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ENGLISHGRAMMARDRILLSMark LesterNew York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico CityMilan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976,no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without theprior written permission of the publisher.ISBN: 978-0-07-170190-7MHID: 0-07-170190-7The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: ISBN: 978-0-07-159811-8, MHID: 0-07-159811-1.All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, weuse names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where suchdesignations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps.McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs.To contact a representative please e-mail us at [email protected] OF USEThis is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use ofthis work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work,you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate,sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial andpersonal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms.THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THEACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANYINFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY ORFITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the workwill meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you oranyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has noresponsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors beliable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, evenif any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whethersuch claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

ContentsPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiPART1 Noun Phrases1234567PART2 Verb Phrases89101112PARTNouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Articles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Post-Noun Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67Gerunds and Infinitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Noun Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91Basic Verb Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111Verb Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129Simple Verb Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148Multiple Verb Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1923 Sentences13 Questions and Negatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21514 The Passive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24915 Indirect Quotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25916 Final Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295v

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PrefaceThis book focuses on the grammatical problems that prevent speakers at your level from achieving a native-like command of English grammar. While the book covers most areas of Englishgrammar, it has a heavy concentration on those aspects of grammar that have proven to be thegreatest obstacles for intermediate and advanced nonnative speakers.The book has an unusual format. Most topics are broken into small mini-units, most ofthem no more than a page or two. Each of these mini-units is supported by an exercise covering just the material in that mini-unit. The explanations help you understand the material, butit is the exercises that enable you to gain active control over it. All of the exercises have completeanswers in the back of the book. It is very important for you to work through these exercises.There is a world of difference between the passive knowledge gained by reading the explanationsand the active command gained by writing out the exercises.English Grammar Drills is organized into three parts: Part 1 covers noun phrases, the first ofthe two fundamental building blocks of English grammar. Noun phrases function as the subjectsof sentences, the objects or complements of verbs, and the objects of prepositions.Part 2 explores verb phrases, the second of the two fundamental building blocks of Englishgrammar. Verb phrases contain three components: the verb, the complement, and the optionaladverbs.Part 3 examines sentences. The main topics are how to form and use active and passivesentences, how to form questions and negatives, and how to change direct quotations to indirectquotations.Each chapter is self-contained. Unlike a conventional textbook, you do not need to start onpage 1. You may begin with whatever topic you would like to gain more active control over.vii

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PA R T 1Noun Phrases

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1NounsProper and common nounsThere are two basic types of nouns in English: proper nouns and common nouns. Proper nounsare the names of specific individuals, places, and things; common nouns are the names of classesof persons, places, and things.For example, Ruth Ginsburg, Texas, and Microsoft Corporation are proper nouns. Woman,state, and company are common nouns. The most obvious distinction between proper nouns andcommon nouns is that proper nouns are capitalized. Compare the proper nouns and corresponding common nouns in the following list:Proper nounGregory HouseFlorence NightingaleMayo ClinicMississippiAtlantaWashington PostThe TempestCommon ise 1.1The following pairs of nouns contain one uncapitalized proper noun and a related commonnoun. Put the two nouns in the correct columns as in the list above and capitalize the propernoun.3

4Noun Phrasesmovie, star warsProper nounCommon nounStar Warsmovie1. hamlet, play2. neighborhood, soho3. car, ford4. ocean, atlantic5. everest, mountain6. actor, harrison ford7. dixie, song8. ship, titanic9. hotel, the ritz10. planet, mercuryFrom this point on, we will focus only on common nouns.Count and noncount nounsCommon nouns are divided into two groups: count and noncount. Count means that we canmake the noun plural and use number words with the noun. Using the noun dog, for example, wecan make the noun plural:The dogs are in the park.We can also use number words with dogs: one dog, two dogs, three dogs, and so on. Most nounsthat refer to concrete objects are count nouns.However, nouns that refer to abstractions and nouns that are used to label things that occurin undifferentiated masses (as opposed to individual persons, places, or things) are often noncount nouns. The term noncount means that we cannot count these nouns with number wordsor make them plural. For example, the abstract noun luck cannot be counted: we cannot sayX one luck, X two lucks, X three lucks. Also we cannot use the noun as a plural. For example:*X They have had really bad lucks over the last few years.*Throughout the book, X signifies an incorrect choice or answer.

Nouns5Count nounsMost count nouns in English form their plural by adding a sibilant sound written as -s or -es.Plurals formed this way are called regular plurals. Some nouns form their plural in other ways.They are called irregular plurals.The spelling of a regular plural is determined by its pronunciation. If the plural is pronounced as a single sibilant sound pronounced either as /s/ or /z/, then the plural is spelled -s.However, if the plural is pronounced as a separate unstressed syllable /әz / rhyming with “buzz,”then the plural is spelled -es. Here are some examples of each type:Spelling of plural-s (pronounced /s/):hats, cops, tricks, paths-s (pronounced /z/):rugs, cabs, rings, keys, shoes-es (pronounced /әz /): wishes, glasses, catches, buzzesSometimes the spelling of regular plurals is disguised by the spelling rule that governs theuse of a final silent e. The basic rule is that we add a final silent e to show that the preceding vowelis long. For example, compare the following words:Short vowel:Long vowel:cap (a is a short vowel /æ/ as in ask)cape (a is a long vowel /ey/ as in grape)We make both of these words plural by adding a single sibilant sound:SingularcapcapePluralcaps /-ps/capes /-psThe final silent e in the word cape makes the plural look like the -es is pronounced as a separatesyllable /әz /, but it is not. We have merely added a single sibilant sound, /s/, to the end of thesingular form. Caps and capes have the same plural /s/ sound because although the silent e makesthe a long, it plays no role in the pronunciation of the plural ending. Just pretend that final silente is not there when you pronounce the /s/.The pronunciation of the plural in regular nouns is determined by the final sound of thesingular form of the noun according to the following three rules:1. If the noun ends in a voiceless consonant sound (except a sibilant), then the plural isformed with the voiceless sibilant /s/, which is spelled -s. Here are examples of all the consonantsounds that this rule applies to:/p/ cap-caps; cop-cops; snap-snaps; shape-shapes; hope-hopes/t/ hat-hats; boat-boats; beast-beasts; fate-fates; rebate-rebates

6Noun Phrases/k/ back-backs; leak-leaks; trick-tricks; bike-bikes; lake-lakes/f/ cliff-cliffs; cough-coughs; laugh-laughs; cuff-cuffs; sniff-sniffs/θ/ path-paths; lath-laths; monolith-monoliths, bath-baths2. If the noun ends in a voiced consonant sound (except a sibilant) or any vowel (all vowelsin English are voiced), then the plural is formed with the voiced sibilant /z/, which is also spelled-s. Here are examples of all the consonant sounds that this rule applies to:/b/ lab-labs; web-webs; blob-blobs; globe-globes; tube-tubes/d/ bed-beds; fluid-fluids; flood-floods; code-codes; shade-shades/g/ bug-bugs; rag-rags; flag-flags, pig-pigs; hog-hogs/v/ wave-waves; hive-hives; love-loves; live-lives; cove-coves/l/ girl-girls; pill-pills; wheel-wheels; role-roles; rule-rules/m/ ham-hams; farm-farms; room-rooms; flame-flames; home-homes/n/ hen-hens; teen-teens; moon-moons; loan-loans; tune-tunes; throne-thrones/ŋ/ ring-rings; thing-things; throng-throngs; rung-rungs; song-songsSince all vowels are voiced in English, this rule also governs the plural of all words ending ina vowel sound. For example:sea-seas; zoo-zoos; cow-cows; bee-bees; show-shows; tree-treesWords ending in the letter y are little more complicated. When the singular form of a wordends in a consonant the letter y (that is, when the letter y represents a vowel sound), we form theregular plural by changing the y to i and adding -es. (There is a schoolroom saying that goes likethis: “Change the y to i and add -es.”)The plural -s is pronounced /z/ in the expected way. The change of y to ie does not affect pronunciation—it is a graphic change only. Here are some examples (all with a /z/ lbabiesfamiliesladiesskiesstoriesWhen the letter y is combined with a vowel, a different spelling rule applies. To see the difference, compare the spellings of the plurals of the words fly and toy:

NounsSingularflytoy7PluralfliestoysIn the word fly, the y by itself represents a vowel sound. That is why the spelling rule that changesthe y to i states that the y must be preceded by a consonant—this is just a way of ensuring that weare talking about y used by itself to represent a vowel sound.In the word toy, the vowel sound is represented by a combination of the two letters o y, whichis sometimes called a blend. Think of the oy spelling as a fi xed unit that cannot be changed. Toform its plural we merely add an s (pronounced /z/) as we would with any other vowel spelling.Combinations of other vowels with y follow the same rule. Here are some more examples of oy, ey,and ay plural bwaystraysExercise 1.2All of the nouns in the following list form their plural in the regular way with a single sibilantsound spelled -s. Depending on the nature of the final sound in the singular form of the noun,the -s can be pronounced either /s/ or /z/. Write the entire plural form of the noun in the /s/ or/z/ column that shows the pronunciation of the plural -s. (Hint: Say the words out loud. If youwhisper or say them to yourself, voiced sounds will be automatically de-voiced so they will soundthe same as voiceless sounds.)Singular formflame1. three2. trick3. stool4. history5. wall6. rake7. play/s//z/flames

8Noun Phrases8. stove9. cough10. moth11. day12. note13. delay14. hike15. tire16. rain17. plate18. grove19. show20. pipe3. If the noun ends in a sibilant sound, either voiceless or voiced, then the plural is pronounced as a separate unstressed syllable /ǝz/ rhyming with “buzz,” spelled -es. (Of course, ifthe singular already ends in a silent e, we would add just an -s as in horse-horses, or else we wouldhave crazy spellings like X horse-es.) Here are examples of the most common consonant soundsthat this rule applies to:/s/ (often spelled -ce) glass-glasses; bus-buses; face-faces; prince-princes; rinse-rinses;fox-foxes/š/ (often spelled -sh) wish-wishes; rash-rashes; McIntosh-McIntoshes; bush-bushes/č/ (spelled -ch or -tch) watch-watches; switch-switches; bunch-bunches/ǰ/ (spelled -ge or -dge) rage-rages; page-pages; dodge-dodges/z/ buzz-buzzes; phase-phases; blaze-blazes; nose-noses; cruise-cruisesExercise 1.3All of the nouns in the following list form their plural in the regular way with a single sibilantsound spelled -s (pronounced /s/ or /z/) or with a separate unstressed syllable spelled -es (pronounced /ǝz/). Write the entire plural form of the noun in the /s/, /z/, or /ǝz/ column depending

Nounson the pronunciation of the plural -s or -es. (Hint: Say the words out loud. If you whisper or saythem to yourself, voiced sounds will be automatically devoiced so they will sound the same asvoiceless sounds.)Singularformbeach/s//z//әz/beaches1. race2. bay3. box4. clock5. rose6. mist7. dish8. try9. cottage10. colleague11. clause12. clash13. hedge14. phone15. freeze16. share17. duty18. patch19. allowance20. sheetFor a variety of historical reasons, English has some plurals that are formed in an irregularway.9

10Noun PhrasesSeven words form their plural by a vowel change alfeet*geeselicemenmiceteethwomen**Notes: *In addition to the usual plural form feet, the noun foot has a second plural form footwhen we use the word to refer to length or measurement. For example:I bought a six foot ladder.He is six foot three inches tall.**Despite the spelling of women, it is the pronunciation of the first syllable rather than the secondthat changes: woman is pronounced /wo mǝn/; women is pronounced /wI mǝn/; the second syllables, -man and -men, are pronounced exactly alike with an unstressed vowel /mǝn/.Two words retain an old plural ending, -en:SingularoxchildPluraloxenchildrenThe long vowel in the singular child also changes to a short vowel in the first syllable of the pluralchildren.Some words ending in f form their plurals by changing the f to v and adding -es. Here are themost common words that follow this vesknivesleaveslivesloavesselves

Nounsthiefthieveswolfwolves11Some words have a plural form that is identical to their singular form. Most of these wordsrefer to animals or fish. For example:Singulara coda deera fisha sheepa shrimpa troutPluraltwo codtwo deertwo fishtwo sheeptwo shrimptwo troutSince the singular and plural forms of these nouns are identical, the actual number of thenoun can only be determined by subject-verb agreement or by the use of an indefinite article. Forexample:Singular:Plural:Singular:Plural:The deer was standing in the middle of the road.The deer were moving across the field.I saw a deer in the backyard.I saw some deer in the backyard.If one of these words is used as an object with a definite article, then the number is ambiguous.For example:Look at the deer! (one deer or many deer?)Exercise 1.4The following sentences contain one or more incorrect irregular plurals. Draw a line througheach incorrect plural and write the correct form above it.loavesknivesI sliced the loafs and put the knifes back in the drawer.1. My niece has a farm where she raises disease-resistant varieties of sheeps.2. Like all farmers, she has a constant problem with mouses and rats.3. She and her husband run the farm by themselfes, so it is a lot of work for them.

12Noun Phrases4. There are coyotes and wolfs in the area, but their dogs help keep them away.5. The coyotes in particular are like thiefs, always waiting and watching.6. If a coyote gets just a few feets inside the fence, the horses will drive it away.7. Once they lost some sheeps when some childs left a gate open.8. Their valley is full of deers, which also support a large population of coyotes.9. The river in the valley is full of salmons in the fall.10. Farming is terribly hard work, but we all choose the lifes we want to live.Noncount nounsThe types of noncount nouns that you are most likely to encounter fall into the semantic categories listed below:Abstractions:Food:Liquids and gases:Materials:Natural phenomena:Weather words:beauty, charity, faith, hope, knowledge, justice, luck, reliabilitybutter, cheese, chicken, pepper, rice, saltbeer, blood, coffee, gasoline, water, air, oxygencement, glass, gold, paper, plastic, silk, wood, woolelectricity, gravity, matter, spacefog, pollution, rain, snow, windWith certain exceptions that are discussed below, these noncount nouns are ungrammaticalif they are used in the plural. For example:XXXXXPlease get some more butters.We need to stop and get gasolines.The cements on the garage floors are cracking.The electricities have been turned off in all the apartments.Ever

English Grammar Drills is organized into three parts: Part 1 covers noun phrases, the fi rst of the two fundamental building blocks of English grammar. Noun phrases function as the subjects of sentences, the objects