International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2015): 6.391The Effectiveness of the Guided Inquiry LearningModule towards Students’ Character and ConceptUnderstandingSri Wardani1, Sri Nurhayati2, Aulia Safitri31, 2Chemistry Department of Semarang State University, Semarang, Indonesia3Senior High School Tegal, Tegal, IndonesiaAbstract: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of learning using the guided inquiry module towards students' character andconcept understanding. The study design used is one group pretest-posttest. The data collection methods used are interview, observation,test, and documentation. The data are analyzed by classical completeness and N-gain methods as well as quantitative descriptive bycalculating the average score and determining the criteria on certain interval class. Learning by using guided inquiry module isconsidered effective in increasing students' concept understanding if the classical completeness analysis result of cognitive test at leastreaches 85% and N-gain result is more than 0.3. While learning by using guided inquiry module is considered effective in improvingstudents' character when the average affective and psychomotor learning outcomes get predicate of good or very good in every aspect.The data analysis result shows that 87.50% of the students achieve Classical Completeness Criteria (CCC) grade in the cognitive test andN-gain score by 0.73 as well as the average affective and psychomotor learning outcomes of students received the predicate of good andvery good at all aspects. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that learning by using guided inquiry-based chemistrymodule is effective in improving students' character and concept understanding.Keywords: The effectiveness of learning, Character, Guided Inquiry Module, Concept Understanding,Classical Completeness Criteria1. IntroductionChemistry is one of the subjects that is closely related todaily life, so that in understanding the chemical material,students do not just memorize the theory, but they also needto link the chemical material with an example in life.Suharyadi et al. (2013) stated that the learning process thatconnects a concept with an example in life will survivelonger in one's memory. In addition, the sample buffersolution in life can facilitate students in finding the conceptof buffer solution material independently. The discovery ofconcept through self-finding will make student learning moremeaningful (meaningful learning), and this significance willhave an impact on the improvement of students’ learningoutcomes (Budiada, 2011). Therefore, the learning processinvolving students actively in finding the concept of amaterial by their own is very appropriate to overcomestudents’ difficulties in understanding the buffer solutionmaterial.In the context of chemistry learning, students' understandingof the concept is still relatively low (Adayani, 2009).According to Marsita et al. (2010), one of the factors thatlead to students' difficulties in learning chemistry is theconcept engrafting of buffer solution material which is lessdeep. This can be overcome by linking the concepts of buffersolution with everyday life and the need for learningstrategies that create such good atmosphere of learning sothat students can work together to solve a problem by findingnew things(Marsita etal., 2010).Learning model that involves students to find concept of amaterial by their own is inquiry learning model. Accordingto Sanjaya (2006: 194), inquiry learning is a series oflearning activities that emphasize on analytical and criticalthinking process to seek and find the answer of a problem. Ingeneral, the inquiry learning process includes five steps suchas formulating the problem, proposing hypotheses, gatheringdata, testing hypotheses, and drawing conclusions (Bulunuz& Zehra, 2009; wardani, 2013). This is in accordance withthe stages in the scientific activities commonly done in thestudy of natural science; one of them is on the chemistrysubject.Syah (2005: 191) states that inquiry is a process of the use ofstudents’ intelligence in acquiring knowledge by finding outand organizing the concepts and principles into an order ofimportance according to the students. The main purpose ofinquiry is to develop intellectual skills, critical thinking andability to solve problems scientifically (Dimyati &Mudjiono, 1999:173). Judging from the involvement ofteachers in the learning process, there are three kinds ofinquiry model; they are guided inquiry, free inquiry, andmodified inquiry (Nurhadi etal., 2004:72).Guided inquiry module is a module that presents the materialand problem by using the method of investigation where thestudents are guided to be able to find the concept of thematerials studied by their own (Malihah, 2011: 18). Moduleis a book written with the intention that the students canlearn independently without or with the guidance of a teacher(Novana et al., 2014). A good module is a module thatcontains at least the learning instructions (instructions for thestudent / teacher), the competence to be achieved, the contentof the material, supporting information, exercises, manualwork (can be a worksheet), evaluation, and feedback to theresults of evaluation (Direktorat Pembinaan SMA, 2008: 13).This guided inquiry approach is training the students to bemore oriented to the guidance and instructions from teachersso that students can understand the concepts of the lessonVolume 5 Issue 6, June 2016www.ijsr.netLicensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BYPaper ID: 1589
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2015): 6.391(Matthew et al., 2013). In this method, the students will befaced to the tasks that are relevant to be resolved eitherthrough group discussion or individually to be able to solvethe problem and draw a conclusion independently (Douglas,2009).Guided inquiry module used in the learning process containslearning activities which are carried out in accordance withthe stages in the guided inquiry learning model. The partscontained in the module include the presentation of theproblem, formulation of hypotheses, presentation of datasource, drawing conclusions, tasks application, andmeasurement of the level of understanding through theexercises. The module designed by the researchers consistsof 62pages, which presents buffer solution material which isdivided intofouractivitieswhichrepresent4 sub materials.In each of the activities contained in the module, students areguided to perform learning by using a model of guidedinquiry in accordance with the instructions presented in themodule. Initially students are guided to read articles that arepresented in the module on each activity. The articlespresented in the module are articles related to everyday lifeand completed with an image as background information onthe content of the article. There are4articles in the modulethat represent each activity. After reading articles, studentsare guided to identify problems based on the articles theyread and made a hypothesis or provisional estimates of thematter. Then, students are guided to read the material in themodule as a source of hypothesis testing that has beenformulated. Furthermore, students are guided to verify thehypothesis by writing an explanation and conclusion of theactivity.At the end of each activity, students are guided to evaluatelearning by answering some questions as many as 10questions on each activity and conduct self-assessment inaccordance with the instructions contained in the module. Ifthe students’ score is in accordance with the standard level ofmastery, then they can proceed to the next activity. However,if the students’ score is less than the standard level ofmastery, then they must repeat the previous activities. At theend part of the module, there is a final evaluation thatcontains a set of questions about the material covered inactivity 1-4 that are arranged in the form of multiple choicequestions, a bibliography, an answer key for the exercises ineach activity and the final evaluation, the appendices in theform of ionization equilibrium constant of a weak acid andweak alkali, as well as a glossary.Guided inquiry approach is inquiry approach in whichteachers guide students toper form activities by giving theinitial question and leading to a discussion (Sanjaya,2008:202). Teachers have an active role in defining theproblem and the stages of its solution. This guided inquiryapproach is used for less experienced students to learn withinquiry approach (Villagonzalo, 2014). With this approach,students learn by orienting more to the guidance andinstructions from teachers so that they are able to understandthe concepts of the lesson (Anderson, 2002). At thisapproach, the students are faced with tasks that are relevantto be resolved either through group discussion orindividually to be able to solve the problem and draw aconclusion in dependently so that it can develop the student'scharacter.Students’ characters that can be developed through learningin the classroom by using guided inquiry module includeaccuracy, self-reliance, curiosity, responsibility, andcooperation. While the character of students that can bedeveloped through learning in the practicum can be seenfrom the activities such as preparing the tools and materials,skill in using the tools, mastery of practicum procedures,teamwork, observing experimental results, drawingconclusions and communicating the results of theexperiment. Those students’ characters maybe grouped onthe assessment of affective(attitude) and assessment ofpsychomotor (skills) (Sudaryono, 2012:43).Basically, students get necessary guidance during thelearning process(Villagonzalo, 2014). In the early stages,teachers provide much guidance, and then at subsequentstages, the guidance is reduced, so that the students are ableto conduct the inquiry process independently (Furtak, 2006).The guidance given can be in form of questions andmultidirectional discussion that can lead students tounderstand the concept of a lesson(Barrow, 2006). Duringthe learning process, the teacher should monitor thediscussion groups of students, so teachers can know and giveinstructions needed by the students.Guided inquiry learning model is a good model of inquirylearning used for students and teachers who have not beenaccustomed to using the inquiry model in learning activities.According to Villagonzalo (2014), guided inquiry learningmodel emphasizes on the learning process involving studentsactively in learning activities with the guidance of a teacherif necessary. Active student involvement can make thelearning process more meaningful so it can improve theunderstanding of the concept of the material being learnedand is able to improve the character of the students.The problems to be solved in this studyare:1) whether theguided inquiry learning module implementation is effectivein improving students' understanding of concepts, and2)whether the guided inquiry learning module implementationis effective in improving students' character.2. MethodThis study is an experimental study using pretest-posttestcontrol design (Sugiyono, 2013). The material used in thisstudy is buffer solution. The population of this study is allstudents of class XI Mathematic and Natural Sciences 2 ofState Senior High School. Sampling is conducted by usingpurposive sampling technique. The data are collected bythemethods of documentation, testing, and observation. Theresearch instruments used a recognitive assessment sheet,psychomotor assessment sheet, and affective assessmentsheet.The researchers conduct chemistry learning on the materialof buffer solution in class XI Mathematics and NaturalSciences 2 assisted with guided inquiry module based on thelearning plans that had been developed and validated before.Before the learning process begins, the researchersVolume 5 Issue 6, June 2016www.ijsr.netLicensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BYPaper ID: 1590
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2015): 6.391conducted a pretest to measure the initial condition beforethe learning activity assisted with guided inquiry module.After that, each student is given a guided inquiry chemistrymodule as a handbook in the learning process conducted bythe researchers. In the learning process, the researchers guidethe student to conduct inquiry activity based on theinstructions contained in the module. At the end of themeeting, the researchers held a post test to measure students'understanding of the concept after learning by using guidedinquiry module.At each meeting, the students have a discussion related to theissues contained in the module based on the inquiry method.Each group presents the results of the discussions andconclusions of the discussion in front of the class. Thisactivity is performed to measure the student's character basedon an assessment of affective. Students also do a practicumin the laboratory with the instructions contained in theguided inquiry module. The researchers conduct practicumactivities in the laboratory to measure the student's characterbased on the student's skills in conducting experiments in thelaboratory.presented in this module can lead students to understand theconcept of a lesson (Barrow, 2006).In addition to the concept understanding, this study also aimsto investigate the effectiveness of learning by using guidedinquiry module towards the students’ characters. Thecharacters assessed are divided into 2; they are affective andpsychomotor assessment. Affective assessment is measuredwith five different characters; those five characters expressedattitudes of the students during the learning process in theclassroom. The improvement of affective learning outcomeis determined by comparing the scores before and after usingguided inquiry learning module. The improvement oflearning outcomes of each character is shown in Figure 1.3. Result and DiscussionStudents' understanding of the concept of the buffer solutionmaterial is measured by using cognitive tests performedbefore (pretest) and after(posttest) the learning with theguided inquiry module. The cognitive questions used tomeasure students' understanding of concepts are multiplechoice questions with reasons. The student's cognitive testresults described in Table1.Table 1: Students’ cognitive test resultComponentMaximum ScoreAverage of pretestAverage of posttestN-gain (g)CategoryNumber of studentsNumber of students that meet KKM% Classical d on the results of the posttest, 28 of 32 students getscore 2.85, or meet the minimum completeness criteria setby the school. The percentage of completeness acquired87.5% of the students declared complete individually, so thatit can be stated that the students meet the classicalcompleteness. N-gain test analysis also shows an increase incognitive learning outcomes of students with high category0.73. The results obtained in this study show an increase incognitive learning outcomes before and after using theguided inquiry module. This shows that the use of the guidedinquiry module can improve students' understanding of theconcept. These results are consistent with the studyconducted by Aulia (2014) which concluded that the inquirybased learning media used in the learning process canimprove students’ learning outcomes. In addition, the studyconducted by Yuniyanti, et al, (2012) showed that chemistrylearning with the inquiry effects on the improvement ofstudents’ learning outcomes. The guided inquiry activitiesFigure 1: The analysis result of students’ affectiveassessmentThe measurement results of the students’ characters aremeasured based on the observation towards the attitude orbehavior of students during the learning takes place in theclassroom either individually or in groups. The characterdevelopment result is measured by5 characters namelyaccuracy, self-reliance, curiosity, responsibility, andcooperation.Based on Figure 1, the highest increase of the score ofcharacter is on the aspect of curiosity that is 1.84. It is veryvisible during the process of guided inquiry activities takeplace. Most of the students have their own opinion about thearticle they read and they always look for information on thequestions raised in the article in the module either throughthe chemistry handbook they have as well as from theInternet. It can encourage a sense of curiosity of the studentsto learn the material, especially in learning buffer solution.This result is supported by the opinion of Andriani (2011)that the application of guided inquiry learning model canimprove students' enthusiasm in learning activities. In thestudy conducted by Akhyani (2008) also showed that theinquiry learning can improve students' critical thinking skills.Aspect which has the second highest average score is theaspect of cooperation with an increase of 1.10. This isevident from the discussions with the inquiry method. Themore often students conduct group discussions, the moreimprovement of good teamwork seen in each group. Anincrease in the character average score which is high enoughis also seen in the aspect of accuracy that is equal to 1.02.Aspect of accuracy is measured based on the accuracy of theVolume 5 Issue 6, June 2016www.ijsr.netLicensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BYPaper ID: 1591
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN (Online): 2319-7064Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2015): 6.391students in completing tasks according to the instructionsgiven in the inquiry activities. Based on the observations,most students are able to understand the instructions andorders given so that they are able to finish the taskappropriately.Aspects of self-reliance and responsibility are the aspectswith the highest average score increase after accuracy, that is1.01. The final average score of the self-reliance aspect isclassified in the category of excellent. This is due to the useof inquiry method for learning. Students are accustomed tobe faced with tasks that are relevant to be resolved eitherthrough group discussion or individually to be able to solvethe problem and draw a conclusion independently (Douglas,2009). The final average score of the responsibility aspectalso includes in the aspects with excellent score criteria. Thisaspect is assessed based on the student's ability to fulfill thetasks during the learning activity; they are conductingdiscussion of inquiry, always following the learning activitywell, and completing tasks according to the instructions inthe module.Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that theguided inquiry based high school chemistry moduledeveloped effectively improves the affective learningoutcomes of students on the buffer solution material. Theseresults are consistent with study conducted by Novanaetal.(2014) that the use of inquiry-based module has positiveinfluence on the development of student’s character.According to Wiyanto (2005), a model of learning that canbuild logical, analytical, and systematic thinking ability, andestablish a scientific attitude, which many expertsrecommend is inquiry learning model which gives learnersthe opportunity to learn to find and not just to accept.The increase of psychomotor learning outcomes is measuredwhen doing experiments using practicum procedurescontained in the guided inquiry based high school chemistrymodule. Psychomotor learning outcomes measured include6aspectsas shown in Figure2.Figure 2: The Analysis of Students’ PsychomotorAssessmentBased on the dia
Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that learning by using guided inquiry-based chemistry module is effective in improving students' character and concept understanding. Keywords: T. he effectiveness of learning ,Character Guided Inquiry Module Concept Understanding Classical Completeness Criteria . 1. Introduction . Chemistry is one of the subjects that is closely related to .
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Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.