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1.0 IntroductionABOUT USABOUT THE REPORTACRONYMSThe Global CCS Institute (the Institute) is aninternational think tank whose mission is to acceleratethe deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS),a vital technology to tackle climate change.CCS is an emissions reduction technology critical tomeeting global climate targets. The Global Status ofCCS 2020 documents important milestones for CCSover the past 12 months, its status across the worldand the key opportunities and challenges it faces.BECCS Bioenergy with CCSCCS Carbon Capture and StorageCCUS Carbon Capture Utilisation and StorageCOP Conference of the PartiesDAC Direct Air CaptureDACCS Direct Air Capture with Carbon StorageEC European CommissionEOR Enhanced Oil RecoveryESG Environmental, Social and Corporate GovernanceEU European UnionFEED Front-End Engineering DesignGHG Greenhouse GasGt GigatonneGW GigawattIPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeLCFS Low Carbon Fuel StandardMMV Monitoring, Measurement and VerificationMt Million Metric TonnesMW MegawattNDC Nationally Determined ContributionR&D Research and DevelopmentSDS Sustainable Development ScenarioSMR Steam Methane ReformationSOE State Owned EnterpriseTWH Terrawatt HourUNFCCC United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate ChangeUK United KingdomUS United States of AmericaUS DOE United States Department of EnergyAs a team of over 30 professionals, working with andon behalf of our Members, we drive the adoption ofCCS as quickly and cost effectively as possible; sharingexpertise, building capacity and providing advice andsupport so CCS can play its part in reducing greenhousegas emissions.Our diverse international membership includesgovernments, global corporations, private companies,research bodies and non-governmental organisations;all committed to CCS as an integral part of a net-zeroemissions future.The Institute is headquartered in Melbourne, Australiawith offices in Washington DC, Brussels, Beijing,London and Tokyo.2We hope this report will be read and used bygovernments, policy-makers, academics, mediacommentators and the millions of people who careabout our climate.AUTHORSThis report and its underlying analyses were led byBrad Page, Guloren Turan and Alex Zapantis. Theteam included Jamie Burrows, Chris Consoli, JeffErikson, Ian Havercroft, David Kearns, Harry Liu,Dominic Rassool, Eve Tamme, Alex Townsend andTony Zhang.3

1.0 IntroductionCEO ForewordBRAD PAGECEO,Global CCS Institute2020 will long be remembered as a most challenging yearwith the emergence and spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.The human toll has been awful. The economic impact will takedecades to overcome. This has been a classic black swan event,not foreseen but with its arrival inflicting health, social, andeconomic damage on an exceptional scale. The world is stillworking through the management of the pandemic and witha vaccine not yet available, the need to learn to live in a worldwhere COVID-19 is a reality, is fast presenting as thekey challenge for governments, business and communities.The findings of this year’s Global Status of CCS Reportare consistent with these developments. As we have beenreporting for the past 2 years, the pipeline of operating and indevelopment CCS facilities around the world is again growing.This year continues the upward trajectory. The diversity ofthe industries and processes to which CCS is being appliedis a continued testament to the flexibility of CCS to removeemissions from industries that are hard to decarbonise butwhich manufacture products that will continue to be essentialto daily life around the world.As many have observed, with governments needing to deviseand implement economic stimulus packages to lift theirnations out of recession and get people back to work, we havea once-in-a-generation opportunity to alter course and re-growthe global economy in a climate friendly and environmentallysustainable manner. Right now, we have before us anopportunity to embrace and accelerate the energy transitionto deliver the new, clean energy and clean industry jobs thatwill sustain economies for many decades to come.The sustained lift in activity around CCS and the increasedinvestment in new facilities is exciting and encouraging. Butthere is so much more work to do.There is evidence that both the private and public sectors areincreasingly choosing the road to climate friendly policies andinvestments. A growing list of countries have committed tonet-zero emissions around mid-century. Alongside nationalgovernment commitments, it has been remarkable to seein 2020 that despite difficult trading conditions, majormultinational energy companies have made pledges toachieve carbon neutral outcomes by mid-century. For somethis includes scope 3 emissions; those that are the resultof the consumption (often combustion) of their productsby customers. It has also been notable that significantGovernments have included increased abatement ambitionin their fiscal packages and that CCS has featured in severalinstances. This is welcomed and necessary. It has been clearfor some time that achieving net-zero emissions aroundmid-century and containing temperature increases to wellbelow 2 C will require the rapid deployment of all availableabatement technologies as well as the early retirement of someemission intensive facilities and the retro-fitting of otherswith technology like CCS. It is also clear that Carbon DioxideRemoval (CDR) will be required at large scale as overshootingcarbon budgets is, regrettably, almost assured.The road ahead is challengingbut CCS is increasingly wellplaced to make its significantand necessary contribution toachieving net-zero emissionsaround mid-century.Just considering the role for CCS implicit in the IPCC 1.5Special Report, somewhere between 350 and 1200 gigatonnesof CO2 will need to be captured and stored this century.Currently, some 40 megatonnes of CO2 are captured andstored annually. This must increase at least 100-fold by 2050 tomeet the scenarios laid out by the IPCC. Clearly, a substantialincrease in policy activity and private sector commitment isnecessary to facilitate the massive capital investment requiredto build enough facilities capable of delivering these volumes.As this year’s report describes, in every part of the CCSvalue chain, substantial progress is being made. New, moreefficient and lower cost capture technologies across a rangeof applications are changing the outlook for one of themost significant cost components of the CCS value chain.Proponents of the CCS hub model continue their impressivemarch towards reality and notable in this area is the moveinto operation of the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line. CarbonDioxide Removal technologies are also featuring in increasinginvestment and project activity, while new and favourablepolicy settings in many countries, including the USA, UK, EU,and Australia are boosting the number of projects under activeinvestigation and development.It has been especially significant to see the increasingengagement with, and interest from, the financial and ESGsectors. Significant investment opportunities are beingcomprehended while the need for many businesses totransition to the future net-zero emissions world means thatESG advisers are looking to technologies that can deliver thenecessary change.The road ahead is challenging but CCS is increasingly wellplaced to make its significant and necessary contribution toachieving net-zero emissions around mid-century.45

1.0 IntroductionCCS AmbassadorLORD NICHOLAS STERNIG Patel Professor of Economics & Government,London School of EconomicsChair, Grantham Research InstituteIn this year of unforeseen challenge and turmoil, the threat ofclimate change and the urgent need to reduce emissions andstabilise global temperatures has continued, with action asurgent as ever. While the tragic and widespread impacts of theCOVID-19 health crisis have caused monumental disruption,many believe it has delivered a moment in time that can lead tofundamental change. This moment could be a turning point inour fight against climate change. A moment in history when werecognise that where we have come from is fragile and dangerous,and in many ways, inequitable. A moment that could deliver theimpetus to strengthen commitments to emissions reduction andset us on not only a path to recovery, but to transformation and anew, sustainable and much more attractive form of growth anddevelopment.If we are to have any chance of stabilising our global temperature,we must stabilise concentrations and that means net-zerogreenhouse gas emissions. The lower the emissions, and the fasterwe can achieve net-zero, the lower the temperature at which wecan stabilise. We have already learnt that we must aim to stabiliseat 1.5 degrees – any higher and we threaten our way of life. Higheragain, the impacts become almost unthinkable.In recent years, both climate change language and action havemoved toward this vital goal of net-zero, and right alongside it hasbeen the need for carbon capture utilisation and storage, or CCUS.We have long known that CCUS will be an essential technologyfor emissions reduction; its deployment across a wide range ofsectors of the economy must now be accelerated. Low-carbontechnologies, including renewables and CCUS, point toward aviable pathway for achieving net-zero GHG emissions by 2050,even in sectors that were considered “too difficult” to decarbonisejust a few years ago, such as steel, cement, aviation, and longdistance transportation.Alongside this, our knowledge and understanding of climatechange has, continued to improve, and its great pace and immensedangers are becoming ever more clear. Critically, we now know wemust achieve net-zero emissions by mid-century, and we can seemuch of what we must do to achieve this. However, even armedwith great insight and improved knowledge we have been slow as aworld community in taking action to reduce our emissions.Now, we must act with urgency. We must ensure that we do notreturn to the ‘old normal’ after the COVID-19 crisis. We are seeingthe dangers of the pandemic, and we have seen the dangers of thefragile social fabric across the world which arose in part from theslow recovery and inequities of the last decade. And towering overall that are the dangers of unmanaged climate change.We must alter the alarming path we are on and move swiftly totackle climate change. We have, at the ready, strong techniquesdeveloped, both in the form of policy and technology, which canbe implemented quickly, if we commit, and can make a major andvital contribution to achieving net-zero. It is time to go to scale.By applying what we know, and learning along the way, we canbuild the path to the zero-carbon economy that is crucial for theprosperity of this and future generations.6BY APPLYING WHATWE KNOW, ANDLEARNING ALONGTHE WAY, WE CANBUILD THE PATH TOTHE ZERO-CARBONECONOMY THAT ISCRUCIAL FOR THEPROSPERITY OFTHIS AND FUTUREGENERATIONS.Lord Nicholas Stern,IG Patel Professor of Economics & Government,London School of EconomicsChair, Grantham Research Institute7

1.0 IntroductionCCS AmbassadorJADE HAMEISTER OAMPolar explorerAs the world battles the current global pandemic, another muchgreater challenge remains on course to alter life as we know it.In 2020, climate change has been easily forgotten, but it has notgone away. Nor has the urgent need to address rising emissions,meet Paris agreement targets and achieve net-zero ambitions.We have already seen the effects of climate change begin totake hold. Last Summer, in my home country of Australia,we experienced unprecedented and devastating fires, andthroughout this year have seen coral bleaching on the GreatBarrier Reef continue at a pace never before seen.We must urgently begin to accept the challenge ahead of us andthe need to respond to it. We must also reframe our attitude toglobal warming and see it as a catalyst for innovation to delivergrowth and create a more sustainable and prosperous future forus all.Recent net-zero commitments from organisations and nationsaround the world bring hope that the challenge is beingaccepted; but what matters most is action. Commitments arenothing without real action to create real change. Youngest person to ski to the NorthPole (age 14) Youngest woman to complete the550km traverse of the Greenlandicecap (age 15) Youngest person to ski from coastof Antarctica to South Pole (age 16) One of only three women in historyto ski a new route to South Pole Australian Geographic SocietyYoung Adventurer of the Year2016 and 2018 Order of Australia Medal (age 18)for service to polar explorationAll Jade’s polar expeditions wereunsupported and unassisted.At 19, I am no expert on the science of global warming, nor amI am expert on how to convene world leaders to act and combatthe greatest threat we have ever known.But I am likely the only person on the planet of my generationto have the privilege of first-hand experience in our three mainpolar regions; journeys that saw me cover a total of around1,300km in 80 days.My polar expeditions confirmed for me that global warming isan undeniable truth. I saw the effects to our Earth in some of ourmost beautiful and fragile environments.These journeys changed me forever and I now feel a deepemotional connection with our mother Earth and a strong senseof responsibility to play my part in its protection.We need to embrace all solutions available to us to reduceemissions and achieve the goal of net-zero by 2050 – and weneed carbon capture and storage technologies.There is no doubt we have the science, the knowledge and thesolutions to save ourselves from the catastrophic consequencesof climate change.WE NEED TOEMBRACE ALLSOLUTIONSAVAILABLE TOUS TO REDUCEEMISSIONS ANDACHIEVE THEGOAL OF NETZERO BY 2050– AND WE NEEDCARBON CAPTUREAND STORAGETECHNOLOGIES.Now, we need massive and urgent action.Jade Hameister OAM,Polar explorer89


2.0 The Need for CCS2.0THE NEED FOR CCSTo achieve cost-effective net-zero emissions, CCS investment canhelp in four main ways: In the fight against climate change, carbon capture and storage(CCS) is a game-changer. Its ability to avoid carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions at their source and enable large-scale decreases to CO2already in the atmosphere via CO2 removal technologies, make itan essential part of the solution.To avoid the worst outcomes from climate change, theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SpecialReport on Global Warming of 1.5 degrees Celsius1 highlightedthe importance of reaching net-zero emissions by mid-century. Itpresents four scenarios for limiting global temperature rise to 1.5degrees Celsius – all require CO2 removal and three involve majoruse of CCS (see Figure 1). The scenario that does not utilise CCSrequires the most radical changes in human behaviour.CO2 EMISSIONS (GtCO2/YR)The cement, iron and steel, and chemical sectors emit carbondue to the nature of their industrial processes,and high-temperature heat requirements. They are amongthe hardest to decarbonise.Several reports, including fromthe Energy Transition Commission and International EnergyAgency (IEA) conclude that achieving net-zero emissions inhard-to-abate industries like these may be impossible and,at best, more expensive without CCS. CCS is one of the mostmature and cost-effective options.Enabling the production of low-carbon hydrogen at scaleHydrogen is likely to play a major role in decarbonisinghard-to-abate sectors. It may also be an important source ofenergy for residential heating and flexible power generation.Coal or natural gas with CCS is the cheapest way to producelow-carbon hydrogen. It will remain the lowest cost optionin regions where large amounts of affordable renewableelectricity for hydrogen producing electrolysis is not availableand fossil fuel prices are low. To decarbonise hard-to-abatesectors and reach net-zero emissions, global hydrogenproduction must grow significantly, from 70 Mt per annum(Mtpa) todayi to 425–650 Mt a year by mid-century.Achieving deep decarbonisation in hard-to-abateindustry 40Delivering negative emissionsResidual emissions in hard-to-abate sectors need to becompensated for. CCS provides the foundation for technologybased carbon dioxide removal, including bioenergy with CCS(BECCS) and direct air capture with carbon storage (DACCS).While carbon dioxide removal is not a silver bullet, every yearthat passes without significant reductions in CO2 emissions,makes it more necessary.30201002020-10205040 Mtpa 5,635 Mtpa-20-302020204020602080CO2 EMISSIONS (GtCO2/YR)P32100 202020402060208025%61%28%90%Providing low carbon dispatchable powerDecarbonising power generation is crucial to achievingnet-zero emissions. CCS equipped power plants supplydispatchable and low-carbon electricity, as well as gridstabilising services, such as inertia, frequency controland voltage control. Grid-stabilising services cannot beprovided by solar photovoltaics (PV) or wind generation.CCS complements renewables, helping make the low-carbongrid of the future resilient and reliable.P2P1 210016%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%IRON & STEELFUEL TRANSFORMATIONCEMENTPOWER GENERATION40CHEMICALSFIGURE 3 CONTRIBUTION OF CCUS TO SECTOR CO2 EMISSIONSREDUCTIONS UP TO 2070 IN THE IEA SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSCENARIOcFuel transformation covers sectors such as refining, biofuels, and merchanthydrogen and ammonia productionThe IEA’s Sustainable Development Scenario (SDS)2 describes afuture where the United Nations (UN) energy related sustainabledevelopment goals for emissions, energy access and air qualityare met. The mass of CO2 captured using CCS goes up fromaround 40 Mt of CO2 per annum today to around 5.6 gigatonnes(Gt) in 2050 – a more than hundredfold increase (Figure 2). Itscontribution is significant, accounting for between 16 per centand 90 per cent of emissions reductions in the iron and steel,cement, chemicals, fuel transformation and power generationsectors (Figure 3). The versatility and strategic importance ofCCS in a net-zero emissions future is clear. Creating and sustaining high-value jobs30 Supporting economic growth through new net-zeroindustries and innovation20 Enabling infrastructure re-use and the deferral ofshut-down costs.100-10-20COALNATURAL GASINDUSTRIAL PROCESS-30BIOMASSDIRECT AIR CAPTURE20402060CO2 EMISSIONSREDUCTIONS FROMCCS IN INDUSTRY& POWER2080RESIDUAL ENERGY& INDUSTRY CO2EMISSIONS2100 2020AGRICULTURE,FORESTRY &OTHER LAND USE100%Vital for reducing CO2 emissions, investment in CCS alsoprovides several economic benefits:P4202090%2040CO2 REMOVALFROM BECCS20602080NET CO2EMISSIONS2100OILFIGURE 2 CO2 CAPTURE CAPACITY IN 2020 AND 2050 BY FUEL ANDSECTOR IN THE IEA SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SCENARIObIncludes CO2 captured for use (369 Mtpa) and storage (5,266 Mtpa) in 2050Critically, CCS also facilitates a ‘just transition’3. One of themain challenges to achieving a just transition is that job lossesfrom high emissions industries may be concentrated in one place,while low-carbon industry jobs are created somewhere else. Evenwhere geography is not a barrier, it is rare that mass job lo

ABOUT THE REPORT CCS is an emissions reduction technology critical to meeting global climate targets. The Global Status of CCS 2020 documents important milestones for CCS over the past 12 months, its status across the world and the key opportunities and challenges it faces. We h

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