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American Revolution

nEssential Question: What factors caused the British tofail in what should have been aneasy campaign to subdue theAmerican rebels?

The Decision to FightFor Independence

for IndependenceThe DecisionBattle of BunkerHill (Breed’s Hill)AmericanswereInLexingtonearly 1776,&thatbothSpain skirmish& France ThedemonstratedConcordwillingtost standwarup suppliesto a pitchedbattlebeganshippingto colonistswas the 1 of a series of conflictsDespitegrowingcallsfor independence,from1775to 1776beforethethe congress issued the Olive BranchAmericanfor Georgeindependence:Petition callto Kingin July 1775 Fighting erupted around Boston, anch Petition in August 1775 The 2nd Continental Congress metto organize a war plan King George declared the colonistsin “open rebellion”

Withoverthe Hill);BritishsufferedtheirBattleof 1,000Bunkercasualties,Hill (Breed’sJune17, 1775greatest losses of the Revolution at Bunker Hill“A few more such victories would have shortlyput an end to British dominion in America”—British General Henry Clinton

Decision for Independence By 1776, the 2nd Continental Congressserved as an informal national gov’tChallenged “royal infallibility”for the coloniesPersuaded ordinary people to sever Butthemajorityofcolonistswereties with England & its “royal brute”undecided about independence Thomas Paine’s Common Senseproved to be the key factor inconvincing Americans to supportcolonial independence

On June 7, 1776Richard Henry Lee ofVA introduced aresolution to theContinental Congress:“that these UnitedBy 1776,Coloniesare,colonialand ofrightought to be, hadfreesentimentand independentchangedStates.”After several days ofdebate, Congressappointed a committeeto draft a declaration ofindependence

Declaration of Independence (1776)Committee to draft the Declaration: ThomasJefferson, Ben Franklin, John Adams, RobertLivingston, & Roger Sherman

Decision for Independence On July 2, 1776, the ContinentalCongress voted for independence On July 4, the Declaration icanism)Declaration’spurposewasto:Natural rights & individual liberty Justify the Americans’ desire toseparate from England Articulate the principles on whichthe new nation would beestablished

Independence Hall at theSecond Continental CongressThe Declaration of Independencewas NOT signed like this!

The Decision for IndependencenThe colonists were divided about thisdecision for independence: Supporters of independence werecalled “Patriots” or “Whigs” Colonists that opposedindependence were called“Loyalists” or “Tories” There were many “neutral”colonists who were conflicted bythe prospect of independence

Patriots vs.Loyalists Where are theLoyalists? Why areLoyalists nearcities? Why is thebackcountry socontested? Why are Indiansloyalists?

Fighting the Warfor Independence

The Outbreak of Revolution The British entered the war confidentof a complete victory: Their army was 400% larger; welltrained solders, experiencedofficers, & Hessian mercenaries Strong manufacturing base The world’s most dominant navy Believed the 1776 battles were a“police action” & the show of forcewould force rebels to submit

The Outbreak of RevolutionnIn reality,England faced an impossibletask: Their long supply lines across theAtlantic would not be able toprovide timely provisions The American terrain was large To win, the English had to find &defeat the Continental Army Underestimated the colonialcommitment to independence

The AmericanRevolution,1775-1781Where wasthe AmericanRevolutionfought?

Building a Professional ArmynWashington’s task was to defend asAs long as England did not defeat themuch territorypossible:ContinentalArmy,asEnglandcould not win Relied on guerrilla tactics &avoided all-out-war with Britain Washington’s Continental Armyserved as the symbol of the“republican cause” But, colonial militias played a majorrole in “forcing” neutrals to supportthe Revolution

Slaves & Indians in the War Black slaves supported whoeverseemed likely to deliver freedom: Northern slaves supported thecolonists who offered freedom forany slave who fought Southern slaves typically supportedBritain Native Americans feared colonialexpansion & overwhelminglysupported Britain

The VarietyContinentalhad 2Soldiersall-blackTheof ArmyColonialregiments composed of Northern slaves

Women in the War Women’s role in the revolution: Supported their husbands & sons inenlisting in militias Ran business affairs & continuedboycotting English goods while menfought (i.e. Abigail Adams) Created propaganda (politicalsatires by Mercy Otis Warren) Some helped in the battlefield(“Molly Pitcher”)

Differing Military StrategiesThe Americans Win a war of attrition England had longsupply lines Colonials did nothave to “win” justhad to wear downthe British Guerilla tactics Make an alliance withone of Britain’senemiesThe British “Divide & Conquer” Use Loyalists Encourage slaverevolts Seize property Break the colonies inhalf by dividing theNorth & South Blockade the ports toprevent trade withAmerican allies

The Early Years: 1776-1777 The initial battles of the revolutionwent badly for Americans: British General Howe forcedWashingtontoretreatatNewYorkColonial militias retaliated againstputtingthedesertedAmericanson therunthose whothe patriotcause Gen Howe issued a “generalpardon” to all Americans whoswore an oath of allegiance toGeorge III; thousands did so

TheHoweEarlycapturedYears: 1776-1777CapturedNew YorkPhiladelphianThe British strategy remainedto fightWashington’salmost battle; buta “major army& decisive”starved at Valley ForgeContinental Army was elusivenDespite British victories & 1,000s ofTrentonTook PrincetoncolonialTook“oathsof allegiance”,Washington kept fighting Won small victories that renewedAmerican wartime morale “Won” at Saratoga in 1777

e,PAin 17761778British Seizure & Burning of New York,attackTrenton& Princeton,1776TheatBattleof Saratoga,1777

TheFrenchAllianceA lot of these points wereAnd England now has to worryTheturningpointof the rtlyabouta possible(yet remote)thanBenFranklininvasionof Englandby FranceaidedAmericanswith suppliesnBut after the “victory” at Saratoga: France recognized America as anew, independent republic France promised to pressureEnglandto agreeto AmericanIn 1778,Englandofferedto remove allindependenceafterwar’s endparliamentarylegislation& vowednever toimposerevenuetaxes on theallcolonistsagain Francerelinquishedof its claimsThe Continentalrefused the offerto territoryCongressin America

The Final CampaignnBy 1781, Washington pushed theRedcoats towards Yorktown (VA)where General Cornwallis was caughtbetween the Continental Army & theFrench navynOn October 19, 1781 Cornwallissurrendered; the English stillcontrolled NY & Charles Town butthe fighting virtually ended

American Victory at YorktownCornwallis’ surrender was the“day the world turned upside down”

The Loyalist Dilemma Loyalists believed in liberty too, butfeared that independence wouldbreed anarchy in America Loyalists were treated poorly: The English never fully trusted theLoyalists Patriots seized their property;imprisoned & executed others More than 100,000 Loyalists leftAmerica when the war ended

The Treaty of Paris,1783

The Treaty of Paris (1783) The Treaty of Paris in 1783 wasnegotiated with England by Franklin,John Adams, John Jay The terms included: Full American independence All territory east of MississippiRiver, between Canada & FL The removal of the British armyfrom U.S. claims in America Fishing rights in the Atlantic

NorthAmericaafter theTreatyof Paris,1763

NorthAmericaaftertheTreatyof Paris,1783

Preserving IndependencenAfter 176 years of British rule, theAmerican Revolution began theconstruction of a new form ofgovernmentnBut.will the new United States be agovernment of the elite or agovernment of the people?

The American Revolution, 1775-1781 Where was the American Revolution fought? Building a Professional Army nWashington’s task was to defendas much territory as possible: Relied on guerrilla tactics & avoided all-out-war with Britain Washington’s Continental Army served as the symbol of the “republican cause” But, colonial militias played a major role in “forcing” neutrals .

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