Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgComputerFundamentalCompiled by: Hemanta Baral
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: email@example.comComputer FundamentalsWhat is Computer?Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user andprocesses these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and givesthe result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical andnon-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.A computer has four functions:a. accepts datab. processes datac. produces outputd. stores resultsInputProcessingOutputStorageInput (Data):Input is the raw information entered into a computer from the input devices. It is thecollection of letters, numbers, images etc.Process:Process is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totally internal process ofthe computer system.Output:Output is the processed data given by computer after data processing. Output is alsocalled as Result. We can save these results in the storage devices for the future use.Computer SystemAll of the components of a computer system can be summarized with the simpleequations.COMPUTER SYSTEM HARDWARE SOFTWARE USER Hardware Internal Devices Peripheral DevicesAll physical parts of the computer (or everything that we can touch) are known asHardware. Software ProgramsSoftware gives "intelligence" to the computer. USER Person, who operates computer.Computer Fundamentals-2-
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgMajor parts of the ComputerInput Devices1. Mouse3. Scanner5. WebCamera7. Track Ball2. Keyboard4. DigitalCamera6. Joysticks8. TouchPad/Screen9. Light Pen10. Bar CodeReader11. Microphone12. GraphicsTabletsComputer Fundamentals-3-
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: email@example.com. MagneticInkCharacterReader(Used inBank)14. OpticalMarkReader(Used forAnswerSheetMarkingPurpose)15. MagneticCardReader(Used inShops,Colleges,Stations etc)16. BiometricDevices17. BluetoothComputer Fundamentals-4-
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgProcessorCENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This unit is responsible for all eventsinside the computer. It controls all internal and external devices, performs arithmetic andlogic operations. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the device that interprets andexecutes instructions.Output Devices1. Monitor2. Printer(DotMatrix)3. ProjectorInkJet4. PlotterLaser5. SpeakerComputer Fundamentals-5-
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: email@example.comStorage Devices1. Primary memory (main memory)A. RAM (Random Access Memory/Read-Write Memory)B. ROM (Read-only-memory)2. Secondary memory (storage devices)A. Hard Disk (Local Disk)B. Optical Disks: CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RWC. Pen DriveD. Zip DriveE. Floppy DisksF. Memory CardsG. External Hard DiskA. HardDiskComputer Fundamentals-6-
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgB. OpticaldiskC. Pen DriveD. ZipDisk(superdisk)E. Floppy DiskF. MemoryCardsG. ExternalHard DiskPeripheral Devices1. TheModem/InternetAdapter2. Switches/Hub3. Router4. TV TunerCardComputer Fundamentals-7-
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: email@example.comInternal Components1. The MotherBoard2. ExpansionSlots3. CMOSBattery4. CoolingFan5. NetworkCard6. GraphicsCard7. Power SupplyUnit (SMPS)8. MemorySlotsSoftwareSoftware, simply are the computer programs. The instructions given to the computer inthe form of a program is called Software. Software is the set of programs, which are usedfor different purposes. All the programs used in computer to perform specific task iscalled Software.Types of software1. System software:a) Operating System SoftwareDOS, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Unix/Linux, MAC/OS X etc.b) Utility SoftwareWindows Explorer (File/Folder Management), Windows Media Player, AntiVirus Utilities, Disk Defragmentation, Disk Clean, BackUp, WinZip, WinRARetc Computer Fundamentals-8-
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Application software:a) Package SoftwareMs. Office 2003, Ms. Office 2007, Macromedia (Dreamweaver, Flash,Freehand), Adobe (PageMaker, PhotoShop)b) Tailored or Custom SoftwareSAGE (Accounting), Galileo/Worldspan (Travel) etc.3. Computer Languages & Scripting:a) Low Level Languagei) Machine Level Languageii) Assembly LanguageMachine language: These language instructions are directly executed by CPUAssembly language: The endeavor of giving machine language instructions aname structure that means bit strings of instructions of machine language aregiven name hereHigh Level Language: The user friendly language .more natural languagethan assembly language.Assembler is needed to convert assembly language into machine languageComplier is needed to convert high level to machine languageb) High Level LanguageCOBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language), FORTRAN (FORmulaTRANslation), BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), C,C etc. are the examples of High Level Language.Types of ComputerOn the basis of working principlea) Analog ComputerAn analog computer (spelt analogue in British English) is a form of computer that usescontinuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities tomodel the problem being solved.Computer Fundamentals-9-
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: email@example.com. Thermometer2. Speedometer3. Petrol PumpIndicator4. Multimeterb) Digital ComputerA computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities representedas digits, usually in the binary number system.c) Hybrid Computer (Analog Digital)A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digitaland analog signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost effective method ofperforming complex simulations.Computer Fundamentals- 10 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgOn the basis of Sizea) Super ComputerThe fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed forspecialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. Forexample, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputersinclude animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, andpetroleum exploration.The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputerchannels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas amainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently.b) Mainframe ComputerA very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or eventhousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simplemicroprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers atthe top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are morepowerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. Butsupercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe.c) Mini ComputerA midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations andmainframes. In the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and smallmainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputersand workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable ofsupporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously.Computer Fundamentals- 11 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: email@example.com) Micro Computeri. Desktop Computer: a personal or micro-mini computer sufficient to fit on adesk.ii. Laptop Computer: a portable computer complete with an integrated screenand keyboard. It is generally smaller in size than a desktop computer and largerthan a notebook computer.iii. Palmtop Computer/Digital Diary /Notebook /PDAs: a hand-sizedcomputer. Palmtops have no keyboard but the screen serves both as an inputand output device.Computer Fundamentals- 12 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) WorkstationsA terminal or desktop computer in a network. In this context, workstation is just ageneric term for a user's machine (client machine) in contrast to a "server" or"mainframe."On the basis of Branda) IBM/IBM Compatible Computersc) Apple/MacintoshBootingThe process of loading the system files of the operating system from the disk into thecomputer memory to complete the circuitry requirement of the computer system is calledbooting. The system files of MS. DOS are:Types of Booting:There are two types of booting: Cold Booting: If the computer is in off state and we boot thecomputer by pressing the power switch ‘ON’ from the CPU boxthen it is called as cold booting.Computer Fundamentals- 13 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: email@example.com Warm Booting: If the computer is already ‘ON’ and we restart it by pressingthe ‘RESET’ button from the CPU box or CTRL, ALT and DEL keysimultaneously from the keyboard then it is called warm booting.How to start the Computer in Ms. Windows mode?There is nothing special you need to start this system. Just,1. Switch ON the Power Supply.2. Switch ON the CPU and,3. Switch ON the Screen (Monitor).How to Shutdown (Turn Off) the Computer?Before shutting down the Computer, close all opened windows at first. Then,1. Click on Start button.2. Click on Shutdown (Turn Off Computer).Then, Computer asks you:What do you want the Computer to do? Standby Shutdown (Turn Off) Restart Restart in MS-DOS mode.Note: The options will be different from one OS to another.3. Choose 2nd option (i.e. Shutdown/Turn Off).4. Click on OK.Then, wait until the message “It’s now safe to turn off your Computer”.5. Then, Switch Off the screen.6. Switch Off the CPU.7. At last, Switch Off the power supply.Computer Fundamentals- 14 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgBasic Computer LiteracyQuiz One1. Which one is not an output device?o Printero Monitoro Keyboardo Modem2. Which one works as an output and input device?o Modemo Scannero Mouseo Monitor3. All computers must have:o Word processing softwareo An operating systemo A printer attachedo A virus checking program4. The brain of the computer is called:o Random Access Memory or RAMo Central Processing Unit or CPUo Read Only Memory or ROMo BIOS5. An operating system is:o Integrated softwareo CD-ROM softwareo Application softwareo System software6. Software is:o A computer programo A set of instructionso All of the aboveo Only in operating systems7. One MB is equal to:o The amount of RAM in every computero 1 billion byteso 1024KBo 1 thousand bytesComputer Fundamentals- 15 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: email@example.com. The resolution of a printer is measured in:o Megabitso Hzo Dots per inch (DPI)o Inches (diagonal)9. Windows and Macintosh computers:o Are both manufactured by Motorolao Both use Intel microprocessorso Use the same operating systemo Are not compatible10. A computer port is used to:o Communicate with other computer peripheralso Download files from the webo Communicate with all hard driveso Connect computers togetherQuiz Two11. Which computer is the fastest?o PII 600MHzo PIII 600MHzo Pentium 600MHzo 486 Turbo12. Which hard disk will be able to store more information?o 24MBo 2400KBo 24Gigo 240MB13. In order for your computer to play music you need:o A network card and speakerso A sound card and speakerso Nothing more than the internal speakero A CD-ROM drive14. In order to access the World Wide Web you need:o An Internet connection, an Internet Service Provider and browser softwareo Only Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigatoro A modem and a browsero Nothing. All computers can access the InternetComputer Fundamentals- 16 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. If you have two different printers attached to your computer:o It is not possible to have two printers attached to a single computero You need to install a single printer drivero You need to use application software that can recognize both printerso You need to install two different printer drivers in order to be able to print toeither printer16. Which file extensions indicate only graphics files?o BMP and DOCo JPEG and TXTo TXT and STKo BMP and GIF17. Which Windows program do you use to manage folders and files?o Windows Explorero Windows Accessorieso Microsoft Officeo Windows Control Panel18. What is a URL:o An email addresso The title of a web siteo The address of a page on the World Wide Webo A communication method between computers and printers19. Which media holds more information?o Floppy disketteo DVDo CD-ROMo Zip drive20. Which one is an email address:o http://vianet.com/index.htmo D:\\Email\Standardo email@example.com Chaminade.org/teachers/mailaddressesQuiz Three21. CPU means (1 point)o Central Processing Unito Controlled Program Utilizationo Computer Programming Unito Computerized Processing Unit22. Computers use a special code for representing letters and numbers, known as the(1 point)Computer Fundamentals- 17 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org codebinary codeCRX codeintegrated code23. The main circuit board in the computer that connects the parts of the computeris the (1 point)o hard driveo motherboardo fatherboardo main board24. The part of the computer that processes the information is the (1 point)o floppy disko CD-ROM driveo monitoro microprocessor25. Which of these is not an example of an input device? (1 point)o keyboardo mouseo hard driveo scanner26. Processing speed in computers is measured in (1 point)o millivolts (mV)o hertz (Hz)o megahertz (MHz)o rpm's27. External devices such as printers and scanners plug into in the back of thecomputer. (1 point)o RX-5'so expansion slotso outletso ports28. Windows is (1 point)o a kind of operating system.o a graphics display device.o a monitor display system.o a video game.Computer Fundamentals- 18 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: email@example.com. To "boot a computer" means to (1 point)o add extra drives.o turn on the sound.o turn it on.o throw it out - it's outdated.30. The hard drive in the computer is usually (1 point)o Drive A.o Drive B.o Drive C.o Drive H.31. A "byte" is (1 point)o found in the upper right corner of a window screen.o a group of 8 bits of code.o the capacity of a sound card.o the part that moves on a disk drive.32. When you click SAVE on the monitor, and there is no floppy disk in a drive, thedocument or application you're using is stored (1 point)o on the RAM chips.o on the CD-ROM drive.o in ROM memory.o on the hard drive.33. Pictures on the display screen (monitor) are made up of (1 point)o pixels.o layers of color.o bits.o video "packets"34. Temporary memory is called (1 point)o RAMo CADo DOSo ROM35. Which of these is not one of the three main functions of a microprocessor? (1point)o fetcho storeo decodeo execute36. Which of these is not an example of computer hardware? (1 point)o video cardo mouseo CD-ROM driveo WindowsComputer Fundamentals- 19 -
Stratford College London(DfES Registered Independent School)63 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 4BQTel: 02085197362 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. To "debug" the system means to (1 point)o clean it.o find and correct errors.o decode it.o set up icons.38. A megabyte is (1 point)o 1,000 byteso 1 byteo 1 million byteso 1 trillion bytes39. Formatting a disk means (1 point)o installing an operating system on it.o setting up sections on the disk to store the files in.o cleaning the disk from any dust contaminates.o programming the disk so data on it can't be erased.40. A system that connects individual computers together is a(n) (1 point)o operating system.o network.o tape drive system.o partnered path.41. When you use a PC, you are using a (1 point)o programmable console.o powered calculating machine.o personal computer.o processing contraption.42. VDU stands for:o Video Display Unito Visible Display Unito Visual Display Unito Video Diode UnitComputer Fundamentals- 20 -
Desktop Computer: a personal or micro-mini computer sufficient to fit on a desk. ii. Laptop Computer: a portable computer complete with an integrated screen and keyboard. It is generally smaller in size than a desktop computer and larger than a notebook computer. iii. Palmtop Compu
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Module 7: Fundamental Analysis (NCFM Certification) 1. Introduction of Fundamental Analysis What is Fundamental & Technical Analysis? Difference between technical & fundamental analysis Features & benefits of Fundamental analysis 2. Top-Down Approach in Fundamental Analysis Economic Analysis Industry Analysis Company analysis 3.
The Stokes Brown Library Public Library Foundation (“the Foundation”) and the Friends of Gorham-MacBane Public Library (the Friends of the Library) are both separate, tax exempt enti ties that support the Library. Fund Financial Statements The Library has one fund which is its General Fun
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Fundamental of Computer Inside this chapter : Brief history of computer, Basic components of computer, Different I/O Devices, Computer Language, Software definition and its types, Computer Memory, Different types of Printers. A computer is an e
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Library Management System maintains the record of books in the library, issue, purchasing and return process of the books in the library. Here we are primarily concerned with management of books of library. In this project we identify the need for computer based Library Management Systems. 4: Projecthelpline.in:
The computers are classified in four types on the based on data processing. Micro computer Mini computer Mainframe computer Super computer Micro Computer: Micro computers are the computers with having a microprocessor chip as it central processing unit. Originated in late 1970s.
this fundamental group can be used to tell us a lot about the geo-metric properties of the space. Loosely speaking, the fundamental group measures “the number of holes” in a space. For example, the fundamental group of a point or a line or a plane is trivial, while the fundamental group of a circle is Z. Slightly more precisely, the fun-
(iv) Category ZZ – Those explosives, which have a mass explosion risk and minor missile effect. (2) If any question arises as to whether any explosives belongs to Category X, Category Y, Category Z or Category ZZ, the matter shall be referr
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