The English Teaching Problems Of High School At Taunggyi City In Myanmar

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THE ENGLISH TEACHING PROBLEMS OF HIGH SCHOOL AT TAUNGGYI CITY IN MYANMAR Ven. Pannasami A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts English (International Program) Graduate School Mahachulalongkornrajavidayalaya University C.E. 2019

The English Teaching Problems of High School at Taunggyi City in Myanmar Ven. Pannasami A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts English (International Program) Graduate School Mahachulalongkornrajavidayalaya University C.E. 2019 (Copyright Mahachulalongkornrajavidayalaya University)

The Graduate School of Mahachulalongkornrajavidayalaya University has approved this thesis of "The English Teaching Problems of High School at Taunggyi City in Myanmar" in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master ofArfs,nEnglish(lnternat! naLpr 8ram rfec# (Phramaha Somboon Vuddhikaro, Assoc. Prof. Dr.) Dean of Graduate School l 2J2 Thesis Examination Committee: (Phrathepvethi, EiE E -, Member (Phramaha Wiroj Yanaviro, Dr.) - ir-- ------ Member (Asst. Prof. Dr. Chayanon Kulthonlabutra) Member Pintrymool) Member (Asst. Prof. Dr. Veerakam Kanokkamalade) Thesis Supervisory Committee: Asst. Prof. Dr.Veerakarn Kanokkamalade Dr. Narongchai pintrymool Researcher: (Ven. Pannasami) Chairperson Member

i Thesis Title : The English Teaching Problems of High Schools at Taunggyi City in Myanmar Researcher : Ven. Pannasami Degree : Master of Arts in English (International Program) Thesis Supervisory Committee : Asst. Prof. Dr. Veerakarn Kanokkhamalade, B.A. (English), M.A. (Linguistics), Ph.D. (Linguistics) : Dr. Narongchai Pintrymool, B.A. (English), M.A. (Linguistics), Ph.D. (Linguistics) Date of Graduation : March 14, 2020 Abstract The purpose of this study is to study the English teaching problems of High Schools at Taunggy city in Myanmar, and to propose the solutions of these problems. The study was conducted by means of questionnaires and semistructured interviews. The sample of the study was 100 students, 10 English teachers from five High Schools for questionnaires, and five Headmasters from five High Schools for interviews. After obtaining the data, the frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation of the questionnaires were calculated. The results obtaining from the teachers’ questionnaires revealed that English teaching problem involving other factors contributing to successful teaching was agreed as a high level of agreement. Regarding with this, the top problematic factors were: (1) the budget for constructing or supplying teaching media is little, (2) the salary of teachers is very low. Moreover, problems involving curricula & textbook, students and teachers were agreed at high level of agreement. The top problematic factors were: regarding curricula & textbook, (1) teachers are a lack of opportunity to select the textbooks, regarding students, (2) students lack opportunities of using English outside the class,

ii and regarding teachers (3) the teachers’ using translation method for teaching English. However, problem involving assessment was moderately agreed. The top problematic factors concerning these were: the teachers have the difficulties in constructing the test speaking skill and listening skill. In addition, the results obtaining from student questionnaires to investigate their attitude toward English learning revealed that the top problematic factors were teachers’ using translation method, lack of teaching material and having difficulty in listening skill. The findings from the teachers’ interviews revealed that the students were not motivated to study English and they lacked practice on their own. Furthermore, the teachers suggested that a smaller class size based on students’ level was needed to improve the teaching quality. For further research, the main suggestion of this study is that more studies should be conducted to analyze English teaching problems not only High Schools in Taunggyi city but also High Schools around Myanmar using a larger number of teachers and students and using different research tools for collecting data.

iii Acknowledgement This study would not have been successful without the kind assistance and support from several people. I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincerest thanks to the following people. First, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisors, 1. Asst. Prof. Dr. Veerakarn kanokkamalde, Chairman and 2. Dr. Narongchai Pintrymoon, who gave me the inspiration to set up the research framework, encouraged me to persevere with it, and guided me to complete it. I am grateful for their infinite patience and valuable comments along the academic journey. I would like to express my heartfelt appreciation to all the teachers in the Government High School at Taunggyi city, Myanmar for giving me support and encouragement during the data collection process, especially the teachers who also devoted their time for the questionnaire and the interview. I also thank the students who offered me genuine responses and helpful comments in the questionnaire. I am grateful to all teachers and staffs in the Faculty of Humanities, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University. Without their help, this research study could not have been possible. Lastly, I would like to extend my gratitude to my beloved family, together with my friends, for their unceasing love and support during my study. I also want to express special thanks to myself for the patience, persistence and positivity. I will always keep it up and bring out the best in me! Ven. Pannasami March 14, 2020

iv Table of Contents Title page Abstract i Acknowledgement iii Table of Contents vi Lists of Table and Charts iv List of Abbreviations and Symbols v Chapter I: Introduction 1.1 Background and Significance of Problems 1.2. Objectives of the study 1.3 Statement of Research Question 1.4 Scope of the research 1.5 Definition of Term Used in This research 1.6 Expected Benefits of the Study 1 1 3 3 4 4 5 Chapter II: Literature Reviews and Research Works Concerned 2.1 Overview Education System in Myanmar in Past and Present Days 2.1.1 A brief History of Education in Myanmar 2.1.2 Primary Education System In present days 2.1.3 Secondary and High Schools Education System in Myanmar in present days 2.1.4 Universities and Higher Education in Myanmar 2.1.5 Problems with the Myanmar Education System in present 2.1.6 Problems with Universities in Myanmar 2.2 Languages spoken in Myanmar 2.3 Contents of Syllabus or Textbooks of English used in High School 2.4 Assessment and Testing System 6 7 8 11 13 15 16 18 21 23 29

v Table of Contents (Continued) Title page 2.5 High School English Teacher Academic Qualification 2.6 The role of English Teaching in Myanmar 2.6.1 Current view on English in Myanmar 2.6.2 Myanmar EFL Teaching and Learning Situation 2.7 Overview of English Teaching Problems 34 39 39 40 42 Chapter III: Research Methodology 3.1 Participants 3.2 Materials 3.3 Procedures 3.3.1 Research design 3.3.2 Data collection 3.4 Data analysis 48 48 48 50 50 50 51 Chapter IV: Results 4.1 Results from teachers’ questionnaires 4.1.1 General information of the teachers’ respondents 4.1.2 Teachers’ responses to research objective one 58 4.1.2.1 Problems involving teachers 4.1.2.2 Problems involving students 4.1.2.3 Problems involving curricula and textbooks 4.1.2.4 Problems involving assessment 4.1.2.5 Problems involving other factors contributing to successful teaching and learning 4.2 Results from students’ questionnaires 4.2.1 General information of the student respondents 4.2.2 Students attitude of learning English 4.3 Results from teachers’ interview 4.3.1 General information of the interviewees 52 52 52 55 56 58 61 63 65 66 66 68 71 71

vi Table of Contents (Continued) Title page 4.3.2 Responses from interviewees 72 Chapter V:Conclusion, Discussion and Suggestion 5.1 Conclusion 5.2 Discussion 5.3 Suggestion 78 78 81 84 Bibliography 86 Appendix 93 Biography of Researcher 104

vii List of Tables and Charts Table page Table 2.1: Number of Schools, Teachers and Students in the 2015-2016 Academic Year 8 Table 2.2: Education System in Myanmar in present days 11 Table 4.1: The list of Teacher Respondents 55 Table 4.2: Gender of Teachers 56 Table 4.3: Age of Teachers 56 Table 4.4: Education of Background 57 Table 4.5 Years of teaching English 57 Figure 4.1 English teaching problems in mean 58 Table 4.6: Teachers’ Agreement with Problems Involving Teachers 59 Table 4.7: Teachers’ Agreement with Problems Involving Students 61 Table 4.8: Teachers’ Agreement with Problems Involving curricula and textbooks Table 4.9: Teachers’ Agreement with Problems Involving assessment 64 66 Table 4.10: Teachers’ Agreement with Problems Involving Other Factors 68 Table 4.11: The List of Students 70 Table 4.12: Population of Students 71 Table 4.13: Education Background of Students 71 Table 4.14 Age of Students 71 Table 4.15: Attitude of Students in learning English 71 Table 4.16: General Information of the interviewees 75

viii List of Abbreviations and Symbols EFL English as Foreign Language ESL English as Second Language ELL English Language Learner ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations UNESCO United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization TTC Teacher Training College GCE General Certificate of Education syllabus SEAMEO Southeast Asian Minister of Education Organization SBS School Based Assessment BECSTC Basic Education, Curriculum Syllabus and Textbook Committee MOE Ministry of Education MBE Myanmar Board of Examination DTED Diploma in Teacher Education DTEC Diploma in Teacher Education Competency PPTT Preservice Primary Teacher Training BEd Bachelor of Education CET Certificate in Education Technology MEd Master of Education Qualified Mphil Master of Philosophy PhD Doctor of Philosophy LOA Level of Agreement

Chapter I Introduction 1.1 Background and Significance of Problems In the world, as English is international language, most of communication is done in English. The students must learn English because English is a key to open knowledge of the world. Besides, businessmen, tradesmen, engineers, scientists and scholars all over the world must know English because it is the international means of exchange of information and experience. One of the simple facts of life in the present time is that the English language skills of a good proportion of its citizenry are seen as vital if a country is to participate actively in the global economy and to have access to the information and knowledge that provide that basis for both social and economic development. Central to this enterprise are English teaching and English teachers. There is consequently increasing demand worldwide for competent English teachers and for more effective approaches to their preparation and professional development.1 In addition, it is increasing numbers of people spoken English as Second language or as a foreign language although their first language, culture is not English. And almost all schools from all over the world are teaching English as one important of subjects. But there are many problems faced by English teachers in English as Foreign Language (EFL) countries like a Myanmar. Since the general election in 2010, Myanmar, which is an Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) has only recently opened its door to the outside world. Emerging from decades of international isolation, the country has been experiencing massive reforms in different factors such as politics, economy, and education. 1 Anne Burns Jack C. Richards, The Cambridge guide to Second Language Teacher Education, (Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 1.

2 As Myanmar is becoming increasingly integrated into the world, the demand for proficient English is very high. English language education has been promoted as an important factor in Myanmar’s continued development. It can increase Myanmar people’s ability to play in the different roles in the world. As the English language is so important, English language teachers are essential for continued growth and expansion in all roles of Myanmar. Beside parent, teachers play very crucial role in developing a child’s interest towards a subject of the language. Moreover, there is no way the student can discover or create themselves without an instructor because Language is composed of a collection of arbitrary sounds, words and grammatical combinations. teachers play a variety of roles as an EFL/ESL teacher: drama coach, puppet maker, creative- writing specialist, folksinger, mime, photographer, cross-cultural trainer, public speaker, counselor, film critic, poet, storyteller, discussion leader, team builder, grammarian, jazz chanter, reading specialist, values clarifier, computer program specialist, materials developer, curriculum evaluator, interviewer, friend, language authority, instruction manager, cultural informant, needs assessor, language model, joke teller, disciplinarian, language tester, text adapter, parent, strategy trainer, artist.2 In Myanmar, although English is one of compulsory subjects from the primary school to the university, most of the students are lack of proficiency of English skills. As a result, they consider English as the most difficult subject. On the other hand, to be English as Second Language (ESL) or English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher is a challenge thing. There are many different problems faced by English teachers. It is still urgent to discuss, what to teach and how to teach a foreign language taking into account the objective, social and professional needs of future specialists in Myanmar country. In this fast growing world, there are abundant changes in teaching approaches along with the learning strategies. Development is enhanced through problem solving. When teachers recognize problems and works at solving, they can 2 Jerry G. Gebhard, Teaching English as a foreign of Second Language A SelfDevelopment and Methodology Guide, Second Edition, (University of Michigan, 2009), p. 69.

3 discover new ways to teach and discover more about their as a teachers.3 Therefore, investigating problems, finding out solution and searching effective methods is so important in teaching and learning process. There are common problems English teachers faced in High School at Taunggyi City in Myanmar such as the practice of traditional teaching methodologies, the lack of well-trained teachers, unqualified teachers, both teachers and students’ lack of motivation, poor attitude toward language learning, too big class size. To identity the problems faced by English teachers and to suggest solutions are a necessary step to improve the national education system. So this study will help the reform process of Myanmar to build capacity for political, administration and economy, as well as for enhanced delivery of public services, especially education. Here is an effort to search the problems in teaching English and some suggestions to overcome the same. The results of this study are expected to provide guidelines for English teachers to be effective in teaching English. In addition, this study will be of great help to improve English language education in Myanmar. 1.2. Objectives of the study The objectives of this study are as follows: 1.2.1 To study the English teaching problems of High School at Taunggyi city in Myanmar. 1.2.2 To propose the solutions of the English teaching problems of High School at Taunggyi city in Myanmar. 1.3 Statement of Research Question The statement of this research can be organized as follows: Jerry G. Gebhard, Teaching English as a foreign of Second Language A SelfDevelopment and Methodology Guide, Second Edition, (University of Michigan, 2009), p. 9. 3

4 The important thing in this research is to study the English teaching problems of High School at Taunggyi city in Myanmar. This study aims to investigate the English teaching problems and finds out some solutions of them in order to help and show quality of good teachers and students in developing the English skills. Moreover, it provides many benefits for teaching and learning English effectively. Therefore, this study reviews the following questions: 1.3.1 What are the English teaching problems of High School at Taunggyi city in Myanmar? 1.3.2 What are the ways to solve the English teaching problems of High School at Taunggyi city in Myanmar? 1.4 Scope of the research 1.4.1 Scope of the content: In this research, researcher pays a special attention on the English teaching problems of high school. 1.4.2 Scope of the Area: This research focuses on Taunggyi city which is capital city of Shan State in Myanmar. 1.4.3 Scope of population: This study focuses on High school English teachers and students at Taunggyi city in Myanmar. The populations are 10 English teachers, 5 head masters and 100 students. 1.4.4 Scope of the Duration of Time: This research will completely finish within 2019-2020 academic year. 1.5 Definition of Term Used in This Research 1.5.1 English teaching refers teaching English as a second language which is one of compulsory subjects in High School at Taunggyi city in Myanmar. 1.5.2 Problems refers difficulties and challenges faced by English teachers in High School at Taunggyi city in Myanmar.

5 1.5.3 High School refers to ninth Grade and tenth Grade classes of Government High School according to the Myanmar educational system. 1.6 Expected Benefits of the Study At the end of this research, the following advantages and outcomes can be obtained. 1.6.1 This research makes us know the English teaching problems of High School at Taunggyi city in Myanmar. 1.6.2 This research makes us understand the solutions of the English teaching problems of High School at Taunggyi city in Myanmar.

Chapter II Literature Reviews and Research Works Concerned This research is to study English teaching problems of High schools at Taunggyi city in Myanmar. As regarded concepts of English teaching problems, some problems are related to one another. To understand English teaching problems and solutions of High schools at Taunggyi city in Myanmar, this second chapter concerning with literature reviews and research works concern will be presented as follow: 2.1 Overview Education System in Myanmar in Past and Present Days 2.1.1 A brief History of Education in Myanmar 2.1.2 Primary Education System In present days 2.1.3 Secondary and High Schools Education System in Myanmar in present days 2.1.4 Universities and Higher Education in Myanmar 2.1.5 Problems with the Myanmar Education System in present 2.1.6 Problems with Universities in Myanmar 2.2 Languages spoken in Myanmar 2.3 Contents of Syllabus or Textbooks of English used in High School 2.4 Assessment and Testing System 2.5 High School English Teacher Academic Qualification 2.6 The role of English Teaching in Myanmar 2.6.1 Current view on English in Myanmar

7 2.6.2 Myanmar EFL Teaching and Learning Situation 2.7 Overview of English Teaching Problems 2.1 Overview Education System in Myanmar in Past and Present Days Myanmar known as Burmese society has traditionally valued and stressed the importance of education. In villages, secular schooling often takes place in monasteries. Secondary and tertiary education takes place at government schools. After Burma (Myanmar) achieved independence in 1948 its schools were regarded as among the best in Asia. Myanmar missed many advances during 50 years of being shut off from the world by the military junta and has been struggling to catch up since an elected government came to power in 2011. Few people in Myanmar know, for example, that a man walked on the moon. In the early years after independence, Burma had an extensive network of missionary schools that employed foreign teachers that children had to learn English and other subjects. In the 1960s, Ne Win decreed that English was the language of colonizers and should no longer be taught in schools. Foreign teachers were kicked out of the country. Today, Myanmar lags far behind the developed world in terms of educational standards. Once at its zenith in the region, Myanmar today has unqualified teachers, very little resources, and aging materials. Many universities have been built and scattered throughout cities to prevent students from potential unrest. One exiled Burmese editor told Newsweek, “Knowledge in paralyzed. The most highly educated young people are the children of the military elite who in some cases have attended universities in the United States, Japan, Europe and Australia. Aung San Suu Kyi said, “The education system event at the school level is so terrible because the teachers are so badly paid. There is no proper equipment in the schools. They will put up a show room of computers while there are children who cannot even afford textbooks and there are adequate textbooks for all the schools in Burma.”

8 Education expenditures: 0.8 percent of GDP (2011), country comparison to the world: 172. This is one of the lowest rates in the world. Myanmar spends five times more on the military than it does on education and health care. In the 1990s, it spent only 28 cents per child on education. Perhaps one reason why government spending on education is so low is that Buddhist monasteries have traditionally educated children. Literacy (age 15 and over can read and write): total population: 89.9 percent; male: 93.9 percent; female: 86.4 percent (2006 est.). The literacy figures are based on UNESCO Institute of Statistics figures base on government statistics. There is dispute over the accuracy of the provided literacy rates. In the 1970s Burma was given an award by UNESCO for its literacy campaign. Burma's high literacy rate almost kept the country from getting "least developed country" aid in the 1980s. Burma's high literacy rate of 80 percent is partly due to high regard for literacy by socialism and Buddhism. Table 2.1: Number of Schools, Teachers and Students in the 20152016 Academic Year.1 NO School Category 1 2 3 4 5 Upper Secondary Lower Secondary Primary Monastic Private Total 1 Number of Basic Number of Number of Education Schools Teachers Students 3, 515 34,393 873,832 6,224 129,945 2795,607 35,650 158,176 5,184,041 1,538 11,044 297,039 438 7,397 107,451 47,365 340,955 9,257,970 Ministry of Education, Education System in Myanmar, Brief Description of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education in 2015-2016 Academic Year, (Ministry of Education, 2016), pp. 1-5.

9 2.1.1 A brief History of Education in Myanmar The education in Myanmar has long been considered regarded as important and significant. Traditionally, all boys, who were over eight years ages were sent to and taught at monastery schools. In the past, all most boys had to be taught to read, to write, about Buddhism and basic mathematics in the monastery. Those schools gradually gave way to public schools, but many young men continue to receive some education in monasteries. Under that system, few women were educated; their education took place mainly at home as they learned how to perform domestic tasks. The chance of being educated for woman was less than men. Therefore, literacy of female figure was less than male. However, Monastic education system had played the main role of education in Myanmar. The education of Myanmar first began during the time of ancient kings and had been regarded as important and significant. In olden days, there were Buddhist monasteries in every corner of the country including in towns, villages and most of these monasteries had schools attached. Therefore, kids, especially boys attended the traditional Buddhist monastic education system. Then in 1866, the British established an education center in lower Myanmar and the monastic education system was transformed into classroom education.2 Modern education began under King Mindon (1853–1878), who built a school for an Anglican missionary. British colonial rule caused a shift towards a Westernized education system. Christian missionary schools in Yangon, Mandalay and other major cities served as preparatory schools for the upper classes. During this period Burmese universities were thought to be the most prestigious in Southeast Asia. Ministry of Education of Myanmar, MYANMAR TIMES, Brief history of education in Myanmar, [online], Resource, n-myanmar.html, [1.3.2019]. 2 , The

10 In 1884 Yangon College was established and was affiliated to Calcutta University in India. The University of Yangon Act was passed by the Myanmar Legislative Council in September 1920 and the foundation of Yangon University took place in December 1920. Then in June, 1925 Mandalay College was founded as an affiliated institution to University of Yangon. In 1947, it was upgraded to a degree college. The first teachers’ training school was established in Yangon in the year 1876. In 1922, the Department of Education was established at Yangon University College and the diploma education course was introduced. In 1931, the Teachers’ Training College (TTC) was established as a constituent college of the college of the University of Yangon. With the opening of the new college, the Diploma in Education classes was discontinued. Later in 1947, the first State Teachers’ Training College (S.T.T.C) was opened in Yangon. Under the British, secular education spread and the country achieved a relatively high level of education. During British colonial rule, educational access for women improved tremendously. In the pre-colonial era, male education was emphasized in the traditional Buddhist monastic education system. The number of female students enrolled in school rose 61 percent (by 45,000 students) from 19111921, and another 82 percent (100,000 students) from 1921 to 1931 with expansion of the colonial and private education system, primarily in the form of all-girls schools. This was mirrored by an increase in female employment. From 1921 to 1931, there was a 33 percent increase in employment of women in public administration, law, medicine (96 percent increase), education (64 percent increase), and journalism sectors.3 In the 1950s, Burma was one of the richest countries in Asia. It had a high literacy rate. When Burma gained independence in 1948, the government sought to create a literate and educated population, and Burma was believed to be on its way to become the first Asian Tiger in the region. However, 1962 coup isolated and 3 Dr Myo Thein Gyi, Education in Myamar, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education in Myanmar, [5 may 2019]. [online], Resource:

11 impoverished Burma. All schools were nationalized and educational standards began to fall. Burmese replaced English as the medium of instruction at Burmese universities in 1965, with the passing of the New University Education Law a year earlier. This led to a rapid decline in English proficiency among the Burmese. English was reintroduced as a medium of instruction in 1982. In 1977, the 2 year regional college system was introduced by the Burmese government, as a way to disperse college students until they were about to graduate (the third and fourth years were spent at a traditional university), a system that was ended in 1981. Due to students' protest of 8888 Uprising, all universities were closed around Burma for 2 years. Since 1990s, new structure of education system was weak as government faced crisis to universities' clash and set up a 6th month term for an academic year. The SPDC government arranged irregular commencement dates for universities and colleges, however, students were still in que and clash. Another series of students' strike in 1996 and 1998 resulted in another 3 years of closure. After the re-opening of universities and colleges in 1999, the government scattered universities in different regions. The relocation of certain universities was made under relative ministries. New system had been made that the university term was shortened by one year, providing a bachelor degree for just three year course. However, improvement was rapidly made despite the early disturbances. In 2005, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially announced that Burma education was reaching an international standard and the government had fully entitled to 156 universities and colleges in Myanmar.4 2.1.2 Primary Education System In present day Table 2.2: Education System in Myanmar in present days Education School/Level Grades Age Years Notes Primary Elementary 1-5 6-11 5 Lower Secondary Intermediate School 6-9 12-14 4 4 Jeffrey Hays, Education in Myanmar, facts and details, Southeast Asia, Myanmar, Government, Infrastructure, [online], Resource: ub5 5f/entry-3117.html, [2008, Last update May 20014].

12 Upper Secondary Tertiary Tertiary Tertiary Secondary(HighSchool) 10-11 Bachelor Master Doctorate 17-19 2 4-5 1 3 The education system of Myanmar is operated by the Ministry of Education. Lower Secondary and Upper Secondary Schools in Burma are under the Department of Basic Education. Universities and professional institutes from upper Myanmar and lower Myanmar are run by two separate entities, the Departments of Higher Learning 1 and 2, whose offices are based in Mandalay and Yangon respectively. The education system is based on the United Kingdom's system, due to nearly a century of British presence in Myanmar. Nearly all schools are governmentoperated, but recently, there has been an increase in privately funded schools (which specialize in English). Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school.5 According to Myanmar’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the mottoes for education are "Every school-age child in school" and "education for all" which guides Mya

2.5 High School English Teacher Academic Qualification 34 2.6 The role of English Teaching in Myanmar 39 2.6.1 Current view on English in Myanmar 39 2.6.2 Myanmar EFL Teaching and Learning Situation 40 2.7 Overview of English Teaching Problems 42 Chapter III: Research Methodology 48 3.1 Participants 48

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