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The American RevolutionChapter 4

Do Now: March 5th, 1770 In bullet-form,write down asmany observationsas you can.

“Shot heard Round the World”Main idea: Conflict between Great Britain and the Americancolonies grew over issues of taxation, representation, andliberty. Do Now: Which of the following do you believe would upsetthe colonists the most and WHY? The Stamp Act The Townshend Act The Intolerable Acts

Lexington and Concord, Spring 1775 Redcoats werelooking for hiddenweapons and colonialleaders. Paul Revereorganized riders tospread the word.

“A Glorious Day for America” Redcoats found 70 minutemenin Lexington. Shot was fired. 8 colonists killed 1 Brit injured Redcoats found nothing inConcord. Attacked on their marchback. 174 casualties

Stamp Act Direct tax on paper goods Legal documentsPlaying cardsNewspapersEvery colonist was effected Violators faced Admiralty Courts No jury

Stamp Act Protests Sons and Daughters of Liberty. Resistance group. Headed by Sam Adams. Harassed stamp agents. Protests, etc. Patrick Henry “no taxation w/out representation!”

The Townshend Acts Named for Charles Townshend. Govt. MinisterIndirect tax on: Glass, lead, paint, paperetc And a .03 tax on tea Most popular drink inAmerica Colonists wereoutraged!

Colonists Angered The British confiscated John Hancock's ship claimed he was smuggling wine Caused rioting British place 2,000 troops in Boston

The Boston Massacre Soldiers were taking jobs from the colonists Later, colonists taunted some Redcoats and 5colonists were killed

Boston Tea Party British East India Tea Company Had no and lots of tea sitting on ships becausecolonists were boycotting the tax Allowed to avoid paying tea tax so they could make Colonists who sold tea had to pay the tax Colonists disguised as Indians dumped the teaoverboard

The Intolerable ActsKing George III was furious at the colonists!1. Shut down Boston Harbor2. Quartering Acta. Colonists had to let British soldiers livewith them3. General Gage became the Gov. of Massa. Boston placed under Martial Law

First Continental Congress Philadelphia, 1774 Declaration of ColonialRights Threatened to fight theBritish Promised to reconvenein a year if theirdemands were not met.

The Second Continental Congress Militia force surrounding Boston to be calledthe Continental Army. George Washington to be named Commander. Paper to be printed to pay soldiers.

Battle of Bunker Hill, June 1775 General Thomas Gage attacked Americans onBreed’s Hill (near Bunker Hill - misnamed) Gage sent 2,400 troops - three separate times Only won because militia ran low on ammo 450 Americans Killed 1,000 British Casualties

Olive Branch Petition The colonies sent a peace offer to King GeorgeIII. He refused Orders a blockade of America Declares America in rebellion

Do Now: How did Common Sense gaincolonial support? Be specific.

Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine Verbally attacked KingGeorge III Called for Independencehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v J-LGxOll2zchttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v nhYUyniqWlo

The Declaration ofIndependence

Declaring Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson. Ratified on July 4th 1776.

Preamble: Reasons for writing down the DeclarationStatement of Beliefs: Philosophy behind the documentList of Complaints: Injustices by the KingStatement of Prior Attempts to Redress Grievances: In what ways theframers already tried to address their complaints Declaration of Independence: What will change as a result of theDeclaration 5 Parts

What you may not know about the Dec. ofIndependencehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v LKJMWHCUoiw

Music ParodiesCauses of the Revolution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v TcDxSICplPEDeclaration of Independence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v shwNBBJj15MCommon Sense - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v nhYUyniqWloKing George III https://www.youtube.com/watch?v L6fOi 1fu80

Patriots vs. Loyalistshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v LZ5lPeyBJmg

Taking Sides Patriots v. LoyalistsQuakers - did not fightAfrican Americans Patriots - believed in their causeLoyalists - British promised freedom to slavesNative Americans - fought for the British because theColonists were more of a threatTWO WARS - war for independence and civil war

Recruit a Spy for the British ArmyDuring the American Revolution both the American Continental Army and theBritish Army had spies to keep track of their enemy. You have been hiredby the British to recruit a spy in the colonies. You must choose your spyfrom one of the colonists you have identified. When making your decisionsuse the following criteria:1.2.3.The Spy cannot be someone who the Patriots mistrust. The spy shouldbe a person who appears to agree with the Patriots.The spy should live in a populated area where the Patriots are activeand can report on Patriot activity. A colonist in a rural area willhave little information to tell provide.The spy should need something from the British, either money ormilitary protection, to entice him or her to risk his or her life.Which colonist will make the best spy? Why?

Do NowBrainstorm strengths and weaknesses for boththe colonists and the British for fightingthe war. Write down 3 at minimum for each.Hint: Think about what is necessary to win awar!

Thomas Paine’s The Crisis, Excerpt #1“THESE are the times that try men’s souls: The summer soldier andthe sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the serviceof his country but he that stands it NOW, deserves the love andthanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easilyconquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder theconflict, the more glorious the triumph. . . .”“I call not upon a few, but upon all . . . lay your shoulders to thewheel; better have too much force than too little, when so great anobject is at stake. Let it be told to the future world, that in thedepth of winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive,that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, comeforth to meet and to repulse it. . . .”

Thomas Paine’s The Crisis, Excerpt #3“He that is not a supporter of the independent States of America . . is, in the American sense of the word, A TORY; and the instantthat he endeavors to bring his toryism into practice, he becomes ATRAITOR.”“America, till now, could never be called a free country, becauseher legislation depended on the will of a man three thousand milesdistant, whose interest was in opposition to ours, and who, by asingle “no,” could forbid what law he pleased.”“ . . . after the coolest reflections on the matter, this must beallowed, that Britain was too jealous of America to govern itjustly; too ignorant of it to govern it well; and too far distantfrom it to govern it at all.”

Thomas Paine’s The Crisis, Excerpt #4“We know the cause which we are engaged in . . . Weare not moved by the gloomy smile of a worthless king,but by the ardent glow of generous patriotism. Wefight not to enslave, but to set a country free, andto make room upon the earth for honest men to livein.”

Thomas Paine’s The Crisis, Excerpt #5“It is the object only of war that makes it honorable. Andif there was ever a just war since the world began, it isthis in which America is now engaged. She invaded no land . . hired no mercenaries. . . . She wanted nothing from you[England], and was indebted for nothing to you: and thuscircumstanced, her defence is honorable and her prosperityis certain.”

Section 3: Struggling toward SaratogaDo Now: The Declaration of Independence was justsigned and adopted. As a member of the ContinentalCongress, how would you begin to prepare for theexpected British response?Hint: Think about the strengths and weaknesses wediscussed yesterday.

New York, Summer 1776 General William Howe and brother Admiral Richard Howejoined forces and sailed into New York Harbor in thesummer of 1776 Washington had 23,000 32,000 TroopsHessians German MercenariesPoor, untrainedThe British had pushed Washington’s army across theDelaware River into Pennsylvania

Battle of New York

Battle of Trenton, Christmas 1776 George Washington, stuck after the loss in NewYork Their objective was to capture Trenton, NJ 2,400 Americans attacked drunk Hessians onChristmas night 30 Hessians Killed918 Captured

Battle of Trenton

Fight for Philadelphia, Spring 1777 General Howe began to capture Philadelphia His troops came from New York and sailedto Chesapeake Bay and landed near Phillyin August The Continental Congress fled the cityknowing they were coming Washington’s troops unsuccessfully blockedthem at Brandywine Creek The British captured Philly and General Howetook advantage of the capital’s Loyalists

Victory at Saratoga British General John Burgoyne Canada to Albany – he wanted to meet General Howe’s troops as theycame from New York - cut off New EnglandBurgoyne set out with 4,000 redcoats, 3,000 mercenaries, and 1,000Mohawk under his commandTough terrain slowed Burgoyne down, causing him to stay put with lowsupplies General Horatio Gates (Patriot) gathered militiamen allover NY and NE to fight Burgoyne A lot of troops, after multiple battles, finally surrounded Burgoyneat Saratoga Surrendered on October 17th, 1777

Britain changed their game plan kept troops to the coast, so they could get easy supplies The French now openly supported the Patriots France signed an alliance with the Colonists, alsorecognized them as independent (Feb 1778) France also agreed to not ally with Britain untilthey recognized the colonies as independentTURNING POINT OF THE WAR

Valley Forge, Pennsylvania American soldiers were in winter camp Awful conditionsFrostbiteAmputations2,000 men died!

Financing the war Congress ran out of hard currency - silver andgold Sold bonds to American investors Printed money, called Continentals Inflation Profiteering Selling scarce goods for profit (selling the items wayhigher than what the cost should be)

European Allies Shift the Balance Friedrich Von Steuben Prussian officer whohelped train Americans Marquis de Lafayette French officer who helpedWashington Led American troops

The British Move South After their defeat atSaratoga the Britishmoved south To rally loyalistsupport To reclaim lost colonies Slowly fight back north49

Early British Success in the South Savannah, Georgia, 1778 Charles Town, SC, 1780 8,500 British soldiers 5,500 Americans were prisoners Thousands of slaves joined the British Given their freedom Camden, SC, 1780 Forts all across the state50

British Losses in 1781 Cowpens, SC Greene and Morgan ordered to capture Cornwallis American forces win Guilford Court House, North Carolina Greene asks Lafayette for reinforcements British win but lose 25% of their troops51

Cornwallis wants togo after VonSteuben andLafayette Failed attempt The British made ahuge mistake bycamping on apeninsula.Yorktown

Victory at Yorktown, 1781 17,000 American and French troops surrounded theBritish After 3 weeks of shelling the British surrendered October 17th, 1781 - Surrender53

Seeking Peace America, England,France, and Spain wereinvolved in peacetalks Paris, France All had individualdesires54

Treaty of Paris, 1783 America independent Border set To Mississippi River America agreed to pay backTories Never happened! All nations are nowrecognizing the UnitedStates of America

The War Becomes a Symbol of Liberty Egalitarianism Equality of people Hard work got you better things Applied to white men only! America had to now create a government Tough task Rejected British system of government Government of the People Who should be involved?

During the American Revolution both the American Continental Army and the British Army had spies to keep track of their enemy. You have been hired by the British to recruit a spy in the colonies. You must choose your spy from one of the colonists you have identified. When making your decisions use the following criteria: 1. The Spy cannot be someone who the Patriots mistrust. The spy should be .

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