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ENG111MODULE 5National Open University of NigeriaHeadquarters14/16 Ahmadu Bello WayVictoria Island, LagosAbuja Office5 Dar es Salaam StreetOff Aminu Kano CrescentWuse II, Abujae-mail: byNational Open University of NigeriaPrinted 2008, 2013Revised 2014ISBN: 978-058-701-2All Rights Reserved105

ENG111CONTENTSAN INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE AND LITERARY CRITICISMPAGEIntroduction .Course Aims . Course Objectives . .Working through this Course . Course Materials .Study Units . Textbooks and References .Assignment File . Tutor-Marked Assignments . Final Examination and Grading .Presentation Schedule . .Course Marking Scheme .Course Overview and Presentation .How to Get the Most from this Course .Facilitators/Tutors and Tutorials . Summary . .106ivivivvvvviviviviiviiviiviiviiixx

ENG111MODULE 5INTRODUCTIONWelcome to ENG 111: Introduction to Literature and LiteraryCriticism. This three-credit unit course is available for students in thesecond semester of the first year BA English Language. The courseserves as a foundation in the study of literary criticism. It exposes you toforms critical theories and concept in literary criticism. You will alsoread some literary texts which are used to illustrate the above. Thematerials have been developed with the Nigerian context in view. Thiscourse guide provides information on the organisation and requirementsof the course.COURSE AIMSThe aims are to help you understand the concept of literature and literarycriticism. These broad aims will be achieved by:i.ii.iii.iv.introducing you to the study of literature and literary criticismfamiliarising you with the unique characteristics of literature andliterary criticismacquainting you with the unique procedure that will enable youread, appreciates and analyse literary textspreparing you for further studies in literature and literarycriticism.COURSE OBJECTIVESThere are 18 units in the course and each unit has its objectives. Youshould read the objectives of each unit and bear them in mind as you gothrough the unit.On your successful completion of this course, you should be able to:a.b.c.d.e.f.define literature and literary criticismdiscuss the concepts and principles that you need for the studyand enjoyment of literary worksexplain the different genres of literaturerecognise the techniques needed in literary criticismanalyse literary textsenjoy and appreciate any literary work.107

ENG111AN INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE AND LITERARY CRITICISMWORKING THROUGH THIS COURSETo complete this course, you are required to study the units, therecommended novels, plays, poems and other related materials. You willbe required to undertake some exercises for which you need a pen, anotebook, and other materials that will be listed in this guide. At the endof each unit, you will be required to submit written assignments forassessment purposes. At the end of the course, you will write a finalexamination.COURSE MATERIALSThe major materials you will need for the course are: GuideStudy UnitsTextbooksAssignment FilePresentation ScheduleSTUDY UNITSThe breakdown of the 18 study units are as follows:Module 1Concepts and DefinitionUnit 1Unit 2Unit 3Introducing Literature: Definitions and FormsIntroducing Literature: Its Characteristics IIntroducing Literature: Its Characteristics IIModule 2Convention and TechniquesUnit 1Unit 2Unit 3Introducing Prose Works: Characteristics and TechniquesIntroducing Prose Works: Prose FictionIntroducing Prose Works: Non-FictionModule 3Introducing ProseUnit 1Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4The Nature of DramaDramatic Elements and DeviceTragedyComedy and Tragicomedy108

ENG111MODULE 5Module 4Introducing PoetryUnit 1Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Introduction to Poetry: Origin, Form and StructureLanguage of PoetryIntroduction to Literary Appreciation of PoetryIntroduction to African and Non-African PoetryAppreciating a PoemModule 5Textual AnalysisUnit 1Textual Analysis of Prose Fiction: The River Between byNgugi wa Thiong’oTexture Analysis of Drama: Niyi Osundare’s The StateVisitTextual Analysis of Poetic Works: English PoemsUnit 2Unit 3TEXTBOOKS AND REFERENCESEvery unit contains a list of references and further readings. Try to getas many as possible of those textbooks and materials listed. Thetextbooks and materials are meant to deepen your knowledge of thecourse.ASSIGNMENT FILEAn assessment file and a marking scheme will be made available to you.In the assessment file, you will find details of the works you mustsubmit to your tutor marking. There are two aspects of the assessment ofthis course; the tutor-marked assignment and the written examination.The marks you obtain in these two areas will make up your final marks.The assignment must be submitted to your tutor for formal assessmentin accordance with the deadline stated in the presentation schedule andthe assignment file.TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENTS (TMAs)You will have to submit a specified number of the (TMAs). Every unitin this course has a tutor marked assignment. You are required toattempt all questions, and you will be assessed on all of them but thebest four performances from the (TMAs) will be used for your 30%grading. When you have completed an assignment, send it together witha tutor-marked assignment form, to your tutor. Make sure eachassignment reaches your tutor on or before the deadline for submissions.If for any reason, you cannot complete your work on time, contact yourtutor for a possible extension. Extension will not be granted after the duedate unless under exceptional circumstances.109

ENG111AN INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE AND LITERARY CRITICISMFINAL EXAMINATION AND GRADINGThe final examination will be a test of two hours and you will beexamined in all areas of course. Find time to read the units all overbefore your examination. The final examination will constitute 70% ofyour final grade and you will be required to answer three questions.PRESENTATION SCHEDULEThe dates for the submission of all assignments will be communicated toyou. You will also be told the date of completing the study units anddates for examinations.COURSE MARKING SCHEMEThe following table lays out how the actual course mark allocation isbroken down.AssessmentMarksAssignments 1-4 (the best four of Four assignments, marked out ofall the assignments submitted)10% totaling 30%.Final examination70% of overall course scoreTotal100% of course scoreCOURSE OVERVIEWUnit Title of work123123110WeeksActivityAssessment(End of Unit)Course GuideModule 1Nature of Drama: Concept and DefinitionsIntroducingLiterature: Week 1Assignment 1Definitions and FormsIntroducingLiterature: Its Week 2Assignment 2Characteristics IIntroducing Literature: Its Week 3Assignment 3Characteristics IIModule 2Convention and TechniquesIntroducing Prose Works: Week 4Assignment 1Characteristics and TechniquesIntroducing Prose Works: Week 5Assignment 2Prose FictionIntroducing Prose Works: Non- Week 6Assignment 3Fiction

ENG111123412345123Module 3Introducing DramaThe Nature of DramaWeek 7Dramatic Elements and Device Week 8TragedyWeek 9Comedy and TragicomedyWeek 10Module 4Introducing PoetryIntroduction to Poetry: Origin, Week 11Form and StructureLanguage of PoetryWeek 12IntroductiontoLiterary Week 13Appreciation of PoetryIntroduction to African and Week 14Non-African PoetryAppreciating a PoemWeek 15Module 5Textual AnalysisTextual Analysis of Prose Week 16Fiction: The River Between byNgugi wa Thiong’oTexture Analysis of Drama: Week 17Niyi Osundare’s The State VisitTextual Analysis of Poetic Week 18Works: EnglishMODULE 5Assignment 2Assignment 3Assignment1Assignment 1Assignment 2Assignment 3Assignment 4Assignment 5Assignment 1Assignment 2Assignment 3HOW TO GET THE MOST FROM THIS COURSEYou will be required to study the units on your own. However, you mayarrange to meet with your tutor for tutorials on an optional basis at aStudy Centre. Also, you can organise interactive sessions with yourcourse mates.In distance learning, the study units replace the university lecture. Thisis one of the great advantages of distance learning, you can read andwork through specially designed study materials at your pace, and at atime and place that suits you best. Think of it as reading the lectureinstead of listening to the lecturer. In the same way a lecturer might giveyou some reading to do, the study units tells you when to read, andwhich are your text materials or set books. You are provided exercises todo at appropriate points, just as a lecturer might give you an in-classexercise. Each of the study units follows a common format. The firstitem is an introduction to the subject matter of the unit, and how aparticular unit is integrated with the other units and the as a whole. Nextto this is a set of learning objectives. These objectives let you knowwhat you should be able to do by the time you have completed the unit.These learning objectives are meant to guide your study. The moment aunit is finished, you must go back and check whether you have achievedthe objectives. If this is made a habit, then you will significantly111

ENG111AN INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE AND LITERARY CRITICISMimprove your chances of passing the course. The main body of the unitguides you through the required reading from other sources. This willusually be either from your set books or from the reading section. Thefollowing is a practical strategy for working through the course. If yourun into any difficulty, telephone your tutor. Remember that your tutor’sjob is to help you. When you need assistance, do not hesitate to call andask your tutor to provide it. this course guide thoroughly, it is your first assignment.Organise a study schedule. Design a ‘Course Overview’ to guideyou through the course. Note the time you are expected to spendon each unit and how the assignments relate to the units.Important information, e.g. details of your tutorials, and the dateof the first day of the semester is available from the Study Centre.You need to gather all the information into one place, such asyour diary or a wall calendar. Whatever method you choose touse, you should decide on and write in your own dates andschedule of work for each unit.Once you have created your own study schedule, do everything tostay faithful to it. The major reason that students fail is that theyget behind with their course work. If you get into difficulties withyour schedule, please, let your tutor know before it is too late forhelp.Turn to unit 1, and read the introduction and the objectives for theunit.Assemble the study materials. You will need your set books andthe unit you are studying at any point in time.Work through the unit. As you work through the unit, you willknow what sources to consult for further information.Keep in touch with your Study Centre. Up-to-date information onthe course will be continuously available there.Well, before the relevant due date (about 4 weeks before duedates), keep in mind that you will learn a lot by doing theassignment carefully. They have been designed to help you meetthe objectives of the course and, therefore, will help you pass theexamination. Submit all assignments not later than the due date.Review the objectives for each study unit to confirm that youhave achieved them. If you feel unsure about any of theobjectives, review the study materials or consult your tutor.When you are confident that you have achieved a unit’sobjectives, you can start on the next unit. Proceed unit by unitthrough the course and try to pace your study so that you keepyourself on schedule.When you have submitted an assignment to your tutor formarking, do not wait for its return before starting on the next unit.Keep to your schedule. When the assignment is returned, pay

ENG11112.MODULE 5particular attention to your tutor’s comments, both on the tutormarked assignment form and also the written comments on theordinary assignments.After completing the last unit, review the course and prepareyourself for the final examination. Check that you have achievedthe unit objectives (listed at the beginning of each unit) and thecourse objectives (listed in the Course Guide).FACILITATORS/TUTORS AND TUTORIALSInformation relating to the tutorials will be provided at the appropriatetime. Your tutor will mark and comment on your assignments, keep aclose watch on your progress and any other difficulties you mightencounter and provide assistance to you during the course. You musttake your tutor marked assignments to the Study Centre well before thedue date (at least two work days are required). They will be marked byyour tutor and returned to you as soon as possible.Do not hesitate to contact your tutor if you need help. Contact your tutorif: you do not understand any part of the study units or assignedreadingsyou have difficulty with the exercisesyou have a question or assignment.You should try your best to attend the tutorials. This is the only chanceto have face-face contact with your tutor and ask questions which areanswered instantly. You can raise any problem encountered in thecourse of your study. To gain the maximum benefit from coursetutorials, prepare a question list before attending them. You will learn alot from participating in discussions actively.SUMMARYThe course guide gives you an overview of what to expect in the courseof this study, the course teaches you the concept literature, elements, thebasic techniques of literary criticism and how these techniques areapplied in textual analysis.We wish you success in the course and hope that you will find itinteresting and useful.113


ENG111MODULE 5MAINCOURSECONTENTSPAGEModule 1Nature of Drama: Concept and Definitions .1Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Introducing Literature: Definitions and Forms Introducing Literature: Its Characteristics I Introducing Literature: Its Characteristics II .1610Module 2Convention and Techniques .15Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Introducing Prose Works: Characteristics andTechniques Introducing Prose Works: Prose Fiction .Introducing Prose Works: Non-Fiction .152228Module 3Introducing Prose .34Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4The Nature of Drama . .Dramatic Elements and Device .Introducing Drama: Tragedy Introducing Drama: Comedy and Tragicomedy 344046Module 4Introducing Poetry .56Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5Unit 6Introduction to Poetry: Origin, Form and StructureLanguage of Poetry . .Introduction to Literary Appreciation of Poetry Introduction to African and Non-African Poetry Introduction to Unseen Literature . .Appreciating a Poem .566271818997Module 5Textual Analysis . . 103Unit 1Textual Analysis of Prose Fiction:The River Between by Ngugi wa Thiong’o Texture Analysis of Drama:Niyi Osundare’s The State Visit Textual Analysis of Poetic Works:English Poems Unit 2Unit 352103112119115

ENG111AN INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE AND LITERARY CRITICISMMODULE 1NATURE OF DRAMA: CONCEPT ANDDEFINITIONSUnit 1Unit 2Unit 3Introducing Literature: Definitions and FormsIntroducing Literature: Its Characteristics IIntroducing Literature: Its Characteristics IIUNIT 1INTRODUCING LITERATURE: DEFINITIONSAND ctivesMain Content3.1Definition Forms of Literature3.2Forms of LiteratureConclusionSummaryTutor-Marked AssignmentReferences/Further Reading1.0INTRODUCTIONIn this course you will be introduced to the world of literature. As astudent of English, you must have studied literature, especially inEnglish at a lower level than the present one. That means to some ofyou, what you are going to learn in the early part of this course may notbe entirely new. There is therefore a need to bring your previousknowledge to bear on the new knowledge that you acquire in the course.In this unit, you will learn about the definitions of literature and differentliterary forms. Literature is a study that concerns a whole range ofhuman life and activities. Thus, literature concerns you and me.2.0OBJECTIVESAt the end of this unit, you should be able to: 116define literatureevaluate the different definitions of literaturediscuss the different forms of literature.

ENG111MODULE 53.0MAIN CONTENT3.1DefinitionsIt should be made clear from the onset that there is no real consensus orone all embracing definition of the term literature. You should alsoknow that some of the definitions of literature given by scholars arelargely according to their wealth of life experience within theirlocations. Before we move further, let us consider literature both on itsbroad and narrow planes. Gyasi (1973) defines it in its broad sense as"anything that is written", while Rees (1973) sees it in the narrow senseof "writing which expresses and communicates thought, feelings andattitudes towards life".The broad definition of literature appears to be vague and amorphous inthat it includes works that are not literature per se, like works in fields ofEducation, Biology, History and a host of others, because they arewritten. However, they cannot qualify as real literature. The narrowdefinition delineates literature from its general purview to what can becalled literature as a subject of study.For you to really know what literature is, some more definitions will begiven to you. This will be followed by the evaluation of each of thedefinitions to see which one can be said or taken to be most appropriatein discussing literature.Moody (1987) writes that literature springs from our inborn love oftelling a story, of arranging words in pleasing patterns, of expressing inwords some special aspects of our human experience.Boulton (1980) defines literature from a functional perspective as theimaginative work that gives us R’s: recreation, recognition, revelationand redemption.Rees (1973), after describing what he regarded as literature, summed upthat literature is a permanent expression in words of some thoughts orfeelings in ideas about life and the world.All the above definitions describe literature from different perspectives.Still, there are certain things that are common to them. They allrecognise the fact that:i.ii.iii.literature is imaginativeliterature expresses thoughts and feelingsliterature deals with life experiences117 INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE AND LITERARY CRITICISMliterature uses words in a powerful, effective and yet captivatingmannerliterature promotes recreation and revelation of hidden facts.Literature is thus summed up as permanent expressions in words(written or spoken), specially arranged in pleasing accepted patterns orforms. Literature expresses thoughts, feelings, ideas or other specialaspects of human experiences.SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISEList the characteristics that distinguish literature from other thingswritten in the fields of Education, Law, Biology or Economics. Why isliterature an important subject?3.2Forms of LiteratureForms are taken to mean the mode in which literature is expressed.Usually, it is in either the spoken or written form. The spoken formpredated the written one. The spo

Welcome to ENG 111: Introduction to Literature and Literary Criticism. This three-credit unit course is available for students in the second semester of the first year BA English Language. The course serves as a foundation in the study of literary criticism. It exposes you to forms critical theories and concept in literary criticism. You will also

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