Pica: Critical Information And Practical Strategies For Parents And .

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Pica: Critical Information and Practical Strategies for Parents and Service Providers David B. McAdam, PhD, BCBA-D University of Rochester School of Medicine Department of Pediatrics Strong Center for Developmental Disabilities December 2015 Webinar Rochester Regional Center for Autism Spectrum Disorder House Keeping To reduce background noise during the webinar, please put yourself on ‘mute’ through your phone or computer. Due to the size of our group, I will not be answering questions during the webinar. Instead, please type in your questions into the ‘chat’ box on your screen. I will review/answer all questions at the end. If you experience any technical problems at any point during the webinar, the problem is likely to be on your end, so you will need to follow-up with your technology support person. The Webinar will end promptly at 4:30. If you would like to speak with me after the webinar, please e-mail me at rrcasd@urmc.rochetser.edu to set up a time to speak by phone. 2 Learning Objectives Increase understanding of –Risks associated with pica –Why persons with developmental disabilities engage in pica –The behavioral assessment of pica –Interventions for pica that can be implemented by parents and service providers 1

History of Pica The term pica comes from the Latin “picus” after the Magpie a bird famous for having an indiscriminate appetite Reports of pica date to 16th and 17th century Greek and Roman cultures Historical explanations include: tight-corseting, sexual frustration, and a folk medical practice to lighten one’s skin tone See: Parry-Jones and Parry-Jones (1992) for a historical description of pica 4 Definitions of Pica in Peer-Reviewed Publications Eating of non-nutritive substances (Foxx & Martin, 1975). Piazza et al. (2002) defined pica as placing a pica item past the plane of the lips. Pica was defined as an occurrence or blocked attempt to place an inedible item or any simulated pica item past the plane of the lips (hand mouthing, mouthing of clothing, and mouthing of competing stimuli were excluded; Hagopian, Gonzalez, Rivet, Triggs, & Clark, 2011). 5 Diagnostic Criteria for Pica Eating one or more non-nutritive substances on a persistent basis for a period of at least one month Pica must be developmentally inappropriate practice ( 18 months of age) Not part of a culturally sanctioned practice If an individual has a diagnosed mental disorder (e.g., schizophrenia), pica may only be concurrently diagnosed if it is sufficiently severe to warrant independent clinical attention Upper age limit recently discontinued in DSM-V (18-year-of-age). 6 2

Pica Items Reported in the Literature Paper Inedible plants/leaves Dirt Sand Clay Large amounts of ice Rock salt Glass Coins Gloves Plastic items Shampoo Cigarette butts Elastic Does the topography of pica matter? 7 Does the topography of pica matter? May suggest a nutritional deficiency (i.e., large amounts of ice, Coprophagia) Immediacy of need for the implementation of preventative strategies (safety checks, environmental sweeps) Targeted items suggest potentially important medical consultations (e.g., medical evaluation for intestinal blockage) Potential restrictiveness of behavioral interventions (e.g., need to conduct an assessment of potentially restrictive punishment-based strategies) 8 Possible Medical Side Effects of Pica Elevated lead levels Excessive tooth wear GI Complications such as constipation, ulcerations, perforations, diarrhea,, and bowel obstruction Parasites Nutrient malabsorption Surgery Death 9 3

Theories of Pica Behavioral Hypothesis Nutritional/Medical Hypothesis Cultural Practices Listed in order of importance from a clinical behavioranalytic perspective 10 Behavioral Hypothesis According to a behavior-analytic model, pica is a learned behavior which can be explained in terms reinforcement, stimulus control, punishment, and learning history (Mace & Wacker, 1994; Progar et al., 2001; Wacker, 2000). Some behavior analysts have conceptualized pica as stimulus-control problem. That is, persons with intellectual disabilities engage in pica because they do not discriminate edible from non-edible items. The discrimination hypothesis is supported by studies that demonstrate that teaching persons to discriminate edible from non-edible items reduces pica (Finney, Russo, & Cataldo, 1982). 11 Behavioral Hypothesis, cont The only evidence for social positive reinforcement (e.g., social attention from other people; access to high-preference items or activities) or social negative reinforcement (i.e., escape or avoidance behavior) comes from early studies published prior to the development of contemporary functional assessment and functional analysis methods Several recent published descriptive and metaanalytic reviews have concluded that pica is maintained exculsively by automatic reinforcement based on the results of the recent peer-reviewed literature 12 4

Nutritional/Medical Hypothesis According to the nutritional hypothesis, pica is related to a person’s nutritional status and deficiencies (e.g., iron, zinc) The nutritional hypothesis is supported by multiple studies that demonstrate that nutritional supplementation reduces the pica of some people successfully Studies of brain structure and function demonstrate an association between damage to specific brain areas and pica in people/animals (elderly people with dementia). 13 Cultural Practices Although clinical reports focus on undesirable behavior in Western settings, pica occurs in commercial, medical, and cultural contexts across the world (Stiegler, 2005). Consumption of clay (geophagia) often augments procedures used for folk medicine. – Blends of soil sold by street vendors in Uganda are described as having unique curative powers (Geissler et al., 1999). – Clay may be consumed to treat diarrhea and intestinal discomfort and, due to its ability to absorb dietary toxins and reduce hunger, may be added to specific meals (e.g., fish) and to a pregnancy diet. – More common in females than males (Stiegler, 2005), geophagia is part of cultural practices related to pregnancy, child bearing, and breastfeeding (McKenna, 2006). 14 Behavioral Treatment Model of Pica: Current Status of the Published Literature What is Evidence-based Behavioral Practice? 15 5

Implement preventative behavioral strategies such as sweeping the environment according to schedule Response blocking Conduct nutritional screening for Iron an zinc deficits Rule in/out any other possible related health concerns (e.g., constipation related to pica) Conduct Behavioral Assessments No Nutritional Deficit Evaluate nutritional supplements using singlecase experimental design Reduction Not Clinically Significant D E F I C I T S Implement Evidence Based Behavioral Strategies Behavioral Interventions 16 Nutrition Treatment: Pace and Toyer, 2000 Participant: The participant was a 9-year 5month-old girl who had been diagnosed with severe mental retardation, iron deficiency, and anemia. Intervention: Vitamin and iron supplements 17 18 6

Nutritional/Medical Variables utism. 19 Assessment of pica Analogue functional analysis is gold standard Indirect measure such as QABF may result in false positive results (particularly for social attention) Consider use of response latency as dependent measure to reduce opportunities to engage in pica Consider baiting environment with items safe to ingest (small pieces of paper, uncooked pasta, pasta cooked to a consistency of a rubber band). Caution – may want to consult with a medical professional and NEVER conduct an assessment of unsafe items consumed without all the proper approvals and medical consultation. Potential covert nature of pica 20 21 7

Preventative Strategies 22 Pica Sweep Data Sheet Date: Scheduled Check Time: Area Potential Pica Items Cabinets Yes No Counters Yes No Tables Yes No Floors Yes No Bathroom Yes No Date: Scheduled Check Time: Area Potential Pica Items Cabinets Yes No Counters Yes No Tables Yes No Floors Yes No Bathroom Yes No Action Taken Staff FollowedUp Staff Initial Action Taken Staff FollowedUp Staff Initial Based on data collection procedure from the Springbrook Agency in Oneonta, NY. 23 Evidence-based Interventions for Pica (Least to most restrictiveness hierarchy) 1. Environmental Enrichment/Non-contingent reinforcement 2. Differential reinforcement 3. Discrimination Training 4. Response blocking 5. Punishment-based intervention packages (physical restraint, overcorrection, contingent aversive presentations) See McAdam et al. 2012 for meta-analysis 24 8

McCord, B. E., Grosser, J. W., Iwata, B. A., & Powers, L. A. (2005) Response Blocking 25 26 Favell, McGimsey, & Schell, 1982 Environmental Enrichment/NonContingent Reinforcement/Competing items 27 9

28 Hagopian et al. 2011 Differential Reinforcement 29 30 10

31 32 Ferreri, Tamm, & Wier, (2006) Punishment-based Strategies 33 11

34 utism. 35 Questions, Discussion, and Problem Solving Contact information: David Mcadam@urmc.rochester.edu 36 12

Resources Rochester Regional Center for Autism Spectrum Disorder (RRCASD). – On-line educational resources, webinars, Information & Referral services. – Contact information: Website: www.golisano.urmc.edu/rrcasdnyautism E-mail: rrcasd@urmc.rochester.edu Tele: 1-855-508-8485 Autism Speaks: website: www.autismspeaks.org This site contains various toolkits and guides for home, school, work, safety, health/medical, etc. 37 13

The only evidence for social positive reinforcement (e.g., social attention from other people; access to high-preference items or activities) or social negative reinforcement (i.e., escape or avoidance behavior) comes from early studies published prior to the development of contemporary functional assessment and functional analysis methods

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