Staples and Students Together for a Smaller Footprint Produced with the generous support of the Staples Foundation for Learning Teacher’s Guide
TEACHER TOOLKIT Version 1.5 (February 2010) Produced by TakingITGlobal With the generous support of the Staples Foundation for Learning In collaboration with Peace Child International DREAM Behold Lead Writing and Editorial Team Katherine Walraven, TakingITGlobal Liam O’Doherty, TakingITGlobal Katherine Assad, TakingITGlobal Contributors (to this toolkit and the overall program design) Jennifer Corriero, TakingITGlobal Katy Dobbs, Staples Suzie Vesper, TakingITGlobal Tanya Mowbray, Peace Child International Sarah Toumi, DREAM Yannick van Balen, Behold Design and Technology Team (for this toolkit and accompanying online resources) Nigel Ayow, TakingITGlobal Francisco Pereira, TakingITGlobal Robert Meyer, TakingITGlobal Maciej Jasiobedzki, TakingITGlobal Michael Furdyk, TakingITGlobal This toolkit is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. For more information about Creative Commons licensing, please see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/.
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. 1 THE TREAD LIGHTLY INITIATIVE . 3 Purpose . 3 Context . 3 Partners . 4 THE TREAD LIGHTLY TEACHER TOOLKIT . 6 Timing . 6 Structure . 7 Feedback . 8 HOW TO BE A LEADING TREAD LIGHTLY SCHOOL . 8 Utilising TIG and TIGed . 9 MODULE 1: STEPPING IN . 10 Lesson 1.1: Learning from the Past, Defining our Future . 10 Lesson 1.2: Our Changing Climate . 11 Lesson 1.3: Where We Stand . 13 Resources for Further Reading and Reflection . 15 MODULE 2: STEPPING UP. 16 Lesson 2.1: Visualising Footprints . 16 Lesson 2.2: Taking Stock . 17 Resources for Further Reading and Reflection . 19 MODULE 3: STEPPING BACK . 20 Lesson 3.1: Global Climate Change Debate. 20 Lesson 3.2: Looking back, looking forward . 22 Resources for Further Reading and Reflection . 23 HANDOUTS . 24 Handout 1.1 A: Societies Past . 24 Handout 1.1 B: Societies Collapsed . 27 Handout 1.2 A: The Greenhouse Effect . 30 Handout 1.2 B: The Consequences of Climate Change . 31 Handout 1.2 C: Blank Mind Maps . 33 Handout 1.2 D: Example Climate Change Mind Map . 35 Handout 1.2 E: Action Ideas . 36 Handout 1.2 F: 40-Day Challenge Progress Tracker. 38
Handout 1.3 A: Ecological Footprint Quiz . 39 Handout 1.3 B: Ecological Footprints of the World . 41 Handout 3.1 A: Global Climate Change Debate Roles . 42 Handout 3.1 B: The True Costs of Consumption . 46 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 47 NOTES . 49
INTRODUCTION ‚What could be more important than the future of our world? As young people, we have the most at stake, so we should be stepping up to our roles as the major stakeholders and stand up for the kind of future we want.‛ PauPau, TakingITGlobal member, Philippines Where would we be without earth, our common home? The answer, naturally, is nowhere. Without the planet, and the services it provides to us, all of humanity would essentially be homeless. And yet, despite the undeniable fact that our survival depends on our ability to live within the means of our planet, we continue to push the earth’s capacity to sustain us. The world’s population is nearing 7 billion inhabitants as 2009 comes to a close, and the United Nations (UN) expects this to reach almost 9 billion by 2050 – an increase of almost 30%.1 A growing population puts more pressure on the planet’s resources. Recent trends of increased consumerism and consumption in both the developed and developing world work to compound this stress. According to the Worldwatch Institute, private consumption expenditures (the amount spent on goods and services at the household level) in 2000 exceeded 20 trillion USD – up over 400% from 4.8 trillion in 1960.2 If all people in the world consumed and wasted as much as a typical member of the global consumer class, we would need several more planets to sustain the world’s population. Our collective footprint is currently bigger than the planet we have to support us, risking our very survival.3 No environmental issue better illustrates our unhealthy relationship with the planet, and the risks that we collectively face, than climate change. While a certain concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere is both natural and necessary for life on the planet, levels have risen steadily since the Industrial Revolution. Meanwhile, the global temperature has increased by 0.7 C in the last century; Arctic ice is melting; changes in the environment are threatening 1 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Population Division). World Population to 2300 (New York, USA: UN, 2004). Worldwatch Institute. “State of the World 2004: Consumption by the Numbers” (2004), www.worldwatch.org/node/1783. 3 According to the Global Footprint Network, humanity currently uses the equivalent of 1.3 planets to provide the resources we use and to absorb the waste that we produce. 2 1
biodiversity; low-lying coastal states are at risk of being inundated by the rising sea; and extreme weather events have become more frequent and severe. It has become increasingly clear and widely acknowledged that humanity is contributing to changes in the global climate outside of natural variability. The world’s foremost authority on climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), has determined that “warming of the climate system is unequivocal” and that human activities have caused “most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century.”4 Emissions of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels have contributed most to the climatic changes being witnessed today. The world's richest are largely responsible for climate change, with the United States and Western Europe accounting for approximately two-thirds of global CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, Africa, a continent with over 840 million people, makes up only 3% of global CO2emissions.5 As the consequences of climate change continue to accrue, it will be the developing world that is the hardest hit by its negative effects. Climate change is, thus, not simply an environmental issue, but a social justice issue as well. If we cannot learn to keep our ecological footprint in check, we risk overstepping a tipping point which is likely to lead to accelerated change in climate systems, mass extinctions for species which cannot adapt to these changes, and significant human suffering. Credit: John Ditchburn Environmental education is the most effective tool in the fight against climate change as it facilitates the development of widespread environmental stewardship. In the words of Senegalese poet and naturalist, Baba Dioum, “In the end, we will protect only what we love. We will love only what we understand. We will understand only what we are taught.” 4 IPCC. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report (Valencia, Spain: UN, 2007). Kavalam Mayer. “Cutting CO2 emissions what future for Africa?” (4ecotips, 2007), www.4ecotips.com/eco/article show.php?aid 1224&id 287. 5 2
THE TREAD LIGHTLY INITIATIVE Purpose The Tread Lightly initiative was established in order to help young people worldwide to: Understand the basic science of climate change and how human activity is contributing to the problem. Realise the dangers of living beyond the earth’s carrying capacity. Understand how climate change and other environmental issues are interconnected. Foster a sense of personal and collective responsibility towards the earth. Identify and adopt eco-friendly skills, behaviours and attitudes. Become more interested in climate change policy at local, national and international levels. Context In June of 1992, representatives of 172 governments participated in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Commonly referred to as the Earth Summit, this conference produced a number of important documents and agreements, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UNFCCC entered into force in 1994 with the goal of stabilising atmospheric GHG concentrations in order to “prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system.”6 Governments that have signed on to the UNFCCC have been meeting every year since 1995 to assess progress and establish binding obligations for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to the complexity of the climate change issue and the fact that UNFCCC commitments are not legally binding, GHG emissions have not reduced but have continued to rise. This is problematic because these emissions will remain in the atmosphere for many years, requiring further reductions if stabilisation is to be achieved. From December 7th to 18th 2009, world leaders met in Copenhagen, Denmark, for the 15th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the UNFCCC to discuss the future of global climate change policy. It is critical to our common future that the global climate change policy resulting from international negotiations is designed to be effective and accountable to the latest climate change science, which indicates that the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere needs to drop from 387, to 350, parts per million (ppm). The lead up to COP15 was an opportunity to help raise awareness about climate change, and the importance of a robust, binding international climate change agreement. The Tread Lightly initiative was designed to tap into global awareness raising campaigns such as the International Day of Climate Action, organised by 350.org, in order to demonstrate to the decision makers attending COP15 just how big, beautiful, and unified the global climate movement really is. 6 UN. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Geneva, Switzerland: UN, 1992). 3
Partners TakingITGlobal (TIG)7 is an international organisation led by youth and empowered by technology. TIG is at the intersection of three major global trends - globalisation and the international scope of major issues, the revolution in information and communication technology, and the demographic force of young people. TIG aims to help youth develop their potential as creative, technology-enabled and globally-aware citizens by: Strengthening the capacity of young people as leaders and stakeholders Fostering cross-cultural dialogue and understanding Increasing awareness and involvement among youth in global issues. Often described as a "social network for social good," the award winning www.tigweb.org is available in twelve languages and offers a diverse set of tools and resources including blogs, wikis, discussion boards, podcasts, an online gallery, a member-driven e-zine, guides to action and more. As TIG's vibrant global community has evolved, educators inspired by its young members have sought to integrate its resources and focus on action-based learning into their teaching. This was made easier beginning in 2006, with the launch of the TakingITGlobal for Educators (TIGed) program.8 TIGed provides rich, interactive global learning experiences by allowing educators to leverage the resources of the world's most popular online community for youth who want to make a difference in ways that meet the needs of their learning environments. It offers a community of globally minded educators and students in over 80 countries around the world who are interested in collaborating, sharing, and learning together, a resources database, and virtual classroom communities that teachers create, moderate, and control to fit the needs of their students and objectives of their curriculum. Staples 9 is the world’s largest office products company, serving businesses of all sizes and consumers in 27 countries throughout North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Once a retail-only operation, Staples continues to expand and meet the office product needs of the everchanging global market. It now also serves customers through contract, mail order catalogue, and e-commerce businesses around the globe. 7 www.tigweb.org www.tiged.org 9 www.staples.com 8 4
As the cornerstone of Staples community efforts, the mission of the Staples Foundation for Learning (SFFL)10 is to support organisations that provide educational opportunities and job skills. Since its inception in 2002, SFFL has awarded more than USD 14 million in grants across nearly 350 communities. The SFFL is pleased to provide financial support to TIG to establish the Tread Lightly climate change education program, through which this toolkit was developed. Founded in 1982, Peace Child International (PCI)11 is a British registered charity. Run by young people, it works in over 130 countries and has Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) status at the UN. Its mission is “empowering young people to be the change they want to see in the world.” PCI has supported youth productions of books and musicals about major generational challenges, funded youth led community-based action projects and created the World Youth Congress series. It is currently working on climate change issues, not only through the Tread Lightly, but also through a Post-Carbon Futures publication and the Kids on Strike musical. DREAM Réseau Mondial d’Echange et d’Action pour le Développement12 is a nongovernmental organisation based in Paris, France. Aiming to promote a deeper understanding of critical sustainability issues, it acts with youth, civil society and online social networks to promote sustainable habits for social entrepreneurship, cultural diversity and a better environment. Acting both in France and abroad, its actions include promoting youth representation at international summits and in government, the creation videos about youth engagement, exhibitions, concerts, awareness-raising campaigns, actions of global solidarity, environmental projects, and more. DREAM is a member of the Réseau français des étudiants pour le développement durable (REFEDD),13 and works with French schools, universities and institutions such as the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and the municipality of Paris. Behold14 works to promote and empower social entrepreneurship, support corporate social responsibility, link the private sector with international development efforts, and develop social concepts and projects. With its partner organization EsteamWork in the Netherlands, Behold has significant experience in providing corporate social responsibility consultation to, and building partnerships between, companies, governments and development organizations. Having managed projects in, and learning journeys to, Africa, Asia and Europe, Behold is currently expanding its horizons even further by opening its first international office in Cape Town, South Africa. 10 www.staplesfoundation.org www.peacechild.org 12 www.dream-asso.org; Global Network to Act and Exchange for Development 13 Network of French Students for Sustainable Development 14 www.behold.nl 11 5
THE TREAD LIGHTLY TEACHER TOOLKIT The Tread Lightly Teacher Toolkit is an interdisciplinary educational resource developed to help secondary school students around the world learn about climate change through the lens of ecological footprints – measures of the demand placed on the planet by human beings. As the toolkit was designed to support curriculum objectives across a wide range of subject areas and 21st century skills, teachers of various subjects can use this guide to incorporate considerations of sustainability into their teaching. The interdisciplinary nature of the toolkit also makes it possible for educators to deliver the curriculum independently or in collaboration with colleagues in their school. Related 21st century skills Related subjects Art Civics Communications Environmental studies Geography Global issues History Language Arts Math Media Studies Science Social studies Technology Collaboration Critical thinking Social responsibility Graphing Inquiry Problem solving Systems thinking Written and oral communication skills Timing While this toolkit can be effectively used to teach about climate change and ecological footprints at any time, this first version was specifically designed to run in parallel to key events in global climate change policy leading up to and including COP15 in December of 2009. The timeline below illustrates how the modules were designed to be delivered in association with key dates leading up to COP15. Module 1 Stepping Up Key Dates (2009) October 22 2 Stepping In October 23 or 24 October 24 3 Stepping Back December 2 December 3 December 7 December 7-18 December 14-18 Explanation nd The first module should be completed by no later than October 22 2009 so that module 2, which coincides with the 40-Day Challenge, begins on the International Day of Climate Action. If possible, the module 2 should be kicked off with a school-wide event or activity organised in support of the International Day of 15 Climate Action. The International Day of Climate Action, launching the: 16 “Imprints” Art Contest 17 40-Day Challenge End of the 40-Day Challenge Deadline for submissions to the “Imprints” Art Contest Start of module 3 COP15 in Copenhagen, Denmark (where TIG representatives will be showcasing the Tread Lightly initiative) Participating schools host Tread Lightly celebration events 15 For more information about the International Day of Climate Action, please visit www.350.org or consult handout 1.2 E. For more information about the art contest, please visit www.treadlightly.me. 17 The 40-Day Challenge is one of the most important components of Tread Lightly, allowing students to reduce their ecological footprints alongside peers worldwide! For more information, please visit www.treadlightly.me or consult handout 1.2E. 16 6
For educators who would like to align their school’s Tread Lightly project with the key climate change events as described above, but are either starting late or do not have the time to commit to all 7 lessons in the toolkit, certain lessons may be excluded in the interest of saving time. Lessons marked with an * below are those deemed most central to the Tread Lightly curriculum and should be included to the extent possible Structure The toolkit contains 7 lesson plans, organised into 3 modules, which would ideally be used in sequence, as follows: Module 1: Stepping In This module is designed to help students to “step into” the concept of ecological footprints. Through the lessons contained in this module, students will confront the very real dangers that await us if we do not learn to live within the planet’s carrying capacity and the power that individuals have to contribute to a more sustainable world. Lesson 1.1: Learning from the Past, Defining our Future explores what can happen to civilisations that push the limits of the natural environment. Lesson 1.2: Our Changing Climate*helps student to understand why climate change is happening and what can be done to reverse it. Lesson 1.3: Where We Stand* provides students with the tools needed to measure their personal ecological footprints in order to determine their own contribution to the problem of climate change. Module 2: Stepping Up Designed to help students to “step up” to the challenge of greening their lifestyles, this module asks students to produce creative representations of the demand they are placing on the planet, which can be added to a special collection within TIG’s online art gallery, and to commit to adopt more sustainable actions over the course of a 40-day ecological footprint challenge. Lesson 2.1: Visualising Footprints*allows students to explore their ecological footprints through creative expression. Lesson 2.2: Taking Stock helps students to green their decisions and behaviours at home. Module 3: Stepping Back This module is designed to help students to “step back” in order to gain the perspective required to see what is happening in the arena of global climate change policy, as well as to reflect on their Tread Lightly experience. Lesson 3.1: Global Climate Change Debate helps students to understand some of the reasons why international climate change negotiations have been largely ineffective to date. Lesson 3.2: Looking back, looking forward* asks students to reflect on the knowledge gained, challenges encountered, and lessons learned as a result of participating in Tread Lightly. 7
The following icons are employed in the lesson plans to indicate key considerations and resources: The number of (approximately 60 minute) class periods required to complete the lesson Related subject areas Related handouts (included in an appendix at the end of the toolkit) Websites that can be used to deliver the lesson Suggestions for how to utilise and incorporate TIGed into the lesson Suggestions for how to use TIG’s online social network to support the lesson Ideas to expand the learning outcomes of the lesson Feedback Please note that this is the first edition of the Tread Lightly Teacher Toolkit. We welcome your comments and suggestions in order to continually improve it. Please send your feedback to email@example.com. Thank you! HOW TO BE A LEADING TREAD LIGHTLY SCHOOL There are a number ways to increase the impact of the Tread Lightly project in your school. The following list outlines just some of the things that you can do to ensure that your project reaches its full potential. Promote the toolkit to your colleagues so that the utmost number of teachers are utilising the toolkit in their classrooms, and getting students interested in sustainability issues. Promote the project to your community in order to enlist greater support and participation, especially on the International Day of Climate Action or over the course of the 40-Day Challenge. Take advantage of promotional opportunities already available in your school – such as morning announcements, newsletters, the school newspaper, bulletin boards, event calendars, email lists, and the school’s website – to generate interest and participation in the 40-Day Challenge and “Imprints” Art Contest. Create a team of Tread Lightly Ambassadors to help promote the 40-Day Challenge and/or the “Imprints” Art Contest. The team could be created by approaching established environmental groups based in the school, reaching out to individual environmentally minded students and teachers, or putting out a call for volunteers. Encourage this group of ambassadors to organise environmental projects and events that go beyond the 40-Day Challenge. Encourage students interested in video, photography, and writing to work together to document the project by capturing video footage, taking photos, and blogging about the project. Prominently display artwork developed for the art contest in the school and broader community. Organise a school-wide assembly at the end of the project to celebrate its successes and explore the lessons learned. This is a great opportunity to showcase videos and photos captured over the course 8
of the project, and to connect with other Tread Lightly schools worldwide through webconferencing. And, most importantly, have fun! Utilising TIG and TIGed The TIG website, www.tigweb.org, offers a number of free tools for you to use to support the Tread Lightly project in your school. Here is a snapshot of what you can expect to find in each of its 6 sections: Community: Features discussion boards and member stories that can be used to find inspirational reflections and discuss important topics with young leaders from across the globe. Action Tools: Facilitate activism by providing youth with online tools to manage projects and groups, create and sign petitions and commitments, and download action guides. Resources: Feature a global database of youth-serving and/or youth-run organisations as well as event and opportunity listing to help youth get involved in social and environmental initiatives, either online or in their communities. Youth Media: Includes blogs, educational games, the Global Gallery and the Panorama e-zine. Global Issues: Offer information and resources to learn about more than 50 global issues. Regions: Feature information and community pages for every country and territory in the world. Introducing students to TIG’s online social network of young leaders from around the world provides them with a positive, safe space to remain inspired, informed, and involved after the Tread Lightly project comes to an end. Joining the online TIGed community at www.tiged.org allows you to access: A community of over 3,800 global educators and 17,500 students in 102 countries around the world who are interested in collaborating, sharing, and learning together. A resource centre with lesson plans, activities, games, and thematic classrooms linked to MCREL18 curriculum benchmarks and 21st century skills. Virtual classroom communities, that teachers create, moderate, and control to fit the needs of their students and objectives of their curriculum. Classroom tools include blogs, podcasts, maps, image galleries, live video chats, discussion boards, and online file storage, allowing students to demonstrate their learning, express themselves, engage in constructive dialogue around important topics, and develop a portfolio of their work – all within a private, secure, and advertising-free online environment, anytime, anywhere! Take advantage of the free virtual classroom community offered to all Tread Lightly teachers in order to collaborate with other schools and classes participating in the Tread Lightly project. The “Create Collaboration” feature of the TIGed virtual classroom platform makes it easy to learn
3 THE TREAD LIGHTLY INITIATIVE Purpose The Tread Lightly initiative was established in order to help young people worldwide to: Understand the basic science of climate change and how human activity is contributing to the problem. Realise the dangers of living beyond the earths carrying capacity. Understand how climate change and other environmental issues are interconnected.
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