temperature Particle Receiver Recuperator sCO2 flow system provides pressurized sCO2 at 550 C to heat exchanger for test and evaluation 6

Questions? Cliff Ho, (505) 844-2384, ckho@sandia.gov 7

Technical Challegnes Design Criteria Cost Heat Transfer Coefficient Structural Reliability Notes Want low cost of prototype and larger scale systems ( 150/kWt) Want large overall heat transfer coefficient ( 100 W/m2-K) Want maximum allowable working pressure 20 MPa at minimum design metal temperature of 750 C; long-term reliability Manufacturability Want ease of manufacturing and demonstrated ability to build Parasitics & Heat Losses Want low power requirements, pressure drop, and heat losses Scalability Compatibility Need to be able to scale up to 20 MWt thermal duty Can be readily integrated with particle receiver and sCO2 flow loop Erosion & Corrosion Want to minimize thinning of walls and tubes from particle and sCO2 flow; need to ensure 30 year lifetime Transient Operation Want to minimize transient start-up and impact of thermal stresses Inspection Ease Want ability to inspect internals of the heat exchanger to evaluate corrosion, erosion, fatigue, etc. 8

q C to heat exchanger for test and evaluation Solex/VPE/Sandia particle/sCO2 shell - and - plate heat exchanger Heat duty 100 kW T particle,in 775 q C T particle,out 570 q C T sCO2,in 550 q C T sCO2,out 700 q C I 6 0.5 kg/s High - Temperature Particle Receiver Particle receiver testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

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