Chemistry Reference Table - Texas State University

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Chemistry Reference Tables Name Value Avogadro’s number Standard temperature 6.022 1023 particles/mole 0.0821 L atm mole K L mmHg 62.4 mole K 8.314 L kPa mole K 1.00 atm 101.3 kPa 760. mmHg 760. torr 0 C or 273K Volume of 1 mole of any gas at STP 22.4 L Gas constant (R) Standard pressure Thermodynamic Constants Symbol Value Heat of fusion of water H f (water) 334 J/g Heat of vaporization of water Hv (water) 2,260 J/g J for ice, 2.02 J g C g C for steam, 4.18 J for liquid g C 2.05 C p (water) Specific heat of water Metal Specific Heat J g C Density (g/cm3) Melting Point ( C) Aluminum 0.897 2.702 Copper 0.385 8.92 1083 Gold 0.129 19.31 1064 Iron 0.449 7.86 1535 Lead 0.129 Magnesium 1.023 Mercury 0.140 Nickel 0.444 8.90 1455 Titanium 0.523 4.5 1660 Zinc 0.388 7.14 NCDPI Reference Tables for Chemistry (2012) 11.3437 1.74 13.5939 660 328 649 –39 420 Page 1

Organic Substances Name Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Glucose (C 6H12O6) Density 0.7893 g/cm3 Melting Point ( C) 114 Boiling Point ( C) 79 1.56 g/cm3 146 Hexane (C 6H14) 0.6603 g/cm3 95 69 Methane (CH4) 0.716 g/L 182 161 Methanol (CH3OH) 0.7914 g/cm3 98 65 Sucrose (C12H22O11) 1.58 g/cm3 86 Decomposes Decomposes Inorganic Substances Name *Density @ STP Melting Point ( C) Boiling Point ( C) Chlorine 3.21 g/L 101 35 Hydrogen 0.0899 g/L 259 253 Hydrogen chloride 1.640 g/L 115 85 Hydrogen sulfide 1.54 g/L 85 61 Nitrogen 1.25 g/L 210 196 Nitrogen monoxide 1.34 g/L 164 152 Oxygen 1.43 g/L 218 183 Sodium carbonate 2.532 g/cm3 851 Decomposes Sodium chloride 2.165 g/cm3 801 1413 Sulfur dioxide 2.92 g/L 73 10 *Water 1.00 g/cm3 0 100 (at 4 C) NCDPI Reference Tables for Chemistry (2012) Page 2

Formulas D m V D density K C 273 m mass P1V1 PV 2 2 T1 T2 V volume Pt P1 P2 P3 . K Kelvin M1V1 M2V2 P pressure PV nRT R gas constant M moles of solute liter of solution T temperature q mC p T M molarity q mHv n number of moles q mHf q quantity of heat energy pH pOH 14 C p specific heat pH log[H ] Hv heat of vaporization pOH log[OH ] H f heat of fusion Kw [H ][OH ] 1 10 14 K w equilibrium constant for the ionization of water [H ] 10 pH [OH ] 10 pOH NCDPI Reference Tables for Chemistry (2012) Page 3

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SOLUBILITY RULES Soluble: All Nitrates, Acetates, Ammonium, and Group 1 (IA) salts All Chlorides, Bromides, and Iodides, except Silver, Lead, and Mercury(I) All Fluorides except Group 2 (IIA), Lead(II), and Iron(III) All Sulfates except Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Mercury, Lead(II), and Silver Insoluble (0.10 M or greater): All Carbonates and Phosphates except Group 1 (IA) and Ammonium All Hydroxides except Group 1 (IA), Strontium, Barium, and Ammonium All Sulfides except Group 1 (IA), 2 (IIA), and Ammonium All Oxides except Group 1 (IA) Guidelines for Predicting the Products of Selected Types of Chemical Reactions Key: M Metal NM Nonmetal 1. 2. SYNTHESIS: a. Formation of binary compound: A B AB b. Metal oxide and water: MO H2O base c. Nonmetal oxide and water: (NM)O H2O acid DECOMPOSITION: a. Binary compounds: AB A B b. Metallic carbonates: MCO3 MO CO2 c. Metallic hydrogen carbonates: MHCO3 MCO3 (s) H2O (l) CO2 (g) d. Metallic hydroxides: MOH MO H2O e. Metallic chlorates: MClO3 MCl O2 f. Oxyacids decompose to nonmetal oxides and water: acid (NM)O H2O 3. SINGLE REPLACEMENT: a. Metal-Metal replacement: A BC AC B b. Active metal replaces H from water: M H2O MOH H2 c. Active metal replaces H from acid: M HX MX H2 d. Halide-Halide replacement: D BC BD C 4. DOUBLE REPLACEMENT: AB CD AD CB a. Formation of a precipitate from solution b. Acid-Base neutralization 5. COMBUSTION REACTION Hydrocarbon oxygen carbon dioxide water NCDPI Reference Tables for Chemistry (2012) Page 6

ACTIVITY SERIES of Halogens: NH F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 BrO Sb Bi Cu Hg Ag Pt Au Ammonium 3 CN C 2H3O2 (CH3COO ) ACTIVITY SERIES of Metals Li Rb K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb [ H2 ] Polyatomic Ions 4 Replace hydrogen from cold water Perchlorate ClO3 Chlorate ClO2 Chlorite ClO IO3 Hypochlorite MnO Iodate 4 React with oxygen to form oxides NCDPI Reference Tables for Chemistry (2012) Permanganate NO 3 Nitrate NO 2 Nitrite SCN CO23 Hydroxide Hydrogen carbonate Hydrogen sulfate Thiocyanate Carbonate Cr2O72 Dichromate HCO3 Replace hydrogen from acids Acetate ClO 4 OH Replace hydrogen from steam Bromate Cyanide HSO 4 CrO SO 2 4 2 4 Chromate Sulfate SO23 Sulfite PO34 Phosphate Page 7

NCDPI Reference Tables for Chemistry (2012) Page 8

NCDPI Reference Tables for Chemistry (2012) Page 1 Chemistry Reference Tables Name Value Avogadro's number 6.022 10u 23 particles/mole Gas constant (R) 0.0821 L atm mole K 62.4 L mmHg mole K 8.314 L kPa mole K Standard pressure 1.00 atm 101.3 kPa 760. mmHg 760. torr Standard temperature 0 C or 273Kq Volume of 1 mole of any gas at STP 22.4 L

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