Clinically OrientedAnatomyOther CBS Books in Anatomy220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.13.14.BD Chaurasia’s Human Anatomy Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3)BD Chaurasia’s Handbook of General AnatomyTextbook of Histology Krishna Garg, Indira Bahl, Mohini KaulHuman Embryology Arushi, Indu KhuranaHuman Osteology (A Clinical Orientation) Nafis Ahmed FaruqiHuman Anatomy (Upper Limb & Thorax) A. HalimClinical Anatomy RK Zargar, Sushil KumarHuman Embryology Daksha DixitManipal Manual of Anatomy Sampath MadhyasthaExam-Oriented Anatomy Shoukat N KaziAnatomy and Physiology of Eye AK Khurana, Indu KhuranaSurface and Radiological Anatomy A. HalimMCQ in Human Anatomy DK ChopadeExam-Oriented Anatomy for Dental Students Shoukat N Kazi
Clinically OrientedAnatomyJnanesh S Rayapati MBBS MD DFMAssociate Professor of AnatomyMSU-GEF International Medical SchoolMS Ramaiah, Bangalore campusBangalore, Karnataka, IndiaFormerlyAssistant Professor of Anatomy and HistologySt Matthews University School of MedicineGrand Cayman, Cayman IslandsBritish West IndiesCBS Publishers and Distributors Pvt LtdNew Delhi Bengaluru Pune Kochi ChennaiMumbai Kolkata Hyderabad Patna Manipal
DisclaimerScience and technology are constantly changing fields. Newresearch and experience broaden the scope of informationand knowledge. The author has tried his best in givinginformation available to him while preparing the material forthis book. Although, all efforts have been made to ensureoptimum accuracy of the material, yet it is quite possiblesome errors might have been left uncorrected. The publisher,printer and the author will not be held responsible for anyinadvertent errors or inaccuracies.Clinically OrientedAnatomyISBN : 978-81-239-1875-4ISBNCopyright Author and PublishersFirst Edition: 2010Reprint: 2013All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval systemwithout permission, in writing, from the author and the publisher.Published by Satish Kumar Jain forCBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd4819/XI Prahlad Street, 24 Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India.Ph: 23289259, 23266861, 23266867Fax: 011-23243014Website: www.cbspd.come-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.orgCorporate Office: 204 FIE, Industrial Area, Patparganj, Delhi 110 092Ph: 4934 4934Fax: 4934 4935e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.orgBranches Bengaluru: Seema House 2975, 17th Cross, K.R. Road,Banasankari 2nd Stage, Bengaluru 560 070, KarnatakaPh: 91-80-26771678/79Fax : 91-80-26771680e-mail : email@example.com Pune: Bhuruk Prestige, Sr. No. 52/12/2 1 3/2 Narhe, Haveli(Near Katraj-Dehu Road Bypass), Pune 411 041, MaharashtraPh: 91-20-64704058, 64704059, 32342277Fax : 91-20-24300160 Kochi: 36/14 Kalluvilakam, Lissie Hospital Road, KochiPh: 91-484-4059061-65682 018,Fax : 91-484-4059065e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.orgKeralae-mail: email@example.com Chennai: 20, West Park Road, Shenoy Nagar, Chennai 600 030, Tamil NaduPh: 91-44-26260666, 26208620Fax : 91-44-42032115e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgRepresentatives Mumbai0-9833017933 Kolkata0-9831437309 Patna0-9334159340 Manipal0-9742022075 HyderabadPrinted at Magic International Private Limited, Greater Noida, UP0-9885175004
tomy wifeLakshmimy daughterSachitaandmy parentsDr Sreenathan and Rukminifor their support and love
PrefaceThe main aim of this book is to provide a concise yet sufficient material on clinical anatomy.It is written in simple language in a point format. Unnecessary details have been omitted.Facts of clinical importance have been highlighted in distinctive colour.I hope that this book will be of benefit to undergraduate, postgraduate (graduate) studentspreparing for examinations as a rapid review. It will be helpful as a review book for studentspreparing for exams like USMLE, PLAB and All India PG Entrance Examinations. The bookfocuses on material that is most likely to be tested in these examinations.The book provides enough information for those wishing to refresh their knowledge ofanatomy. I shall be grateful to the readers for their suggestions to improve the book.Jnanesh S Rayapati
viiiClinically Oriented AnatomyAcknowledgementsIam grateful to my father Dr RN Sreenathan, formerly Dean of Students Affairs, Chairman,Department of Anatomy, St Matthews University School of Medicine, Grand Cayman, forhis help in the production of this book. I wish to acknowledge Dr Sandhya Belwadi, Professor,Department of Microbiology and Dr YJ Visweswara Reddy, Head, Department of Medicine,PES Medical College, Kuppam, for their encouragement. I am indebted to Mr SK Jain, ManagingDirector, Mr YN Arjuna, Publishing Director, and Mr Deepak Rao of CBS Publishers &Distributors, for their cooperation. I am grateful to Mr RK Majumdar for his wonderfulillustrations.Jnanesh S Rayapati
ContentsixContentsPreface1.viiGeneral AnatomySubdivisions of Anatomy 1Anatomical Terminology 1Skin 5Fascia 6Bones 6Ligaments 9Bursae and Synovial Sheaths 9Muscles 9Joints 9Circulatory System 13Nervous System 15Imaging Techniques 172.Upper LimbClavicle 18Scapula 20Humerus 23Mammary Gland 24Deltopectoral Triangle (Groove) 27Axilla 27Brachial Plexus 29Deltoid 33Axillary Nerve 35Anterior Compartment of the Arm 37Brachial Artery 38Musculocutaneous Nerve 39Cubital Fossa 40Back of the Arm 40Radius 41Ulna 42Anterior Compartment of the Forearm 42Palm 45Extensor Compartment of the Forearm 50Dorsum of the Hand 53Median Nerve 55Ulnar Nerve 57Radial Nerve 59Radial Artery 61Ulnar Artery 61Veins of the Upper Limb 62Lymphatic Drainage of the Upper Limb 63Joints 6413.Lower Limb72Hip Bone 74Femur 76Patella 78Tibia 78Fibula 79Lymphatic Drainage of the Lower Limb 80Venous Drainage of the Lower Limb 80Front of the Thigh 81Femoral Triangle 82Femoral Artery 83Femoral Nerve 83Femoral Canal 85Adductor Canal 85Medial Compartment of the Thigh 85Gluteal Region 87Back of Thigh 90Sciatic Nerve 91Popliteal Fossa 92Popliteal Artery 93Posterior Compartment of the Leg 95Anterior Compartment of the Leg 97Lateral Compartment of the Leg 98Dorsum of the Foot 100Sole of the Foot 101Joints 104Arches of Foot 108184.ThoraxThoracic Vertebrae 110Ribs 111Sternum 112Joints of Thorax 113Respiratory Movements 115Intercostal Spaces 117Internal Thoracic Artery 120Azygos System of Veins 121Pleura 122The Lungs 126109
Clinically Oriented AnatomyxOvary 223Vagina 223Female External Genitalia 224Internal Iliac Artery 224The Sacral Plexus 225Bronchopulmonary Segments 130Mediastinum 131The Pericardium 134The Heart 136Right Atrium 139Right Ventricle 140Left Atrium 142Left Ventricle 142Conducting System of the Heart 145Arterial Supply of the Heart 145Venous Drainage of the Heart 148Nerve Supply of the Heart 149Superior Vena Cava 150Ascending Aorta 150Arch of Aorta 150Descending Thoracic Aorta 152Trachea 152Oesophagus 153Thoracic Duct 154Thoracic Sympathetic Trunk 1555.AbdomenAnterior Wall of the Abdomen 158Rectus Sheath 162Abdominal Herniae 164Inguinal Canal 165Testes 167Peritoneum 170Stomach 176Duodenum 179Large Intestine 181Liver 184Extrahepatic Biliary Apparatus 187Spleen 189Portal Vein 191Pancreas 191Rectum 192Anal Canal 194Kidneys 196Ureter 199Suprarenal Glands 200Abdominal Aorta 201Inferior Vena Cava 202Lumbar Plexus 203Diaphragm 203External Iliac Artery 204Posterior Abdominal Wall 204Perineum 205Ischiorectal Fossa 208Pudendal Canal 209The Pelvis 211Pelvic Diaphragm 214Urinary Bladder 215Prostate 217Urethra 218Ductus Deferens 219Seminal Vesicle 219Uterus 220Fallopian Tube 2226.158Head and NeckNorma Verticalis 226Norma Occipitalis 227Norma Lateralis 227Norma Basalis 229Norma Frontalis 231Inferior of the Cranium 231Interior of Cranial Vault 233Cervical Vertebrae 234Mandible 235Hyoid Bone 237Scalp 237Face 241Lacrimal Apparatus 246Parotid Gland 247Deep Fascia of the Neck 250Sternocleidomastoid Muscles (SCM) 251Posterior Triangle 252Muscles of the Back 255Suboccipital Triangle 255Curvatures of the Vertebral Column 257The Anterior Trinagle 258The Submandibular Gland 259Hyoglossus Muscle 260Cervical Plexus 262Thyroid Glands 262Parathyroid Gland 264Subclavian Artery 265The Vertebral Artery 267The common Carotid Artery 267Internal Carotid Artery 268Temporal Fossa 268Infratemporal Fossa 269Mandibular Nerve 270Maxillary Artery 271Temporomandibular Joint 272Muscles of Mastication 273Tongue 273Palate 275Palatine Tonsil 275Pharynx 276Nose 277Larynx 279Meninges 282Dural Venous Sinuses 288Cavernous Sinus 289Pituitary Gland 290Ear 291Orbit 294Extraocular Muscles 296Cranial Nerves 300Cervical Sympathetic Chain 310Craniovertebral Joints 311226Index313
1General Anatomy Human anatomy deals with the structure ofthe body. Anatomy cutting up (Greek word). It is awide field of study. Dissection cut into two (Latin word). It isa technique. Anatomy is the basic foundation for thefield of medicine. It introduces most of the medical terminologies. Percussion. Auscultation. Endoscopy (bronchoscopy, gastroscopy,etc.). Radiography. Electromyography.3. Embryology (developmental anatomy): Prenatal(before birth) and postnatal (after birth)developmental changes in an individual.4. Histology (microscopic anatomy): Study of thestructure with the aid of microscope.SUBDIVISIONS OF ANATOMY5. Surface anatomy (topographic anatomy): Studyof deeper structures in relation to the skinsurface projection. Important in clinical andsurgical fields.1. Cadaveric anatomy is studied on dead bodiesusually with naked eye (gross anatomy).a. Regional anatomy: Body is studied in partssuch as upper limb, lower limb, etc.b. Systemic anatomy: Body is studiedsystem-wise such as: Skeletal system (osteology). Muscular system (myology). Articular system (arthrology). Vascular system (angiology). Nervous system (neurology). Respiratory, digestive, urogenital andendocrine system (splanchnology). Locomotor system includes osteology,arthrology and myology.6. Radiographic anatomy: Study of deeperorgans by plain and contrast X-rays.7. Comparative anatomy: Human anatomycompared to that of other animals.8. Applied anatomy (clinical anatomy):Application of the anatomical knowledgeto the medical and surgical field.ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGYTerms of PositionAnatomical Position2. Living anatomy is studied on living humans: Inspection. Palpation.“Anatomical position” represents the basisfrom which all directions and directionalconcepts will be developed.1
12Clinically Oriented AnatomyPlease note that the subject is standingerect with his eyes looking forward, arms athis side, the palms of the hands facingforward and feet beside each other (Fig. 1.1).Throughout the course of study, allstructures or organs in the body are describedin relation to the anatomical position. It isgenerally assumed that a student of anatomyremembers this basic concept each time astructure is encountered in the course ofstudy.In the dissection hall, the cadaver is kepton the table in supine or prone position.However, when description of a structure andits relation is to be given, it should beexplained in terms of its location in the bodyin anatomical position. If we do not realizeand practise this basic, the subject of anatomybecomes a big puzzle. Erect is standing up. Recumbent is lying down. Prone is lying face down. Supine is lying down, face upwards. Lateral recumbent is lying on the side. Apatient found “left lateral recumbent” islying down on the left side. Lithotomy position is lying supine with thehips and knees fully flexed and thighs apart.Anatomical Planes1. Median (midsagittal plane) vertical plane:Divides the body or an organ into left andright halves (Fig. 1.1).2. Sagittal plane: Plane parallel to the medianplane.3. Coronal plane: Vertical plane that divides thebody or organ into anterior and posteriorparts. It is at right angles to the medianplane (Fig. 1.1).4. Transverse (horizontal) plane: Divides thebody or organ into superior (upper) andinferior (lower) portions (Fig. 1.1).5. Oblique plane: Any other plane.Sagittal planeDivides body into left andright parts.Median planeDivides body into equal leftand right halves.Coronal planeDivides body into anterior/posterior.Transverse plane Divides body into superior/inferior.Other Terms Commonly Used Fig. 1.1: Use of some anatomical terms and bodyplanesAnterior—towards front.Posterior—towards back.Superior—towards head.Inferior—towards feet.Medial—towards the median plane.Lateral—away from the median plane.Anterosuperior, anteroinferior, posterosuperior, posteroinferior, anterolateral,anteromedial, etc. are terms used in
1General Anatomy3Fig. 1.2: Use of various anatomical termscombination (Fig. 1.2).The anterior surface is the front, and theposterior surface is the back. Interior or inner. Exterior or outer. Invagination or inward protrusion. Evagination or outward protrusion. Superficial or towards the surface. Deep or away from the surface and inwards(Fig. orsalDistalLateralDeepInternal There are eight pairs of directional conceptsto define. Left and right, always refers to thepatient’s left or right. To the left or right ofthe midline, moving away from it or backtoward it, is a concept that defines lateralor medial. Lateral being farther from the midline,medial being closer to the midline
14Clinically Oriented Anatomy(Fig. 1.2). Superior is closer to the head than inferiorwhich is closer to the feet (simply statedhigher or lower) (Fig. 1.2). Superficial and deep are “measurements” ofdepth from the surface of the skin, and donot need much explanation (Fig. 1.2). Bilateral and unilateral are used to describestructures or occurrences in the body. Eyes,for example are bilateral (one on either sideof the midline) whereas some organs areunilateral (only on one side, e.g. the spleen).A patient might be a bilateral amputee(having lost both legs) or might beexperiencing unilateral paralysis secondaryto a stroke. Ipsilateral of the same side. Contralateral of the opposite side. Ipsilateral and contralateral refer to the sameside or different sides.The following terms are commonly used inembryology, but sometimes in gross anatomy: Ventral and dorsal refer to the anterior andposterior aspects of the torso. These twoterms are also useful to describe aspects ofthe feet and hands, but more specifically theventral (inferior) aspect of the foot isreferred to as plantar and the ventral(anterior) aspect of the hand as palmar. Cranial or rostral towards the head. Caudal towards the tail.Terms used for Limbs Proximal and distal refer to directions orrelationships between different structuresor aspects of the extremities (upper andlower limbs) (Fig. 1.2). Proximal nearer the trunk. Distal away from the trunk. For example, the elbow is proximal to thewrist, and the elbow is distal to theshoulder. Radial outer border in the upper limb. Ulnar inner border in the upper limb. Tibial inner border in the lower limb. Fibular outer border in the lower limb. Flexor surface: Anterior surface in the upperlimb. Posterior surface in the lower limb. Extensor surface: Posterior surface in theupper limb. Anterior surface in the lowerlimb. Palmar (volar) referring to the palm of thehand. Plantar towards the sole of the foot.A patient might have pain that originatesin an area just superior to the left ear, travelsover the superior aspect of the skull andtravels down the contralateral aspect of theupper torso (pain starts just above the leftear, goes over the top of the head and downthe right side of the body) or a patient mayhave sustained superficial burns to themedial aspect of the right upper extremity,with superficial and deep burns to lateralaspect of the ipsilateral lower extremity(superficial burns to the inside of the rightupper limb and superficial and full thicknessburns to the outside of the right lower limb).That is medical terminology, cool, ok?Terms used for describing Movements Flexion reduces joint angle. Approximationof flexor surfaces. Extension increases joint angle. Approximation of extensor surfaces. Abduction moves away from body midline. Adduction moves closer to body midline. Medial rotation inward rotation towardmidline on the body. Lateral rotation outward rotation away frommidline on the body. Circumduction combination of the abovemovements.
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