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Lake SuperiorBinational ProgramLake SuperiorAquatic Invasive SpeciesComplete Prevention PlanRound GobyEurasian RuffeNew Zealand MudsnailPurple LoosestrifeZebra MusselsSea LampreyEurasian WatermilfoilPrepared byThe Lake Superior Work Group of theLake Superior Lakewide Action and Management PlanJanuary 2014

Cover photo credits, clockwise from left: Eric Engbretson, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Gary Cholwek,U.S. Geological Service; Amy Benson, U.S. Geological Survey; Alison Fox, University of Florida; LeeEmery, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Norman Rees, USDA Agricultural Research Service; and (center)Dan Gustafson, Montana State University.Suggested citation: Lake Superior Binational Program. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive SpeciesComplete Prevention Plan. January 2014. Available at ake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 2014i

TABLE OF CONTENTSNOTE TO READER . iiiEXECUTIVE SUMMARY . ivACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . viLIST OF ACRONYMS . viii1.0INTRODUCTION . 11.1 PURPOSE OF THE PLAN . 11.2 HISTORY OF THE PLAN . 22.0BACKGROUND ON AIS IN LAKE SUPERIOR . 52.1 SPECIES . 52.2 ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS . 72.3 ECONOMIC EFFECTS . 83.0VECTORS AND PATHWAYS FOR AIS IN LAKE SUPERIOR . 103.1 VECTOR AND PATHWAY DEFINITION . 113.2 PRIORITIZATION OF AIS PATHWAYS INTO LAKE SUPERIOR . 254.0MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR INTERRUPTING THE PATHWAYS . 284.1 LAWS, REGULATIONS, AND AGREEMENTS . 284.2 INTERAGENCY COLLABORATION. 384.3 MANAGEMENT, MONITORING AND GUIDANCE . 414.4 EDUCATION AND INFORMATION . 434.5 SOURCES OF SUPPORT FOR AIS PROGRAMS . 455.0SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . 475.1 RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES . 475.2 REPORTING . 605.3 FURTHER EFFORTS . 606.0REFERENCES . 61APPENDIX A: BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS IN THE GREATLAKES ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY SYSTEM . A-1APPENDIX B: U.S. AND CANADIAN FEDERAL STATUTES RELATED TO AIS . B-1APPENDIX C: STATE AND PROVINCIAL CODES AND STATUTES RELATED TOAIS . C-1Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 2014ii

Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention PlanNote to ReaderJanuary 2014The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan (the Plan) is anexpression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior TaskForce as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasivespecies. The Plan is based on sound science and underwent extensive reviews,including an expert technical review involving external and agency experts, an agencyreview by agencies involved with Lake Superior, and a broad Great Lakes stakeholderreview. The reviews generated a significant number of comments, which were takenunder advisement and incorporated into the Plan, as appropriate.The Plan identifies recommended actions to prevent new aquatic invasive species fromentering Lake Superior. We agree with these recommendations and encourage allstakeholders to pursue implementation actions as well as to report progress. Acommitment to seek implementation of the Plan’s recommendations does not signify acommitment of resources to any specific action by any agency. Rather, it signifies acommitment to promote coordinated actions that will protect Lake Superior from thedevastating effects of additional aquatic invasive species that can irrevocably harm theecosystem.The role of the Lake Superior Lakewide Action and Management Plan and Program willbe to: set common goals consistent with the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement;support local implementation; support public outreach and education; and report oncurrent conditions, trends and progress. The success of the Plan and, thus, theprotection of Lake Superior, will depend on the commitment from U.S. and Canadianagencies, organizations, stakeholders and jurisdictions.A draft of the Plan has been available since 2010, and implementation of therecommended actions has been ongoing. While not all parts of the Plan have beenupdated since the draft was published, the pathways for introduction and therecommendations for preventing invasions remain relevant. The Plan is nowconsidered finalized.Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 2014iii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYSituated at the head of the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway system, a 2,342 mile long (3,700km) water navigation system connected to global trade, Lake Superior is at risk for continuedinvasion by aquatic invasive species (AIS), including plants, animals, and microscopicorganisms. As of April 2010, 89 non-native aquatic species have been found in Lake Superior.These include Eurasian watermilfoil, sea lamprey, and most recently, the fish disease ViralHemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS). AIS have caused devastating economic and ecosystem effectsthat impart significant losses to the region in the form of damage and control costs, degradedwater quality, job losses, declining property values, compromised native species, decreasedbiodiversity, and other negative impacts.This Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan outlines recommendedactions that need to be newly implemented, in addition to existing efforts, to prevent newaquatic invasive species from entering and becoming established in the Lake Superiorecosystem.Through the process of developing this plan, Canadian and U.S. government agencies involvedin the Lake Superior Lakewide Action and Management Plan (LAMP) have consulted broadlyand have developed recommendations for consideration by each jurisdiction. However, citizens,organizations and government agencies in both Canada and the United States need to worktogether to implement the recommended actions and ensure that protecting Lake Superior fromnew invasive species is a top priority for all. The Lake Superior LAMP will utilize an adaptivemanagement approach to monitoring implementation progress and overall effectiveness of thisprevention plan.Key recommended actions for the United States and Canada include: Implement compatible, federal regulatory regimes for ballast water discharge that areprotective of the Great Lakes for both the U.S. and Canada.Support the development, testing and implementation of effective ballast treatmentsystems that meet the operational characteristics of Great Lakes ships.Establish federal screening processes for organisms in trade to classify species into threelists: prohibited, permitted, and conditionally prohibited/permitted.o Establish an immediate moratorium on the trade of prohibited species.o Consider the concept of a “Certified Pathogen-Free through Raising from Seed”category for plants sold through garden centers and nurseries.o Expand or implement education programs to increase consumer awareness of therisk of AIS.Require permits for shoreline restoration projects, which identify AIS introduction issuesand include best management practices and restrictions that minimize the potential forintroducing invasive species.o Implement education programs to raise awareness of the issue and promotecompliance with prevention actions among contractors and residents.Ensure that existing laws prohibiting the sale of invasive species are enforced for on-lineand mail order purchases of aquatic plants.Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 2014iv

To prevent the illegal transport of bait across the U.S./Canadian border and on sharedwaters, ensure effective education and prevention efforts at border crossings and at retailbait shops, and conduct monitoring to gauge the effectiveness of such efforts.Make AIS prevention education, regulation, and enforcement a priority in all LakeSuperior jurisdictions, and implement prevention approaches that target specificaudiences (e.g., boaters, anglers, professional fishing guides, plant nurseries).Build capacity for education and enforcement efforts within local communities byproviding outreach products that can be tailored for local use, and coordinate consistentmessaging across jurisdictions.Explore options for a broad range of prevention measures at public boat launches.Review and adjust policies for the operation of the locks at Sault Ste. Marie to includebest management practices that effectively prevent fish from passing through the locks,including closing the upper and lower gates when not in use and the use of in-streambarriers or deterrent technologies, if necessary.Investigate options to achieve ecological separation of the Great Lakes and MississippiRiver watersheds to protect the Great Lakes from the invasion of Asian carp.o Until ecological separation is achieved, maintain the electric barriers in theChicago Sanitary and Ship Canal at optimum conditions and ensure theircontinued operation.o Establish structural measures to prevent the inadvertent introduction of Asian carpfrom floodwaters of the Des Plaines River into the Chicago Sanitary and ShipCanal.Adapt invasive species management to the challenge of a changing climate – monitorecosystem changes, coordinate information resources, and engage in further research.Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 2014v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors thank the Lake Superior Task Force and the Lake Superior Work Group’s Habitatand Aquatics Communities Committees of the Lake Superior LAMP for their initiation andsupport of this plan. The following individuals contributed substantially to the plan’s concept,writing, or review. In addition, the comments submitted by stakeholders during the plan’sreview period are greatly appreciated.Plan Writing TeamAmy ThomasBattelle Memorial InstituteSue GreenwoodOntario Ministry of Natural ResourcesPhyllis GreenNational Park ServiceJames HansenWisconsin Department of Natural ResourcesRoger EberhardtMichigan Office of the Great LakesRob HydeEnvironment CanadaElizabeth LaPlanteUSEPA Great Lakes National ProgramOfficeDoug JensenMinnesota Sea GrantNancy Stadler-SaltEnvironment CanadaPlan ReviewersRyan AlbertUSEPA Office of WaterBeth BrownsonOntario Ministry of Natural ResourcesMark BurrowsInternational Joint CommissionBecky CudmoreFisheries and Oceans CanadaRob DavisOntario ParksJoan EliasU.S. National Park ServiceHelen GersonCanadian Border Services AgencyRonald E. KinnunenMichigan Sea Grant ExtensionBrenda KoenigOntario Ministry of Natural ResourcesCarri Lohse-HansonMinnesota Pollution Control AgencyHugh MacIsaacUniversity of WindsorFrancine MacDonaldOntario Federation of Anglers and HuntersPhillip MoyUniversity of Wisconsin Sea Grant InstituteSonny Myers1854 Treaty AuthorityJay RendallMinnesota Department of Natural ResourcesSteve ScottLake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 2014vi

Michigan Department of Natural Resources,Fisheries DivisionDaryl SeipEnvironment CanadaGary WhelanMichigan Department of Natural Resourcesand Environment, Fisheries DivisionChris WileyTransport CanadaLake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 2014vii

LIST OF NMN DNRMPCANANPCANASNISANIOZNIVAAquatic Invasive SpeciesAquatic Invasive Species-Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point programAquatic Nuisance SpeciesAnimal and Plant Health Inspection ServiceBest Management PracticeBallast on BoardBallast Water ExchangeBallast Water ManagementBallast Water Management SystemsBallast Water Working GroupCanadian Aquatic Invasive Species NetworkCalifornia Invasive Plant CouncilCentre of Expertise for Aquatic Risk AssessmentNorth American Commission for Environmental CooperationCanadian Food Inspection AgencyCanada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin EcosystemCaptain of the PortClean Water ActDepartment of Natural ResourcesDepartment of DefenseDraft Programmatic Environmental Impact StatementExclusive Economic ZoneGreat Lakes Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Information SystemGreat Lakes Environmental Research LaboratoryGreat Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife CommissionGreat Lakes Regional CollaborationGreat Lakes Restoration InitiativeGreat Lakes Fishery CommissionGreat Lakes Water Quality AgreementInternational Joint CommissionInternational Maritime OrganizationIndianaLakewide Action and Management PlanMaryland Environmental Resource CenterMichiganMinnesotaMinnesota Department of Natural ResourcesMinnesota Pollution Control AgencyNonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control ActNational Academy of SciencesNational Invasive Species ActRoyal Netherlands Institute for Sea ResearchNorwegian Institute for Water ResearchLake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 2014viii

USDAUSEPAUSFWSUSGSVGPVHSWDNRWINational Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationNo Ballast on BoardNational Pollution Discharge Elimination SystemNotice of Proposed RulemakingOntario Federation of Anglers and HuntersOntario Ministry of Natural ResourcesSuperior Aggregates CompanyState of the Lakes Ecosystem ConferenceTributyl tinUniform National Discharge StandardsUnited States Army Corps of EngineersUnited States Coast GuardUnited States Department of AgricultureUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyUnited States Fish and Wildlife ServiceUnited States Geological ServiceVessel General PermitViral Hemorrhagic SepticemiaWisconsin Department of Natural ResourcesWisconsinLake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 2014ix

1.0INTRODUCTIONThe invasion of aquatic habitats by non-indigenous species, also known as non-native and exoticspecies, in the Lake Superior Basin can cause negative ecological and economic impacts andmay cause harm to human health. A non-native species that becomes established, spreads widelyand causes harm to an ecosystem is considered invasive. Aquatic invasive species (AIS)compete with native species for food and habitat, and can directly or indirectly kill nativespecies, degrade habitat, and alter food webs. AIS can also have significant economic effects onwaterfront property values, tourism, utilities, and other industries.AIS may enter the lake through various human-assisted vectors1 such as maritime commerce(e.g., ship ballast water and hull fouling), fishing and aquaculture, canals and diversions, thetrade of live organisms, and tourism and development activities (CAISN 2009). Shipping hasresulted in high levels of invasion in global temperate regions, including Lake Superior (Molneret al. 2008). A changing climate is likely to increase opportunities for non-native species toinvade Lake Superior as warmer temperatures accelerate reproductive cycles and increase thelikelihood of non-native species becoming established.Actions taken to date to prevent the introductionof new AIS include regulatory and voluntaryScope of Organisms Coveredefforts at all levels. Many activities serve asUnder this Planmodels using innovative, strategic approaches.These include best management practices for theThis aquatic invasive species preventionexchange of ballast water, followed more recentlyplan for Lake Superior considers nonnative, aquatic biological organismsby ballast water regulations, and educationalincluding pathogens, parasites, and algaeprograms to increase awareness of the pathwaysthat may become invasive in Lake Superiorto prevent new AIS associated with recreationaland cause harm to the ecosystem,activities and with aquatic invasive organisms inenvironment, economy, or human health.trade. Government agencies and others engagedAlthough this plan initially focuses onin biological research perform ad hoc monitoringaquatic species, the vector/pathway closurefor existing and new AIS, and provideapproach can be applied to terrestrialassessments of AIS management efforts.species, and in fact, many of the preventionHowever, much remains to be done to protectactions for aquatic species also work wellLake Superior from new introductions of AISfor terrestrial species.from around the world and from the other GreatLakes. This complete prevention plan proposes a comprehensive program of education,monitoring, and regulation (including inspection and enforcement) that integrates and augmentsprevious prevention efforts while recognizing the importance of shipping, port operations, andtrade and commerce to both the Lake Superior region and the American and Canadianeconomies.1.1PURPOSE OF THE PLANCanada and the U.S. share responsibility for protecting Lake Superior from the introduction ofnew AIS. This Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan outlines1Vectors are the modes of transmission, and pathways are the routes taken.Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan, January 20141

actions recommended by the Lake Superior Work Group that need to be implemented, inaddition to existing efforts, in order to close existing pathways on both sides of the borderand prevent new aquatic invasive species from entering and becoming established in theLake Superior ecosystem. The plan aims to prevent both primary introductions and thesecondary spread of AIS to Lake Superior. Similar to the Lake Superior Binational Program’s2designation of Lake Superior as a zero discharge demonstration area for toxic substances, thisprevention plan adopts a goal of zero invasions of new AIS in Lake Superior. Commitment andcoordination between Canada (Ontario) and the U.S. are needed to effectively implement theprovisions of the plan and ensure coordinated, commensurate action on both sides of the border.While the main objective of the plan is to prevent the introduction and spread of AIS to LakeSuperior, it is important to emphasize the importance of protecting inland waterways in the LakeSuperior Basin. Recent research has demonstrated that preventing the spread of invasiveorganisms away from invaded sites (i.e., containment) is the most effective way to reduce thelikelihood of new invasions at the landscape scale (Drury and Rothlisberger, 2008). Theprevention actions recommended in this plan should be effective in preve

AIS Aquatic Invasive Species . AIS-HACCP Aquatic Invasive Species-Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point program . ANS Aquatic Nuisance Species . APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service . BMP Best Management Practice . BOB Ballast on Board .

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