Colleagues Volume 4 Issue 2 Painting a Vibrant Future: Art Education Article 8 4-6-2011 Using Manga to Teach Superheroes: Implications for the Classroom Hsiao-Ping Chen Faculty, Grand Valley State University Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/colleagues Recommended Citation Chen, Hsiao-Ping (2009) "Using Manga to Teach Superheroes: Implications for the Classroom," Colleagues: Vol. 4: Iss. 2, Article 8. Available at: 8 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by ScholarWorks@GVSU. It has been accepted for inclusion in Colleagues by an authorized administrator of ScholarWorks@GVSU. For more information, please contact email@example.com.
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Chen: Using Manga to Teach Superheroes: Implications for the Classroom Continued from page 13 hroughout the past decade, Japanese manga 1 (comic books) and anime2 (ani mation) have become widely accepted as popular visual forms, and mass media have made them accessible throughout the world (Natsume, 2001; Kinsella, 2000). Manga's pop ularity is apparent in bookstores in the United States, in which entire aisles are dedicated to hundreds of different manga. Artists, readers, and fans have begun to make their own Japanese-inspired comics as well, contributing to a global process of production and con sumption. 3 And young people in the United States have widely appropriated the form for the purpose of developing and expressing their own identities in new ways. The art form's tre mendous social and cultural impact can be attributed to this kind of influence on young people's artistic development through popular culture (Toku, 2001a, 2001b; Wilson, 2000, 2003). In general, manga and anime stories typically include the following features: a high-tech style, fantasy worlds, human drama, complex characters who grow and develop emotionally, mecha characters (robots ridden by humans), and sexy, supernatural, powerful female characters (Levi, 1996).4 Unlike children's cartoons created by American artists, manga and anime are meant for all ages. And adult manga are considered to be as complex in form as novels in their depictions of complex human dramas (Toku, 2001a). A wide range of manga genres emphasize themes that provoke reader identification by questioning the nature of reality and human identity (Napier, 2002). Often, manga characters pose questions such as Who am I? Why am I here? Why do I do what I do? What is reality? These questions relate to our need to understand the meaning of our lives, and how to negotiate the divide between our internal and external selves. Storylines often center on subconscious conflict-solving, in scenarios that glorify images of everyday people doing extraordinary things. These often trigger a desirable image of self, one that invokes the power or magic to become something larger than the self. Accordingly, participants see themselves appearing in these manga images. They aspire to be the story characters and see their lives being reflected in, T experienced, and problem-solved by the characters. Through its series of images, manga provides a form of imaginative fantasy that mediates how its participants see themselves and how they desire to be seen by others in a new, unconventional light (See Figures 2 & 3). As a result, manga works as an emotionally expressive form that often leads to radical change in the understanding of lifestyles, personal and cultural values, even beliefs contrary to those of traditional western society. In Japan, manga is a multi-billion-dollar industry with circulation numbers among the biggest in the country, and composes one of the largest sectors of the publishing business. Sales of manga were 6.7 billion in 1995, representing 40% of all published books and magazine sales (Lent, 2004; Schodt, 1986; Yuko, 2004) . Manga is read by people of all ages, and the most popular weeklies can reach 6.2 million readers, in a variety of genres and formats (Lent, 2004). In order to keep pace with market demand and to maintain its readership, manga continues to create new storytelling styles to attract new readers in a wide array of genres. With its freshness, diversity, and wide range of visual styles, manga is rapidly gaining vigorous new markets in many countries in East and Southeast Asia, including Taiwan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Thailand, and China. Its popularity is also spreading to Europe (France, Germany, and England) (Natsume, 2000, 2001; Wilson & Toku, 2003), and its markets are expanding in Canada, Australia, and some Produced by The Berkeley Electronic Press, 2009 areas of Africa and Latin America (Lent, 2004). In addition, manga is also captivating the attention of American youth. Major Japanese publishers such as Viz, Tokyo Pop, and Dark Horse, online web sites, and local mainstream book companies have begun wide distribution in the United States (Lent, 2004). The prevalence of emerging manga pop culture in foreign countries is due in part to globaliza tion, most obviously via the spread of capitalism, the wider distribution of cultural commodities through the Internet, and the proliferation of global printed media. As young people culturally appropriate manga, we may see them begin to question and contest their identities rather than taking them for granted. This developing phenomenon raises many questions by which we may explore the societal effects of globalization. Why and how does Japanese manga affect young people's identities on such a global scale? How is Japanese manga interpreted by American youth, and how does it acquire new meaning as a result of these perspectives? How does this global experience in everyday life change the way we understand the process of cultural meaning and identity formation? anga for all practical purposes means "comic made in Japan," and the term covers a wide range of publications, such as picture books, anime and cartoons (Schodt, 1986, 1996). Story manga are usually printed in dichromatic (Le., black and white) tones, with a focus on pictorial images rather than text, particularly emphasizing depictions of feelings and inner emotions in sequential motion. Along with its iconic technique of fig ure drawing, manga has a distinct and elabo rated facial style, (large, wide eyes, long eye lashes, and small, delicate mouths (Natsume, 2000). These aesthetic qualities and the distinc tive style of manga typically incorporate the following features: a high-tech style, fantasy worlds, human drama, complex characters who grow and develop emotionally, mecha characters (robots ridden by humans), and sexy, supernatural, powerful female characters (Levi, 1996).5 Manga stories emphasize a character's growth and development in everyday life. Many stories display characters' flaws and weaknesses along with their strengths and endearing qualities (Craig, 2000). They glorify M 3
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manga. 1 (comic books) and anime. 2 (ani mation) have become widely accepted as popular visual forms, and mass media have made them accessible throughout the world (Natsume, 2001; Kinsella, 2000). Manga's pop ularity is apparent in bookstores in the United States, in which entire aisles are dedicated to hundreds of different manga. Artists .
II. Taiwan’s Present Manga Culture To understand the current manga culture in Taiwan, one needs to look at the types of manga available, the readership of manga, and the perception of manga in general. In Taiwan, manga are sold in both the periodical and tankōbon format, though the tankōbon format is generally more popular. One rarely sees manga sold in the small
Naruto manga, Bleach manga, One Piece manga, Air Gear manga, Claymore manga, Fairy Tail manga, . Each one of these two clean cowboy romance books is the first book in a series by bestselling . Spread the word about Read Print. Feb 26, 2015 — Read Bad Company 1 - In These Words Prequel online at Hitomi
Manga genres are categorised based on the age and gender of its target readers, for example, shonen manga (for teenage boys), shojo manga (for teenage girls), josei manga (for women), and seinen manga (for men), among many others (Wong, 2006). The appeal of manga
Figure 3. Japanese Manga translations into English and French (Photo taken by the authors in a Manga shop in Paris, France). Using Manga and comics for educational purposes receives some attention of educators. While it seems quite natural that Manga and comics help to extend the learning scenarios in the Japanese
popular superheroes, such as, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, Captain America, and Captain Marvel. An example of Superheroes as a cultural symbol is during World War II when many comics featured superheroes fighting and ultimately beating Nazis and Hitler. This is a classic example of comics following traditional mythology themes where the
Manga is a style of Japanese graphic novel that often adheres to certain conventions, based on variations of manga genre. Western readers of manga often understand the racial depiction of manga characters to be white, due to what Kawashima has called “reading from a socialized understanding of race [and]
expressões que cou denominado Hokusai Manga. Como destaco em meu livro, Mangá, o poder dos quadrinhos japoneses: "Entre os temas preferidos de Hokusai Manga, destacavam-se: a vida urbana, as classes sociais, a natureza fantástica e a personi cação dos animais. Tudo isso acompanhado de dese-nhos de forma caricatural.
additif alimentaire, exprimée sur la base du poids corporel, qui peut être ingérée chaque jour pendant toute une vie sans risque appréciable pour la santé.5 c) L’expression dose journalière admissible « non spécifiée » (NS)6 est utilisée dans le cas d’une substance alimentaire de très faible toxicité lorsque, au vu des données disponibles (chimiques, biochimiques .