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FISH SILAGE: PREPARATION, UTILIZATION AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT J.G. Disney, W.H. Parr and D.J. o r a n l Tropical Products Institute London, U.K. Abstract Fish wastage is a major problem in the IPFC region and conversion t o animal feed by acid ensilage represents one means of utilization. The paper outlines methods of preparation of liquid and dried products using low cost/low technology methods and reports on methods of feeding the product to pigs and poultry. The prospects for fish filage and its use for pig, poultry and fish feed are reviewed. INTRODUCTION The acid ensilage of fish is not a new process. The basic methodology was developed more than 50 years ago and substantial quantities are produced in countries such as Denmark and Poland. In recent years, however, there has been renewed interest in fish silage as it represents a means of utilizing waste fish and fish offal where conventional fishmeal production is inappropriate. In the United Kingdom, for example, the reduced number of fishmeal plants, combined with high transport costs, has led to research and development work on fish silage and two commercial units are currently under construction. In the tropics, every effort must be made to preserve fish for human food but there are many situations where this is impossible. Daily andlor seasonal variations in catch, transport difficulties, inadequate processing facilities, etc., occur frequently in tropical fisheries and considerable quantities of fish are wasted. A number of national as well as international groups are investigating conventional and novel means of reducing this wastage; silage production is one of several processes under investigation in a number of countries. Recent developments in fish silage and the prospects for production in the tropics have been reviewed by Disney et al. (1977). Summer (1976) has also carried out a feasibility study on fish silage production in the IPFC region. The growing demand for animal feed in many tropical countries is a further reason for utilizing waste whenever possible. The present paper outlines the methods for preparing and utilizing fish silage in the tropics and reviews the prospects for commercial production in the IPFC region. The paper deals with acid silage only and does not consider microbiological fermentation although the latter could also have considerable potential in Southeast Asia. 1 I Present address: B.P. Nutrition (Ireland) Ltd., Tallaght, Co., Dublin, Ireland.

544 RAW MATERIAL FOR SILAGE PRODUCTION Fish wastage can arise from a number of causes: (a) By catch from shrimp fish which is discarded at sea; (b) By-catch which is brought ashore but is poorly utilized; (c) Daily or seasonal gluts of fish; (d) Offal from fish processing plants. On world-wide basis losses from such sources are estimated by F A 0 to amount to four to five million tonnes per annum (James and Krone, 1977). In the IPFC region the causes of wastage listed above are commonplace although the extent of the waste varies from country to country. Sumner (1976) carried out a detailed review of wastage in several countries in the region and concluded that several hundred thousand tonnes of raw material per annum could, theoretically, be available for conversion into fish silage. The main source of this raw material would be : (a) Trash fish landed in Thailand and Malaysia, some of which is currently converted into low-quality fishmeal; (b) Shrimp by-catch discarded at sea, the quantities involved being far in excess of those actually landed; (c) Seasonal gluts of fish such as the sardine fishery of the Bali Straits. The availability of waste fish suitable for silage production will vary from country to country and from location to location. The greatest potential is for silage produced at sea on board shrimping vessels but land-based opportunities are also considerable. Where investment capital is available and the wastage occurs at a central point, the preferred solution may be its reduction to fishmeal. In many isolated areas, however, where the quantities available are smaller and variable, production of fish silage could provide a means of utilizing waste fish as animal feed. METHODS OF PREPARATION Fish silage is a liquid product, made from minced fish or fish offal, which is preserved with acid t o prevent bacterial spoilage. Liquefaction is brought about by the proteolytic enzymes present largely in the gut and skin of the fish. Compared with fishmeal production, fish siIage requires little capital investment, involves little technology and is comparatively cheap t o produce. The process is also suitable for application at both cottage and industrial levels. The steps involved in the preparation of fish silage are the same regardless of the scale: 1. The fish or fish offal should be minced or comminuted. The particle size required varies with different species, small fish such as sardines or shrimp by-catch may require little comminution but species with tough skins such as shark or trigger fish (Balistes spp.) will required mincing. 2. The minced (or comminuted) fish should be acidified t o prevent putrefaction. Thorough mixing is necessary t o avoid pockets of untreated fish. Mineral acids, organic acids or mixtures of the t w a can

be used. The choice will depend upon the cost and availability of the acid and the conditions under which the product is prepared. In most cases three percent by weight of formic acid is suitable and commercial grade such as "Bioaid', produced by British Petroleum, is suitable. The different acid mixtures which have been used are considered by Atkinson (1974), Disney et al. (1977). Petersen (1953) and Lovern (1965). The fishlacid mixture should be stored t o permit liquefaction. Regular stirring is necessary. The process is temperature-dependent and liquefaction is fairly rapid at tropical temperatures; for m a t species four or five days are sufficient. The liquid product can be fed directly to pigs but a further step is needed t o produce poultry feed (see later). A suitable dry material such as cassava flour, rice bran, maize meal, etc., is mixed with the liquid silage and the resulting mix can be sun-dried. The ratio of silage t o filler material will depend upon the feeding regime being used. The equipment used for silage production is largely dependent on the scale of the operation. At the simplest level, plastic containers and mixing by hand have been successfully tested by the Tropical Products Institute in Malawi, Bahrain, Ghana, Solomon Islands and Brunei. Other workers in Indonesia, New Zealand, Australia and Hong Kong have similarly made fish silage and recent work in these countries will be reported a t this meeting. The scale of production at the village level is limited by the difficulties of mixing; batches in excess of 20 kg are difficult t o mix by hand. For larger scale production, a mechanical mincerlgrinder is necessary together with suitable heavy-duty mixing equipment. A pump or measuring device for handling the acid is also advisable together with suitable tanks for liquefaction and storage. A commercial package capable of producing from 300 t o 1,000 tonnes of silage per annum can now be purchased in the United Kingdom from British Petroleum (Nutrition) Ltd. UTILIZATION As indicated earlier, the silage product may be in a liquid or dried form. Using conventional feeds, liquid feeding systems can have certain advantages over dry feeding methods including reduced labour costs and improved performance (Bosticco et al., 1976). It is logical therefore t o consider the use of wet silage in liquid feeding systems for pigs and, in fact, most tests on its use have been carried out in this way. The method of application would depend upon the scale of the operation. The pig producer could mix liquid silage with a balancer meal (containing supplementary minerals and vitamins) purchased from a feed compounder or, alternatively, he could mix the balancer meal himself. On a large scale, the mix could be pumped into feeding troughs but, on a smaller scale, the mixing would be carried out manually in the feeding troughs or immediately before feeding. Feeding trials in the United Kingdom using non-oily and oily fish have resulted in satisfactory growth but problem of taint have occurred with oily fish at higher levels (Smith and Adamson, 1976). No vitamin E supplementation was given in these trials and further work is required t o ascertain whether this would have a beneficial effect. The Tropical Products Institute has carried out feeding trials in the Solomon Islands in collaboration with the Fisheries Department using waste from a a tuna cannery. The product is made from cooked flesh and offal and is therefore not strictly fish silage as little or no enzymic breakdown occurs. The product is rather preserved by formic acid. Some five tonnes of product are prepared per month on a cottage industry basis and demand from the pig producers is increasingly rapidly.

PIG FEEDING TRIALS Two trials (the first being a small preliminary study) were carried out to compare fish silage, fishmeal and a commercial protein concentrate as sources of protein for growing pigs in diets based upon rice milling by-products. Large White X Landrace pigs were selected accordin to weight, sex and thriftiness. All pigs in the second trial were dosed with a vermifuge (Nilverrn, ICI) prior to the start of the feeding period and again after a three-week interval. The animals were fed twice daily, at 10.00 and 16.00 hours. The diets were fed wet, about twice the volume of water being added to the meal, or mixture of meal and fish silage, in the trough. In Trial 1, two groups of six pigs weighing about 43 kg were selected and equalized on the basis of weight and sex. Group 1 was fed a diet containing an imported proprietary protein concentrate as the major protein source; group 2 was fed a diet including fish offal (Table 1). The control diet and basal mix for the silage diet were mixed in 100 kg batches. The required proportions of basal mix and fish silage were weighed out and roughly mixed immediately before each feed. The pigs were weighed every two weeks and slaughtered when they reached about 70 kg liveweight. Feed intake and liveweight again were recorded. Table 1 Composition of diets, Trial 1 Formulation of meal mixes Fish silage basal mixa/ (kg) Ingredient - Control mix (kg) - - Broken rice 886.25 705.9 Rice bran 75.8 146.4 Pig concentrate (50% protein) 33.0 147.7 Mineral vitamin supplement 2.2 Sodium chloride 2.75 f Added t o each tonne: Vitamin E supplement (25%) Thiamin 70.0 g 4.5g - a/ Fed with fish silage in the ratio 1 part fish silage to 2.39 parts meal -/ These ingredients were present in the pig concentrate In Trial 2 a total of 40 pigs was used, ten per dietary treatment. Each diet (Table 2) was fed t o two groups of five pigs with initial average liveweights of 32 and 34 kg respectively. Each group comprised three gilts and two hogs. Pigs were weighed weekly and slaughtered when they reached 65 kg liveweight. Parameters recorded included feed intake, liveweight gain, killing-out percentage and measures of carcass fatness. The carcasses were assessed visuaily for fat colour and consistency, and a taste panel study was conducted t o determine whether any

Table 2 Composition of diets, Trial 2 Formulation of meal mixes I Ingredient Fish silage Fish silage basal mix A / basal mix B / (kg) Fish Control meal diet (kg) diet (kg) -- Broken rice 431.1 714.3 643.0 608.0 Rice bran Fishmeal 542.0 258.2 244.0 100.0 247.0 Pig concentrate (45% protein) Limestone - - 21.5 22.0 - - - 140.0 9.0 1.5 Salt 2.7 Mineral vitamin supplement 2.7 2.75 2.5 1 000.0 1 000.0 1 000.0 2.75 5.0 1 000.0 Added t o each tonne: Vitamin E supplement (25%) Thiamin 69.0 g 70.0 g 64 g 4.3 g 4.4 g 4g - a/ Fed with fish silage in the ratio 1 part fish silage to 3.7 parts meal b/ Fed with fish silage in the ratio 1 part fish silage to 2.8 parts meal Table 3 Analysis d raw materials (%) Fish silage Dry matter Crude fat Rice bran 28.6 88.1 Rice chips 86.0 Concentrate 92.8 3.5 10.8 5.4 8.9 20.0 11.7 12.8 43.7 Crude fibre - 4.1 0.8 7.7 Ash 3.0 0.66 7.4 0.06 3.3 20.9 0.04 5.55 0.55 2.27 0.54 3.74 Crude protein Calcium Phosphorus

Table 4 Calculated analysis of total diets fed (corrected to 87% DM), Trial 2 (%I Protein concentrate diet Crude protein Crude fat Crude fibre Calcium Phosphorus Fish silage diet (low) Fish silage diet (high) Fish meal dieta/ 16.7 15.8 17.4 17.2 7.2 8.4 7.1 7.0 2.6 2.4 1.5 1.5 1.00 0.95 1.OO 0.89 1.41 1.47 1.04 1.19 a/ Assuming fishmeal to have the following composition: DM Crude protein Fat Calcium Phosphorus 92.0 % 61.O% 9.4% 5.2% 2.9% 'off flavours' were present in the cooked meat. The composition of dietary ingredients is given in Table 3; the analyses of the diets as calculated from these values are given in Table 4. In error, a sample of fishmkal was not retained for analysis, thus arbitrary values were taken for this material. The results are presented in Tables 5 and 6. Only the overall treatment means are given for Trial 2 since both the heavy and light pigs responded similarly to the treatments. In Trial 1 the pigs on the diet including fish silage performed as well as those on the diet based on the concentrate (Table 5), growth and food conversion efficiency of both groups being satisfactory. No palatability problems were encountered on the fish silage diet. f i e mean growth rate of pigs in Trial 2 were lower than those observed in Trial 1, due to the lighter starting weights of the pigs. The better feed conversion efficiencies observed in Trial 2 are also largely attributable to the lighter starting weights, although worm burdens may have been reduced in these animals. All pigs in Trial 2 gave very good performances. Highest weight gains were achieved by those animals on the fish silage (high level) diet, while there was little difference between gains on the fish silage (low level) and fishmeal-based diets. All f i b a s e d diets gave significantly higher rates of gain than the diet based on the proprietary concentrate (p 0.05). Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) figures reflected these results; the fish silage (high level) diet gave the best FCE and the concentrate diet gave the worst. Differences were not significant for this parameter.

Table 5 Growth and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) of pigs fed diets containing fish silage, fishmeal or a proprietary protein concentrate Trial 1 Source of supplementary protein -- Parameter Protein con centrate Fish offal - - -- S E of treatment mean Initial weight (kg) Final weight (kg) Daily liveweight 42.6 71.9 749.00(a) 42.9 70.4 75 6.00(a) gain (g) FCE (kg feedkg liveweight gain) 3.03(a) 2.98(a) Trial 2 Parameter 47.1 Source of supplementary protein Protein concentrate Fish offal (law) Fish offal (high) Fish meal S Eof treatment mean Initial weight (kg) Final weight (kg) Daily liveweight gain (g) FCE (kg feedkg liveweight gain) 29.2 66.4 636.00(a) 29.9 66.6 706.00(b) 29.5 66.7 718.00(b) 31.2 66.5 702.00(b) 2.83(a) 2.65(a) 2.61(a) 2.64(a) Values in each parameter bearing the same letter are not significantly different 19.1 0.095

Table 6 Carcass characteristics of pigs fed diets containing fish silage, fishmeal or a proprietary protein concentrate (Trial 2) I I I Source of supplementary protein Protein concentrate Fish offal (low) Fish offal (high) Fish meal S E of treatment mean 0.56 Killing out % 73.3 74.3 74.6 75.3 Cold carcass weight (kg) 48.7 49.5 49.7 50.1 I Measure of backfat thickness Mean P1 P3 19.85 I 18.85 20.45 20.8 1.1 Mean killing out percentage for all treatments was 74.4 with no significant differences between treatments, though there was a trend for higher killing out percentage on the fish based diets. Carcass fatness, as indicated by P1 P3 measurements, did not vary between treatments while visual appraisal of fat colour and texture did not indicate any variations. The results indicate that formic acid preserved tuna offal is an excellent source of protein for growing pigs, giving very good feeding results while having no adverse effect upon carcass quality at the levels used. Other recent work (Smith, 1976) has indicated that poor meat quality (odour and unpalatability) results when oily fish such as herring is used as the raw material but not when white fish offal is used. In the present work, care was taken t o ensure that the level of fish oil in the total ration did not exceed one percent of the dry matter. Supplementary vitamin E was added t o the diets in the current work and there is some evidence that this may be beneficial in reducing taint from fish oil. Taste panel studies indicated that there was no discernible taint in pork from the fish silage fed t o pigs as compared to the control. Taint problems might be encountered if tuna offal were fed at higher levels; the need for higher levels of fish offal in a practical situation could arise if diets were based on cassava rather than rice and its by-products. POULTRY FEEDING TRIALS The preparation of dried fish silage products has been reported by Disney and Hoffman (1976).The principal application of such products is likely to be in poultry feeds although an investigation of the use of silage -.h feeding systems for poultry is required especially in smaller manually fed units. The physical nature

of the dried product would enable it to be incorporated directly into a compounded complete feed although batch-to-batch variation would undoubtedly be a problem especially in maintaining reasonably constant protein levels. The results of feeding trials using these materials have been submitted for publication (Disney et aL, 1978). A summary of the results from this paper are given in Table 7. Dried products prepared from fish gave feed efficiencies comparable with the control diet. When silage prepared from fish allowed t o spoil for 24 hours was used, growth was poor and mortalities occurred. However, a 1:1 mix of the spoiled material and control diets gave good growth and no mortalities. It would appear that silage should not be prepared from fish which is completely spoiled. The problems associated with using silage from bad fish are probably associated with thiamine deficiency as the clinical symptoms in the affected chicks were reversed by oral treatment with thiamine. It has not been established whether supplementation with thiamine would result in normal growth and further work on this aspect is needed since the effect of histamine derivatives cannot be ruled out at this stage (Disney et al., 1978). Table 7 Chick feeding trials with dried silage products Control diet (40 chicks) Silage from Silage fiom fresh fish spoiled fish (20 chicks) (20 chicks) Control/silage from spoiled fish 1:l mix (10 chicks) Feed consumption (g per chick/3 weeks) Weight gain (g per chick/3 weeks) SE Feed efficiency (weight feed/ liveweight gain) Mortalities FISH FEEDING TRIALS Fish silage products could also be used as a feed in fish culture and the recycling of fish waste to fish could be of considerable interest in the IPFC region. Dried or moist feeds based upon silage could be used although it will be necessary t o ensure that excessive quantities of soluble amino acids are not lost t o the surrounding water. A programme to investigate this use has been initiated at TPI. Preliminary experiments suggest that pellets incorporating wet silage can be prepared quite easily and that formic acid does not deter the fish from feedins; detailed trials on growth rate will start shortly.

552 PROSPECTS FOR FISH SILAGE IN THE TROPICS As indicated earlier, there has been a renewed interest in fish silage in recent years; this is related t o the desire to reduce fish wastage. On an experimental basis, fish silage has been produced in Malawi, Bahrain, Ghana, Brunei, Hong Kong, India, New Zealand, Australia and Indonesia. In the Solomon Islands, commercial production is already in operation after a period of experimentation. While fish silage may not be the final answer t o complete utilization of fish resources, the authors are confident that there are many situations in the tropics where the preparation of fish silage would be both technically and economically feasible. The economics of silage production have been considered by Disney et al. (1976), Nicholson (1976) and Sumner (1976). Profitability will vary from place to place depending largely upon the cost of the raw material. In circumstance where the quantities of raw material do not warrant the capital investment required for a conventional fishmeal plant, the production of silage should be considered seriously. In the Solomon Islands silage production has been found to be far cheaper than imported meal and there is the additional benefit of reducing foreign exchange expenditure. A number of neighbouring countries have made inquiries about the possibility of importing fish silage; this provides further evidence of the commercial advantages involved. No other instances of commercial production in the tropics are known but various studies have argued in favour of the economic advantage of producing silage. As energy costs increase the economic advantages of the silage process will become increasingly apparent. Futher work is needed on fish silage, particularly in the IPFC region. The authors believe that the technology involved is now fairly well established and future research should concentrate on the utilization aspects. A number of pilotscale production trials are required; these should be conducted alongside commercial animal production units so that the economic feasibility of the complete operation can be assessed. These trials will require active cooperation between government departments dealing with both fisheries and livestock production. Traditionally there has been little need for such cooperation and workers interested in promoting the use of fish silage will need t o overcome these problems. The technical and economic feasibility of producing silage on board fishing vessels also merits urgent attention. Sumner (1976) considered the possibilities for producing silage on board shrirnping vessels but to date no trials have been carried out although it is understood that experimental trials are planned in Indonesia. REFERENCES Atkinson, A., E. Lamprecht and D. Misplon, Acid and alkali preservation of fishmeal. Annu. 1974 Rep.Dir.t%h.Ind.Res.Inst. Univ.Gape Town, (28):44 Bosticco, A., J. Amich-Gali and E. Tartarr, The effect of feed grade animal fat in liquid feeding for swine. 1976 Nat.Renderers Assoc., Brussels, (122) Disney, J. and A. Hoffman, A dried fish silage product. Paper presented to the symposium on fish silage, Torry 1976 Research Station, Aberdeen, 27 May, 1976, 14 p. Disney, J., 1.N. Tatterson and J. Olley, Recent developments in fish silage. In Proceedings of the conference on 1977 the handling, processing and marketing of tropical fish. London, Tropical Products Institute, pp. 23740 .

Disney, J. et d.,Development of a fish silage/carbohydrate animal feed for use in the tropics. Rop.Sci., (in press) 1978 James, D.G. and W. Krone, Developments in fish utilization. In Proceedings of the Conference on the handling, 1977 processing and marketing of tropical fish. London, Tropical Products Institute, pp. 467-72 Invern, J.A., Trash fish - is there money in it? World Fish., 14(7):85-6,88 1965 Nicholson, R.J.A., Economic factors affecting fish silage production in the U.K. Paper presented t o the 1976 Symposium on fish silage. Torry Research Station, Aberdeen, 27 May, 1976 Peterson, H., Acid preservation of fish and fish offal. F A 0 Fish.Bull., 6(1-2):18-26 1953 Smith, P and A.H. Adamson, Pig feeding trials with white fish and herring liquid protein (fish silage). Paper 1976 presented to the Symposium on fish silage. Torry Research Station, Aberdeen, 27 May 1976 Sumner, J., A feasibility study for fish silage production in the IPFC region. Paper presented to the IPFC Working 1976 Party on Fish Technology and Marketing Sri Lanka, October 1976, IPFC FT/76/4

The control diet and basal mix for the silage diet were mixed in 100 kg batches. The required proportions of basal mix and fish silage were weighed out and roughly mixed immediately before each feed. The pigs were weighed every two weeks and slaughtered when they reached about 70 kg liveweight. Feed intake and liveweight again were recorded.

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