B.Sc. (Honours) Botany Under CBCS - Delhi University

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1B.Sc. (Honours) Botany under CBCSTHREE-YEAR FULL-TIME PROGRMMEChoice based credit system(Six Semester Course)COURSE CONTENTSAPPROVED IN THE COMMITTEE OF COURSES HELD ON JUNE 9, 2015

2PreambleThe B.Sc. (Hons.) Botany is presently being run in different colleges of the University of DelhiIt was converted from annual system to six-semester mode course in 2009. A new system,Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) in being introduced based on the recommendation ofUniversity Grant Commission (UGC) to create uniformity in teaching at various centraluniversities and to facilitate seamless mobility of students across universities based on thecredits. This credit based semester system will provide flexibility in designing curriculum andassigning credits based on the course contents and number of hours of teaching. In this systemstudents have the option to take courses of their choice, learn at their own pace, take additionalcourses and acquire more than the required credits, making it an interdisciplinary approach oflearning. This new syllabus was been prepared keeping in view the unique requirements ofB.Sc. (Hons.) Botany students. The contents have been drawn to accommodate the wideninghorizons of the Botany discipline and reflect the changing needs of the students. The semesterwise course distribution and detailed syllabus for each paper is appended with a list ofsuggested reading.Under this system, there will be 14 core course paper (C1 to C14). These are compulsory to bestudied by a student to complete the requirement of B.Sc. (Hons.) Botany programme. Thestudents will study two core papers per semester in first year, three core paper per semester inthe second year and two core papers per semester in the third year. The core papers (6 creditseach) will comprise of theory (4 credits) and practicals (2 credits). Each practical batch will beof 15 students. A number exceeding 15 (at least ten) will be divided into equal batches.Elective courses can be chosen from a pool of papers. There are two kinds of electives:a) Discipline Specific Elective (DSE): There are nine such papers (DSE:1-9). out of whichBotany student will choose any two in fifth and sixth semester each. The Discipline specificelective papers (6 credits each) will comprise of theory (4 credits ) and practicals (2 credits) likethe core papers. A particular option of DSE paper will be offered in V and VI semester, only ifthe minimum number of students opting for that paper is 10. One of the elective in DSE isproject work which can be opted in lieu of one of the elective and will also carry 6 credits.Number of students who will be offered project work will vary from for college depending upon

3the infrastructural facilities and may vary each year. The college shall announce the number ofseats for project work well in advance and may select the students for the same based on merit.Project will involve experimental work and the student will have to do this in the time after theirregular theory and practical classes. The final evaluation of the project work will be through acommittee involving internal and external examiners. In this regard guidelines provided byUniversity of Delhi for executing and evaluation of project work will be final. Students will beasked their choice for Project work at the end of IV semester and all formalities of topic andmentor selection will be completed by this time.b) Generic Elective (GE) : Different generic elective papers will be offered to students of otherdepartments of the college and the student will have the option to choose one generic electivepaper each in the first four semesters. The generic elective will be of six credits each. TheDepartment of Botany is offering eight generic elective papers (GE: 1-8) for students of otherdepartments. These generic elective papers (6 credits each) will comprise of theory (4 credits)and practicals (2 credits).Besides the core and elective courses, there are two ability enhancement compulsory courses,AE-I (Environmental Sciences) and AE-2 (English Communication) of two credits each. Thestudent is supposed to take one in each semester of the first year.The students will also undertake two skill Enhancement (SE) courses of two credits each in IIIand IV semesters of second year which they can choose from the list of SE courses offered bytheir college. The Department of Botany is offering seven such papers (SE: 1-7).In the CBCS system, a credit is unit by which the course work is measured. It determines thenumber of hours of instructions required per week. One credit is equivalent to one hour ofteaching (lecture or tutorial) or two hours of practical work/field work per week. A minimum of140 credits are required to obtain degree in B.Sc. (Hons.) Botany.

4Structure of B.Sc. Honours Botany under CBCSCore Courses1. Microbiology and Phycology2. Biomolecules and Cell Biology3. Mycology and Phytopathology4. Archegoniatae5. Anatomy of Angiosperms6. Economic Botany7. Genetics8. Molecular Biology9. Ecology10. Plant Systematics11. Reproductive Biology of Angiosperms12. Plant Physiology13. Plant Metabolism14. Plant BiotechnologyDiscipline Specific Electives (Four)Semester-VDSE-1. Analytical Techniques in Plant SciencesDSE-2. BiostatisticsSemester-VIDSE-3. Industrial and Environmental MicrobiologyDSE-4. BioinformaticsGeneric Electives (Four) Offered to the students of other DepartmentsSemester –I GE-ISemester –II GE-IIGE-I (Any one)1. Biodiversity (Microbes, Algae, Fungi and Archegoniatae)2.Plant Diversity and Human WelfareGE-II3. Plant Anatomy and EmbryologySemester –III GE-IIIGE-III (Any one)4. Plant Ecology and Taxonomy5. Environmental BiotechnologySemester –IV GE-IVGE-IV6. Economic Botany and BiotechnologyAbility Enhancement Compulsory CourseAEC-1. English/MIL CommunicationAEC-2. Environmental Science

5Skill Enhancement Courses: Elective (Two)Semester –III SEC-ISEC-I (Any one)Semester IV SEC-II1.Ethnobotany2. Intellectual Property RightsSEC-II (Any one)3. Biofertilizers4. Medicinal Botany

6SemesterCore Course(14)I1.Microbiologyand Phycology2.Biomoleculesand Cell BiologyII3. Mycology andPhytopathology4. ArchegoniataeIIIAbilityEnhancementCompulsoryCourse nceSkillEnhancementCourse (SEC)(2)SpecificGeneric Elective:GE) (4)GE-1 (Any one)1.Biodiversity(Microbes, Algae,Fungi andArchegoniatae2.PlantDiversity andHuman WelfareGE-II3.PlantAnatomy lScience5. Anatomy ofAngiospermsSEC-I (Any one)6. Economic2. IntellectualProperty RightsBotanyDisciplineElective:(DSE)(4)GE-III (Any one)4.Plant Ecology andTaxonomy1. Ethnobotany/5.EnvironmentalBiotechnology7. GeneticsIV8. MolecularBiology9. EcologySEC-II (Any one)GE-IV3. Biofertilizers10.Plant6.Economic Botanyand Biotechnology4. 14.PlantBiotechnologyDSE-I1.AnalyticalTechniques in PlantSciencesDSE-II2. biologyDSE-IV4.Bioinformaticsand

7SEMESTERCOURSE OPTEDCOURSE: NAMECreditsIAbility EnhancementCompulsory Course-IEnglish /MILCommunications/EnvironmentalScience2Core Course-IMicrobiology and Phycology4Core Course-IPracticalCore Course-IIMicrobiology and Phycology- Practical2Biomolecules and CellBiologyBiomolecules and Cell Biology-Practical4GE-I (Any one)1.Biodiversity (Microbes, Algae, Fungi andArchegoniatae)2. Plant Diversity and Human WelfareGE-I- Practical4English /MILCommunications/Environmental ScienceMycology and Phytopathology2Core Course-IIIPracticalCore Course-IVMycology and Phytopathology- Practical2Archegoniatae4Core Course-IVPracticalGeneric Elective-IIArchegoniatae- Practical2GE-II3. Plant Anatomy and EmbryologyGE-II – Practical4Core Course-IIPracticalGeneric Elective-IIIIIIGeneric Elective-IPractical/TutorialAbility EnhancementCompulsory Course-IICore Course-IIIGeneric Elective-IIPracticalCore Course-V2242Anatomy of Angiosperms4Core Course-V PracticalAnatomy of2Core Course-VIEconomic Botany4Core Course-VIEconomic Botany –Practical2Core Course-VIIGenetics4Core Course-VIIPracticalSkill EnhancementCourse-IGenetics-Practical2Angiosperms- PracticalPracticalSEC-I (Any one)21. Ethnobotany2. Intellectual Property RightsGeneric Elective-IIIGE-III (Any one)4. Plant Ecology and Taxonomy4

8Generic Elective-IIIPracticalIVCore Course-VIII5. Environmental BiotechnologyGE-III -PracticalMolecular Biology4Molecular Biology – PracticalCore Course-VIII22PracticalCore Course-IXEcology4Core Course-IXPracticalCore Course-XEcology – Practical2Plant Systematics4Core Course-XPracticalSkillEnhancementCourse- IIPlant Systematics- Practical2SEC-II (Any one)23. Biofertilizers4.Medicinal BotanyVGeneric Elective-IVGE-IV Economic Botany and Biotechnology4Generic Elective-IVPracticalCore Course-XIGE-IV - Practical2Reproductive Biology of Angiosperms4Reproductive Biology of Angiosperms Practical2Core Course-XIIPlant Physiology4Core Course-XIIPlant Physiology- Practical2Core ive-IVIDiscipline SpecificElective-IPracticalDiscipline SpecificElective-IIDiscipline SpecificElective-IIPractical/TutorialCore Course-XIIIDSE-IAnalytical Techniques in Plant Science4DSE-I- Practical2DSE-IIBiostatistics42DSE-II – PracticalPlant Metabolism4Core Course-XIIIPractical/TutorialCore Course-XIVPlant MetabolismPlant Biotechnology4Core Course-XIVPractical/ TutorialDiscipline SpecificElective-IIIPlant Biotechnology- Practical2Discipline SpecificElective-III PracticalPractical2DSE-IIIIndustrial and Environmental Microbiology4DSE-III- Practical2

9Discipline SpecificElective-IVDiscipline oinformaticsDSE-IVBioinformatics- Practical42140

10Details of Botany (Honours) Course under CBCSCore Courses1. Microbiology and Phycology2. Biomolecules and Cell Biology3. Mycology and Phytopathology4. Archegoniate5. Anatomy of Angiosperms6. Economic Botany7. Genetics8. Molecular Biology9. Ecology10. Plant Systematics11. Reproductive Biology of Angiosperms12. Plant Physiology13. Plant Metabolism14. Plant BiotechnologyDiscipline Specific Electives (Four)1. Analytical Techniques in Plant Sciences2. Biostatistics3. Industrial and Environmental Microbiology4. BioinformaticsGeneric Electives1.2.3.4.5.6.Biodiversity (Microbes, Algae, Fungi and Archegoniate)/Plant Diversity and Human WelfarePlant Anatomy and EmbryologyPlant Ecology and Taxonomy/Environmental BiotechnologyEconomic Botany and BiotechnologyAbility Enhancement Course: Compulsory1.Environmental Science2. English/MIL CommunicationSkill Enhancement Courses: Elective1.Ethnobotany2. Intellectual Property Rights3. Biofertilizers4. Medicinal Botany

11Semester-ICore Course I: Microbiology and Phycology(Credits: Theory-4, Practical-2)THEORYLectures: 60Unit 1: Introduction to microbial world, microbial nutrition, growth and metabolism.lectures)Unit 2: Viruses(7 lectures)Discovery, physiochemical and biological characteristics;classification (Baltimore), generalstructure with special reference to viroids and prions; replication (general account), DNA virus(T-phage), lytic and lysogenic cycle; RNA virus (TMV).Unit 3: Bacteria(8 lectures)Discovery, general characteristics, types-archaebacteria, eubacteria, wall-less forms(mycoplasma and spheroplasts), cell structure, nutritional types, reproduction-vegetative,asexual and recombination (conjugation, transformation and transduction).Unit 4: Applied Microbiology(4 lectures)Economic importance of viruses with reference to vaccine production, role in research, medicine anddiagnostics, as causal organisms of plant diseases.Economic importance of bacteria with reference totheir role in agriculture and industry (fermentation and medicine).Unit 5: Algae(7 lectures)General characteristics; Ecology and distribution; range of thallus organization; Cell structureand components; cell wall, pigment system, reserve food (of only groups represented in thesyllabus), flagella; and methods of reproduction, classification; criteria, system of Fritsch, andevolutionary classification of Lee (only upto groups); significant contributions of importantphycologists (F.E. Fritsch, G.M. Smith, R.N. Singh, T.V. Desikachary, H.D. Kumar, M.O.P.Iyengar).Unit 6: Cyanophyta(6 lectures)Ecology and occurrence, range of thallus organization, cell structure, heterocyst,reproduction.economic importance; role in biotechnology. Morphology and life-cycle of Nostoc.Unit 7: Chlorophyta(5 lectures)General characteristics, occurrence, range of thallus organization, cell structure and reproduction.Morphology and life-cycles of Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Oedogonium,Coleochaete.Evolutionary significance of Prochloron.Unit 8: Charophyta(2 lectures)General characteristics; occurrence, morphology, cell structure and life-cycle of Chara;evolutionary significance.Unit 9: Xanthophyta (3 lectures)General characteristics; range of thallus organization;Occurrence, morphology and life-cycleof Vaucheria.Unit 9: Phaeophyta(6 lectures)Characteristics, occurrence, range of thallus organization, cell structure and reproduction.Morphology and life-cycles of Ectocarpus and Fucus.Unit 10: Rhodophyta(6 lectures)General characteristics, occurrence, range of thallus organization, cell structure and reproduction.Morphology and life-cycle of Polysiphonia.Unit 11: Applied Phycology(4 lectures)Role of algae in the environment, agriculture, biotechnology and industry.Practical

12Microbiology1. Electron micrographs/Models of viruses – T-Phage and TMV, Line drawings/ Photographs ofLytic and Lysogenic Cycle.2. Types of Bacteria to be observed from temporary/permanent slides/photographs. Electronmicrographs of bacteria, binary fission, endospore, conjugation, root Nodule.3. Gram staining.4. Endospore staining with malachite green using the (endospores taken from soil bacteria).PhycologyStudy of vegetative and reproductive structures of Nostoc, Chlamydomonas (electronmicrographs), Volvox, Oedogonium,Coleochaete, Chara, Vaucheria, Ectocarpus, Fucus andPolysiphonia,Procholoron through electron micrographs, temporary preparations and permanentslides.Suggested Readings1. Lee, R.E. (2008). Phycology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 4th edition.2. Prescott, L.M., Harley J.P., Klein D. A. (2005). Microbiology, McGraw Hill, India. 6th edition.3. Kumar, H.D. (1999). Introductory Phycology. Affiliated East-West Press, Delhi.4. Sahoo, D. (2000). Farming the ocean: seaweeds cultivation and utilization. Aravali International,New Delhi.5. Campbell, N.A., Reece J.B., Urry L.A., Cain M.L., Wasserman S.A. Minorsky P.V., JacksonR.B. (2008). Biology, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, USA. 8th edition.6. Pelczar, M.J. (2001) Microbiology, 5th edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Co, New Delhi.

13Core CourseII: Biomolecules and Cell Biology(Credits: Theory-4, Practical-2)THEORYLectures: 60Unit 1: Biomolecules(20 lectures)Types and significance of chemical bonds; Structure and properties of water; pH and buffers.Carbohydrates: Nomenclature and classification; Role of monosaccharides (glucose, fructose,sugar alcohols – mannitol and sorbitol); Disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose),Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides (structural-cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin, chitin,mucilage; storage – starch, inulin); Isomers and derivatives of glucose, glucosamine and gluconic acid.Lipids: Definition and major classes of storage and structural lipids. Storage lipids. Fatty acidsstructure and functions. Essential fatty acids. Triacyl glycerols structure, functions andproperties. Saponification.Structural lipids. Phosphoglycerides: Building blocks, Generalstructure, functions and properties. Structure of phosphatidylethanolamine andphosphatidylcholine, Sphingolipids: building blocks, structure of sphingosine, ceramide. Lipidfunctions: cell signals, cofactors, prostaglandins, Introduction of lipid micelles, monolayers,bilayers.Proteins: Structure of amino acids; Peptide bonds; Levels of protein structure-primary,secondary, tertiary and quarternary; Isoelectric point; Protein denaturation and biological roles ofproteins.(6 lectures)Nucleic acids: Structure of nitrogenous bases; Structure and function of nucleotides; Types ofnucleic acids; Structure of A, B, Z types of DNA; Types of RNA; Structure of tRNA.Unit 2: Bioenergenetics(4 lectures)Laws of thermodynamics, concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reactions, coupledreactions, redox reactions. ATP: structure, its role as a energy currency molecule.Unit 3: Enzymes(6 lectures)Structure of enzyme: holoenzyme, apoenzyme, cofactors, coenzymes and prosthetic group;Classification of enzymes; Features of active site, substrate specificity, mechanism of action(activation energy, lock and key hypothesis, induced - fit theroy), Michaelis – Menten equation,enzyme inhibition and factors affecting enzyme activity.Unit4: The cell(4 lectures)Cell as a unit of structure and function; Characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;Origin ofeukaryotic cell (Endosymbiotic theory).Unit 5: Cell wall and plasma membrane(4 lectures)Chemistry, structure and function of Plant Cell Wall.Overview of membrane function; fluidmosaic model; Chemical composition of membranes; Membrane transport – Passive, active andfacilitated transport, endocytosis and exocytosis.Unit 6: Cell organelles(16 lectures)Nucleus:Structure-nuclear envelope, nuclear pore complex, nuclear lamina, molecularorganization of chromatin;nucleolus.Cytoskeleton:role and structure of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediary filament.Chloroplast, mitochondria and peroxisomes: Structural organization;Function;Semiautonomous nature of mitochondria and chloroplast.Endomembrane system:Endoplasmic Reticulum – Structure, targeting and insertion of proteins in theER, protein folding, processing and quality control in ER, smooth ER and lipid synthesis, export ofproteins and lipids;Golgi Apparatus – Organization, protein glycosylation, proteinsorting and export from Golgi Apparatus;Lysosomes

14Unit 7: Cell divisionEukaryotic cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis.Regulation of cell cycle.(6 lectures)Practical1. Qualitative tests for carbohydrates, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, lipids and proteins.2. Study of plant cell structure with the help of epidermal peel mount of Onion/Rhoeo/Crinum.3. Demonstration of the phenomenon of protoplasmic streaming in Hydrilla leaf.4. Measurement of cell size by the technique of micrometry.5. Counting the cells per unit volume with the help of haemocytometer. (Yeast/pollen grains).6. Study of cell and its organelles with the help of electron micrographs.7. Cytochemical staining of : DNA- Feulgen and cell wall in the epidermal peel of onion usingPeriodic Schiff’s (PAS) staining technique.8. Study the phenomenon of plasmolysis and deplasmolysis.9. Study the effect of organic solvent and temperature on membrane permeability.10. Study different stages of mitosis and meiosis.Suggested Readings1. Campbell, MK (2012) Biochemistry, 7th ed., Published by Cengage Learning2. Campbell, PN and Smith AD (2011) Biochemistry Illustrated, 4th ed., Published by ChurchillLivingstone3. Tymoczko JL, Berg JM and Stryer L (2012) Biochemistry: A short course, 2nd ed.,W.H.Freeman4. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL and Stryer L (2011) Biochemistry, W.H.Freeman and Company5. Nelson DL and Cox MM (2008) Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 5th Edition., W.H.Freeman and Company.6. Karp, G. (2010). Cell Biology, John Wiley & Sons, U.S.A. 6th edition.7. Hardin, J., Becker, G., Skliensmith, L.J. (2012). Becker’s World of the Cell, Pearson Education Inc.U.S.A. 8th edition.8. Cooper, G.M. and Hausman, R.E. 2009 The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 5th edition. ASMPress & Sunderland, Washington, D.C.; Sinauer Associates, MA.9. Becker, W.M., Kleinsmith, L.J., Hardin. J. and Bertoni, G. P. 2009 The World of the Cell. 7thedition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings Publishing, San Francisco

15Semes

Botany 7. Genetics IV 8. Molecular Biology SEC-II (Any one) 3. Biofertilizers 4. Medicinal Botany GE-IV 6.Economic Botany and Biotechnology 9. Ecology 10.Plant Systematics V 11.Reproductive Biology of Angiosperms DSE-I 1.Analytical Techniques in Plant Sciences 12.Plant Physiolo

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