American RevolutionSSUSH 4
Analyze the ideological, military, social, anddiplomatic aspects of the American Revolution.
Additional Resources Library of Congress American Memory Timeline – American Revolution, 1763-1783is an online resource that has various primary documents, maps, and letters fromthe revolutionary period. The site also features interpretive essays that providegreater context and background information for the documents. ev/
SSUSH 4 AInvestigate the intellectual sources, organization,and argument of the Declaration ofIndependence including the role of ThomasJefferson and the Committee of Five.
Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence Explanation for why the Americancolonies wanted independenceCommittee of Five Tasked with drafting a statement torepresent the Continental Congressdelegates’ decision to seekindependenceThomas Jefferson was the principalauthor of the document Was one member of the Committeeof FiveThe full Congress voted in favor of thebreak from British control on July 2,1776
Declaration of Independence Formally adopted the Declaration ofIndependence two days later on July 4,1776.The document had been underconstruction since early June.Tension had continued to escalate inBoston between the Patriots and theBritishIncreased support for Thomas Paine’sCommon Sense pamphlet helpedembolden the American Patriots.June of 1776, the Continental Congressdesignated five delegates to write arationale for independence.
Declaration of Independence The Committee of Five Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Franklin John Adams Robert Livingston of New York Roger Sherman of Connecticut.Thomas Jefferson known to be a prolific writer asked by the group to write aninitial draftAfter two weeks of work, Jeffersonpresented the draft to some of the othermembers of the Committee of Five forreview.
Declaration of Independence They made only a few minoradjustmentsDocument was provided to theContinental Congress on June 28, 1776 There were points of concern thatcaused more revisions to be madeto Jefferson’s draft. There were eighty-six changesmade by the Continental Congressto Jefferson’s draft.The major revisions to the documentconcerned slavery.Some delegates from the SouthernColonies refused to sign the documentbecause it was critical of slavery.
Declaration of Independence All references to slavery wereconsequently taken out of the document.Origins of the ideas contained in theDeclaration of Independence: Ideas of John Locke’s SecondTreatise of Government significantlyinfluenced Jefferson’s writing. John Locke believed that allindividuals naturally possess certainrights regardless of status. natural rights that areunconditional, such as aperson’s life, liberty, andproperty.
Declaration of Independence Locke proposed that people have theright to choose their own form ofgovernment and give it powerThe Social Contract Theory forms thebasis of Locke’s argument.Social Contract Theory Underlying philosophy for justifyingcolonial independence Relationship between peopleorganized in a political state andtheir government relies on eachside’s rights and responsibilities. People give the government itspower
Declaration of Independence Social Contract Theory In return the government gives thepeople defense of their naturalrights The people have a responsibility tofollow the laws created by thegovernment intended tomanage/protect the nation. If people don’t follow the laws, thegovernment will restrict theirindividual rights. If the government abuses the powergiven to it by the people, the peoplehave the right to replace oroverthrow the government.
Declaration of Independence This social contract arrangement is thebasis for colonial independence.The colonists believed King George III’sgovernment : Violated their social contract Abused its power with theimplementation of unfair taxes Attacks by British forces againstcolonial citizens Restricted local colonial assembliesThe colonists believed they wereexercising their right to replace oroverthrow the government that hadabused the power it had been given.
Declaration of Independence A discussion of these rights and theirprotection is featured in theDeclaration of Independence. Key ideas included: Natural rights The origin and purposes ofgovernment The reasons why the colonistshad elected to rebel against theKing and Parliament.
Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence isorganized into four key sections. The first section, the Preamble,calls the attention of the world tothe plight of the American colonists. Laid out the main ideologicalreasons why the Americancolonies had chosen to, andhad a right to, break away fromthe British government. The second section of theDeclaration of Independence is adeclaration of natural rights. List of rights the colonistsbelieve they had
Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence isorganized into four key sections. The third section of the documentwas a list of grievances orjustifications. Contains 27 separate points Unfair acts perpetrated by theBritish Discussion of the Americans’unsuccessful previousattempts to get relief fromBritain. The final section of the document: Declaration of independencefrom Britain
Declaration of Independence Ends with the colonists’ determinationthat the only way for Americans to havetheir rights restored is to reclaim themby declaring independence from BritainThe Declaration of Independence is arelatively short document that hadcritical importance to the founding ofthe United States.Distribution of Declaration and oralreading - format by which manycolonists were made aware of theactions their Continental Congress hadmade in 1776 to permanently separatefrom Great Britain.
Additional Resources The National Archives – America’s Founding Documents Declaration ofIndependence has images of the actual parchment, the text, and scholarly articlesexplaining the document and process that was used to write it by the Committee ofFive. The Library of Congress – Primary Documents in American History has a valuablecompilation of resources related to the Declaration of Independence. There is also atimeline showing the progression of events involved in producing the document.Links to the personal papers of George Washington, James Madison, and ThomasJefferson related to the Declaration of Independence are also included. nd.html
SSUSH 4 BExplain the reason for and significance of theFrench alliance and other foreign assistanceincluding the diplomacy of Benjamin Franklin andJohn Adams.
Foreign Assistance Americans faced the more prepared,better financed, and better equippedBritish military in the AmericanRevolution.Americans needed to supplement theirwar effort diplomats worked in Europe tosecure help from othercountriesBenjamin Franklin and John Adams spent the majority of theAmerican Revolution inEurope working to negotiateassistance from France,Spain, and the Netherlands.
Foreign Assistance French ultimately provided criticalmilitary and financial assistanceSpain and the Netherlands providedprimarily financial assistance to theAmerican cause.A comparison of the resources held bythe British and by the colonies: The population of the thirteencolonies totaled about 2.5million (of which 500,000 wereslaves) and Great Britain’spopulation was about 8 millionat the time of the AmericanRevolution.
Foreign Assistance A comparison of the resources held bythe British and by the colonies: In addition to this smaller poolfrom which to draw soldiers,not all colonists supported thePatriot cause. Loyalists made up about1/3 of the colonialpopulation. British military was made up ofprofessional soldiers whowere trained and supplied farbetter than the newly createdContinental Army.
Foreign Assistance Continental Congress struggled tosecure resources and equip theContinental Army because the newlycreated government lacked money topay for the mounting costs.Under the provisions of the Articles ofConfederation, the ContinentalCongress didn’t have the power to tax.Requests for voluntary payments fromthe states to the Continental Congresswas their only method to generaterevenue.The funds needed to finance the warwere never fully provided by thestates.
Foreign Assistance Given all of these obstacles, it wascritical for the Continental Congress tosecure alliances and financialassistance from other countries.France emerged as the greatest allyfor the Americans during theRevolutionary War.Great Britain had become thedominant world power aftersuccessfully concluding the Frenchand Indian War in 1763.Britain’s traditional enemies (France,Spain, and the Netherlands) looked fora way to regain the advantage.
Foreign Assistance As Britain’s American colonies beganrebelling, French government officialsrepresenting their king, Louis XVI,began negotiating with the Americans.Thomas Jefferson and BenjaminFranklin were instrumental innegotiating the Franco-AmericanTreaty in 1778. The alliance essentiallyturned the tide of the waragainst Great Britain.French naval attacks against Britishholdings forced the Royal Navy toweaken its blockade along the easternseaboard of the United States.
Foreign Assistance The French also supplied largequantities of muskets, cannons, shotand powder to Washington’s forces.Spain and the Netherlands were alsoBritain’s rivals and contributedsubstantial financial assistance to theAmerican cause.After the colonists won the Battle ofSaratoga - France was willing toopenly support the Americans byentering the Revolutionary WarFrench naval support was critical inwinning the British surrender at theBattle of Yorktown in 1781.
Foreign AssistanceBenjamin Franklin Had been working in France to securethe alliance since the winter of 1776.Spent much of his time interacting withthe upper classes and educatedelements of society To gain access to the FrenchleadershipBecame very popular in FranceKnown for his folksy appearance wearing a fur cap instead of afashionable wig commonamong the upper classes
Foreign AssistanceJohn Adams American ambassador working inEurope to secure much neededsupport for the revolutionary cause.Spent some time in France withBenjamin Franklin to help achieve theformal alliance.It was in the Netherlands that Adamshad his greatest diplomatic impact. In April of 1782 Adamssecured the formalrecognition of the UnitedStates and a substantialfinancial loan from the Dutch.
Foreign Assistance While in Europe, Franklin and Adamswere representatives of the UnitedStates in negotiating the Treaty ofParis 1783 that settled theRevolutionary War.The diplomatic successes of bothBenjamin Franklin and John Adamshelped to: secure military alliance critical financial assistancefrom various EuropeansourcesThe United States relied heavily on thesupport provided to them from Britain’sown European rivals.
Additional Resources United States Department of State - Office of the Historian “Benjamin Franklin- FirstAmerican Diplomat, 1776-1785” includes a very general background of Franklin’srole in securing the French alliance during the Revolutionary War. ranklinLibrary of Congress Exhibition – Benjamin Franklin is a collection of documentsfrom Benjamin Franklin concerning various aspects of his involvement in thecolonial cause for independence. There are documents, letters, cartoons, andbroadsides from the period included in the collection of resources related toBenjamin Franklin. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/franklin/index.html
SSUSH 4 CAnalyze George Washington as a military leader,including but not limited to the influence of Baronvon Steuben, the Marquis de LaFayette, and thesignificance of Valley Forge in the creation of aprofessional military.
George Washington - Military Leader George Washington had developed anexcellent military reputation in the French andIndian WarWas appointed by the Continental Congressto be the Commander in Chief of theContinental Army in 1775.After his appointment, Washington: reorganized the Continental Army secured additional equipment & supplies started a training program to turninexperienced recruits into a professionalmilitaryAs a field general, Washington was not themost skilled commander.
George Washington - Military Leader Washington’s strong personality andreputation garnered him the supportand respect of American soldiers.The Revolutionary Armies werecomposed of two distinct groups the state militias the Continental ArmyMilitias were organized by each stateand community provided their own weapons anduniformsEnlistments were short term andtraining was poor among the militia Notoriously unreliable in battle
George Washington - Military Leader Washington once said that militia units, “.come inyou cannot tell how, go, you cannot tell when; andact, you cannot tell where; consume your provisions,exhaust your stores, and leave you at last in acritical moment.” Washington urged Congress to provide for thecreation of a standing army – the ContinentalArmy. Enlistments were from 1 to 3 years Pay was meager Rations were short Often had to scavenge to find supplies offood, fuel, and fodderDisease and close confinement combined withpoor diet and sanitation, was often a biggerdanger than the British
George Washington - Military Leader The Continental Army, faced with thesechallenges, limited their deadly effectsthrough: the work of surgeons and nurses a smallpox inoculation program camp sanitation regulationsWashington’s skill at maintaining hisforce is best shown during the wintermonths of 1777-1778 when theAmerican Army was encamped for theseason at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.In the Campaign of 1777, a British forceattacked and successfully capturedPhiladelphia in September 1777.
George Washington - Military Leader Washington attempted to re-capturePhiladelphia but failed.With winter approaching, Washingtonwithdrew the Continental Army into awinter encampment.The winter weather was harsh and thesoldiers lacked adequate supplies.The army remained intact during thetrying circumstances thanks to GeorgeWashington’s strong leadership.European soldiers such as the PrussianBaron von Steuben and the Marquis deLafayette of France arrived at ValleyForge to assist Washington
George Washington - Military Leader They helped make the camp productiveby training the soldiers to be moreeffective when fighting resumedBaron Friedrich Wilhelm Augustus vonSteuben had been recommended to BenjaminFranklin by the French Minister of Waras someone who would be helpfulwas especially instrumental in teachingclose-order drill critical for the tactics ofeighteenth century warfare.created a military drill manual that waswritten in French
George Washington - Military LeaderBaron Friedrich Wilhelm Augustus vonSteuben George Washington’s close aide,Alexander Hamilton, translated themanual into English.Valley Forge essentially became a bootcamp to develop the American soldiersinto more knowledgeable and trainedfighters.Marquis de Lafayette Assisted in the professionalization andtraining of American forces during thewinter at Valley Forge.
George Washington - Military LeaderMarquis de Lafayette Was a well-connected Frenchman whobelieved deeply in the American causeVolunteered to serve with Washingtonand helped to secure French resourcesWorked closely with Washington andwas very successful and brave duringmany battles of the AmericanRevolutionThe French aristocrat was a critical linkbetween the American military and theFrench alliance.
George Washington - Military Leader George Washington was a successfulmilitary commander because herecognized his force’s limitations intraining and supplies.Forged a path to success based on theresources he had available and utilizedthe assistance of others supportive ofthe American cause.Washington’s great leadership ability isevident in not only convincing soldiersto remain in the military, but to use thewinter productively through training andassistance from the Baron von Steubenand the Marquis de Lafayette.
Additional Resources George Washington’s Mount Vernon has a detailed collection of documents, essays,and images pertaining to George Washington’s service as commander of theContinental Army during the American Revolution. evolutionary-war/The National Park Service at Valley Forge presents a good historical background ofthe location and the people involved in training the soldiers during the winter of1777-1778. x.htmGeorge Washington’s Mount Vernon – also features information on both Baron vonSteuben and Marquis de Lafayette. The information reveals the important relationshipeach had with George Washington during the Revolutionary War.Lafayette ticle/marquis-de-lafayette/Steuben ticle/baron-von-steuben/
SSUSH 4 DInvestigate the role of geography at the Battles ofTrenton, Saratoga, and Yorktown.
The effect of Geography on Major Battles George Washington knew his forces’limitationsEngagements between the Continental Armyand the British were managed by Washington to preserve his forces prolong the war wear down the enemy’s will to fightThere were three battles where Washingtonwon decisive victories and each is considereda turning point in the Revolutionary War. Trenton, Saratoga, and YorktownGeography played a significant role in eachbattle.
The effect of Geography on Major Battles In all three battles, rivers were essentialin the Americans’ ability to trap theBritish and force them to surrender.Trenton Washington engaged the British inquick, strong strikes and then retreated way of overcoming the inadequatetraining of American forces Illustrated by Washington’sCrossing of the Delaware andsubsequent Battle of Trenton onDecember 25 and December 26,1776.
The effect of Geography on Major BattlesTrenton Hessians German mercenarieshired by the British to fight in theRevolutionary War Washington and the Continental Armyhad been forced out of New York duringthe late summer and fall of 1776.They had been forced to retreat to thePennsylvania side of the DelawareRiver.The American forces underWashington’s command routed theHessians in a surprise attack atTrenton, New Jersey.This decisive victory boosted themorale of American forces
The effect of Geography on Major BattlesTrenton Washington used the poor weatherconditions and geographic challenge ofa river crossing to aid him insuccessfully carrying out the surpriseattack at Trenton.Washington led approximately 2,400men across the icy Delaware River onChristmas night 1776.Increasingly poor weather conditionscaused the river crossing to take farmore time than Washington hadplanned.
The effect of Geography on Major BattlesTrenton The ability to surprise the Hessianmercenaries relied on the cover ofdarkness and a swift river crossing.Washington pushed forward in theearly morning hours of December26th.The attack was a success: 1,500 Hessians were trapped only 500 escaped Only 2 soldiers in the ContinentalArmy were killed and only fourwere wounded
The effect of Geography on Major BattlesTrenton The Hessians were caught off guard fora number of reasons.First, the Hessians camp thought theriver would provide them with an extrabarrier against attack.Second, the Christmas holiday wasthought to be an unlikely time formilitary acti
American Revolution in Europe working to negotiate assistance from France, Spain, and the Netherlands. Foreign Assistance French ultimately provided critical military and financial assistance Spain and the Netherlands provided primarily financial assistance to the American cause. A comparison of the resources held by the British and by the colonies: The population of the thirteen colonies .
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