USING INQUIRY-BASED APPROACHES IN TRADITIONAL PRACTICAL .

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USING INQUIRY-BASED APPROACHES INTRADITIONAL PRACTICAL ACTIVITIESLuca Szalay1, Zoltán Tóth21EötvösLoránd University, Faculty of Science, Institute of Chemistry, PázmányPéter sétány 1/A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary, luca@chem.elte.hu2Universityof Debrecen, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department ofInorganic and Analytical Chemistry,, Egyetem tér 1., H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary,tothzoltandr@gmail.comTartu, 2nd July 2015

CONTENT1. Introduction: definition, advantages and disadvantages of IBSE2. Research problemand questions3. Research method4. Results5. Conclusion6. Implications7. ReferencesTÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

1.1 INTRODUCTION: DEFINITION OF INQUIRYBASED SCIENCE EDUCATION (IBSE) Uno (1990): „a pedagogical method that combines hands-onactivities with student-centred discussion and discovery ofconcepts”. National Research Council of the United States of America inthe Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards(Olson, Loucks-Horsley, 2000): “an activity that involves making observations posing questions examining books and other sources of information to see what isalready known planning investigations reviewing what is already known in light of experimental evidence using tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data proposing answers, explanations, and predictions communicating the result”.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

1.2 POSSIBLE ADVANTAGES OF IBSE Hofstein, Kempa (1985): increase motivation, at least amongthe „curious” and the „socially motivated” students Minner at al. (2010): „ student active thinking and drawing conclusions fromdata increase conceptual understanding” Tomperi and Aksela (2014): develops higher order cognitiveskills Better understanding of the nature of science the importance of collaboration and communication inscience the nature of pseudoscience.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

1.3 POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES OF IBSE Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006): “minimally guided instruction is less effective less efficient costs more may have negative results when students acquire misconceptions incomplete or disorganized knowledge” Bolte, Streller and Hofstein (2013): „suitable for students with‘curiosity’-type motivational pattern, but disliked by the ‘achievers’and the ‘conscientious’ students” Szalay, 2015: Hungarian chemistry teachers’ further reservationstoward open ended inquiry time consumingdoes not fit in the lessonsTÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

2.1 RESEARCH PROBLEM Hmelo-Silver, Duncan and Chinn (2007): under what circumstances do these guided inquiry approacheswork what are the kinds of outcomes for which they are effective, what kinds of valued practices do they promote and what kinds of support and scaffolding are needed for differentpopulations and learning goals. PISA (2006): under development of skills of Hungarian students suchas identifying scientific issues devising scientific investigations using scientific evidence.Could IBSE address these issues?If yes, how exactly could this be achieved?TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

2.2 SPECIFIC CONDITIONS – SPECIFIC PROBELM Conditions in Hungary introducing IBSE only gradually limited time, limited resources, lack of laboratory assistants only a few occasions / school year the experiments have to be part of the curriculum well known practical, but partly designed by students whether it makes any difference if students only a few timesdo partially inquiry-based activities when it comes to their scientific way of thinking factual knowledge attitude toward chemistry.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

2.3 RESEAERCH QUESTIONS1. Is there any significant change in the ability of designing experiments as aresult of the intervention? If yes, is there any correlation between theprevious knowledge in chemistry measured by the pre-test and thechange of ability designing the experiments measured?2. Do students in the experimental groups achieve significantly differentscores on the post-test than the students of the control groups,considering the tasks measuring other knowledge, like factual knowledge,understanding and its application obtained at the lessons?3. Is there any significant change in the attitude of students toward chemistryin general and toward their learning environment in the experimentalgroup and in the control group? If yes, is there any difference between thechanges measured in the experimental group and in the control group?TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

3.1 RESEARCH METHOD - SAMPLE 14-15-year-old students, 2 lessons (45 min) in chemistry/week 12 schools 15 teachers 31 groups of students 16 control groups 15 experimental groups 660 students (filled out both the pre-test and post-test) N (control) 325 (49.2%) N (experimental) 335 (50.8%) gender ratio (boys/girls, the difference is not significant): control: 121/204 experimental: 141/194 in school year 2014/15.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

3.2 RESEARCH METHOD - INSTRUMENTS Pre-test: 15 items measuring conceptual understanding or factual knowledge 1 item measuring the ability of designing an experiment 1 item concerning the ability of finding trustworthy information aboutchemical problems 7 items (5-point Likert scale) concerning the student‘s attitude towardchemistry and learning environment at chemistry lessons marks in math, physics, chemistry, biology in the previous school year Post-test: 13 items measuring conceptual understanding and factual knowledge 2 items measuring the ability of designing an experiment 7 items (5-point Likert scale) concerning the student‘s attitude towardchemistry and learning environment at chemistry lessons Time: 40 min to answer the questions of each test No specific reward or punishment for achievments on the testsTÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

3.2. RESEARCH METHOD –DESIGNING EXPERIMENTS TASKS Pre-test: Choose one of the conditions necessary for a chemical reaction to occur anddesign an experiment to prove that it is required indeed for the reaction. Post-test: Task 1: Consider the following reaction: Br2 HCOOH 2 HBr CO2Bromine water is yellow, but the other reactant and the products arecolourless. Choose a factor that influences the rate of reaction. Design anexperiment to prove that the factor chosen by yourself does influence therate of reaction. Task 2: Consider the following reaction leading to a chemical equilibrium:2 NO2N 2O4The NO2 is brown and the N2O4 is colourless. Using this informationdesign an experiment by that it could be determined whether the forming ofN2O4 is an exothermic or an endothermic reaction.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

3.3 RESEARCH METHOD - DESIGNPreparation of 3 lessonplansin reactionkinetics:Lesson 1: Rate of reactionLesson 2: ChemicalequilibriumLesson 3: Factors that affectthe chemical equilibriumSelectionof thesampleDatacollectionAnalysis of the resultsControl groupPre-test3 lessons,no design ofexperimentsExperimentalgroupPretest3 lessons,design of 2experimentsPost-testPost-testTÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

3.4 RESEARCH METHOD: SPECIAL PARACTICALTASKS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPSLesson 1: The students have to perform an experiment following a step-by-step description to form colloidalsulfur by mixing Na2S2O3 and H2SO4 (previous knowledge!) design an experiment to investigate the effect of the following factors on therate of reaction: Group 1: temperature of the starting materials Group 2 and Group 3: concentrations of the Na2S2O3 / H2SO4Lesson 3: The students have to add distilled water drop-by-drop to BiCl3 solution until they experience achange and have to balance the given equation:BiCl3 H2O BiOCl HCl (previous knowledge!) using materials and equipment provided design a series of experiments toprove the following: in case of chemical equilibrium, an increase inconcentration drives the reaction to the opposite side: adding products favours reactants adding reactants favours productsTÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

4.1 RESULTS: RELIABILITYCronbach’s 0.6750.694Note: items of the pre-test and post-test variedin the cognitive domain of Bloom’s taxonomy.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

4.2 RESULTS: ACCORDING TO TYPES OF TASKSΔ(%)Type of tasksExperimental/controlMpre-test SDpre-test Mpost-test SDpost-test(%)(%)(%)(%)All tasks, control26.415.425.012.5-1.4(!) non signAll tasks, experimental26.816.430.016.0 3.2signp (sign: p 0,05)non signp (sign:p 0,05)signDesign tasks, control7.221.513.421.3 6.2signDesign tasks, experimental6.619.623.226.9 16.6signp (sign: p 0,05)non signsignOther tasks, control29.616.827.713.5-1.9(!) non signOther tasks, experimental30.26.631.616.2 1.4p (sign: p 0,05) non signnon signsignSmall, but significant effect in the experimental groupStep-by-step experiments helped to develop designing skills /pre-test effect?Designing experiments helped to develop other knowledge/skills?High standard deviation (very heterogeneous sample!)TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

4.3 RESULTS: ACHIEVEMENTS – ALL TASKSControl /ExperimentalBoyscontrol27.725.1-2.6 (!)signexperimental27.129.8 2.7signnon signsigncontrol25.625.0-0.6 (!)non signexperimental26.630.2 3.6signnon signsign(sign: p 0,05)Girls(sign: p 0,05)Mpre-test(%)Mpost-test(%)Δ(%)Groupp(sign: p 0,05)Lowestachievementon pre-testcontrol10.418.9 8.5signexperimental9.6520.2 10.5signMediumachievementon pre-testcontrol24.725.30.0non signexperimental24.728.4 3.1signHighestachievementon pre-testcontrol44.131.5-12.6 (!)signexperimentalTÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-000745.541.5-4.0 (!)sign” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

4.4 RESULTS: ACHIEVEMENTS – DESIGN TASKSControl /ExperimentalBoyscontrol9.116.5 7.4signexperimental7.324.0 16.7signnon signsigncontrol6.111.6 5.5signexperimental6.022.6 16.6signnon signsign(sign: p 0,05)Girls(sign: p 0,05)Mpre-test(%)Mpost-test(%)Δ(%)Groupp(sign: p 0,05)Lowestachievementon pre-testcontrol0.36.6 6.3signexperimental0.010.0 10.0sign(sign: p 0,05)non signnon signMediumachievementon pre-testcontrol4.611.2 6.6signexperimental1.220.7 19.5sign(sign: p 0,05)signsigncontrol16.722.5 5.8non signexperimental18.538.8 20.3sign(sign: p 0,05)non signsignHighestachievementon pre-testTÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

4.5 RESULTS: ACHIEVEMENTS – OTHER TASKSControl /ExperimentalBoyscontrol30.927.0-3.9 (!)signexperimental30.331.1 0.8non signnon signsigncontrol28.828.1-0.7(!)non signexperimental30.132.0 1.9non signnon signsign(sign: p 0,05)Girls(sign: p 0,05)Mpre-test(%)Mpost-test(%)Δ(%)Groupp(sign:p 0,05)Lowestachievementon pre-testcontrol12.021.7 9.7signexperimental11.322.6 11.3sign(sign: p 0,05)non signnon signMediumachievementon pre-testcontrol28.027.8-0.2non signexperimental29.330.1 0.8non sign(sign: p 0,05)non signnon signcontrol48.733.5-15.2 (!)signexperimental50.042.1 FOR THE RENEWAL-7.9 (!)OF TEACHERsignEDUCATION”” NATIONWIDE COORDINATIONHighestachievementon pre-testTÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007

4.6 RESULTS: ATTITUDE TOWARD CHEMISTRY1: lowest achievement; 2: medium achievement; 3: highest achievementAttitude toward chemistry was not much influenced by the intervention.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

4.6 RESULTS: ATTITUDE TOWARD LEARNINGENVIRONMENT1: lowest achievement; 2: medium achievement; 3: highest achievementAttitude toward learning environment (experiments and working in groups)was not much influenced by the intervention either.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

4.7 RESULTS: CORRELATIONS (r)Pre-test – post-testPrevious year marks – post-testControl0.4820.273Experimental0.6030.283 There were only small changes in the order of students bytheir achievements between the two tests There were only weak correlations between the previousyears marks and the achievements on the post-testsTÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

5.1 CONCLUSIONS: ABILITY AND KNOWLEDGE1. Designing tasks: There was a significant positive change in the ability ofdesigning experiments as a result of the short intervention in both the controlgroup and the experimental group, but the change in the experimental groupwas significantly higher than in the control group. Medium and highachievement students’ of the experimental group seemed to gain more on anabsolut scale, but lower achievement students gained more on a relative scale.2. Other tasks: Both boys and girls in the experimental group achievedsignificantly better scores on the post-test than the students of the controlgroups, considering the tasks measuring other knowledge, like factualknowledge, understanding and its application. Both the control and theexperimental lowest achievement groups had better results on the post-testthan on the pretest. However, both the control and the experimental highestachievement groups had worse results on the post-test than on the pretest, butthe highest achievement experimental group’s results were still significantlybetter than their control counterpart’s.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

5.2 CONCLUSIONS: ATTITUDE3. Attitude: This short intervention did not influence much thestudents’ attitude toward chemistry or their learning environment.However, there is a significant correlation between the students’achievements on the pre-test and their attitude toward chemistryand chemical industry, whereas this correlation does not exist inthe case of attitude toward the chemistry experiments andworking in groups.This is worth of further analysis TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

6. IMPLICATIONS1. It is worth changing traditional practical activities intoexperiments that are partially designed by students, becausethese seem to develop skills needed for scientific literacy motivates lowest achievement group of students.2. In case of the highest achievement group of students inquirytasks might have a negative effect on knowledge other thandesigning experiments gained at the lessons.3. These short inquiries cannot be expected to influence thestudents attitude a lot.TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

7. REFERENCESReferences Bolte, C., Streller, S., Hofstein, A. (2013) How to motivate students and raise their interest in chemistryeducation In: I. Eilks & A. Hofstein (eds.) Teaching Chemistry – A Studybook (pp. 67-95). Sense Publishers. Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. E., Chinn, C. A. (2007) Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-Based andInquiry Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 99–107. Hofstien, A. Kempa, R. F. (1985) Motivating strategies in science education: attempt of an analysis. EuropeanJournal of Science Education, 3 221-229. Kirschner, P. A. Sweller, J., Clark, R. E. (2006) Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: AnAnalysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching,Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75–86 Minner, D.D. at al. (2010) Inquiry based Science Instruction – What Is It and Does It Matter? Results from aResearch Synthesis Years 1984 to 2002, J. Res. Sci. Teach., 47(4), 474-496 Olson, S., Loucks-Horsley, S. (2000) Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards, 29.http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record id 9596 (Last visited: 23.12.2014.) PISA 2006: Science Competences for Tomorrow’s World, Volume 1: Analysis, 64-68. Szalay, L.: Promoting Research-led Teaching of Chemistry (accepted as a manuscript for publication in journalLUMAT, http://www.luma.fi/lumat-en/; 2015) Tomperi, P., Aksela, M. (2014). In-service Teacher Training Project On Inquiry Based Practical Chemistry.LUMAT, 2(2), 2015-226. Uno, G.E. (1990) “Inquiry in the classroom”, BioScience, 40(11), 841-843TÁMOP 4.1.2.B.2-13/1-2013-0007” NATIONWIDE COORDINATION FOR THE RENEWAL OF TEACHER EDUCATION”

THANK YOU FOR YOURATTENTION!Luca Szalay: luca@chem.elte.huZoltán Tóth: tothzoltandr@gmail.com

USING INQUIRY-BASED APPROACHES IN TRADITIONAL PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES Luca Szalay1, Zoltán Tóth2 1Eötvös LorándUniversity, Faculty of Science, Institute of Chemistry, Pázmány Pétersétány1/A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary, luca@chem.elte.hu 2University of Debrecen, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry,, Egyetem tér1., H-4010 Debrecen, Hungary,

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