METRICMI L-HDBK-45428 APRIL 1995SUPERSEDINGMI L-STD-454N30 JUNE 1992MILITARY HANDBOOK*.GENERAL GUIDELINES FORELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTLCN)C3C*AMSC N/AAREA GDRQDISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
-AQ#r]I gtg.//copiesPLEAS3,CHECK THE APPROPRIATE BLOCK BELOW:are being forwarded. Indicate whether Statement A, B, C, D, E, F, or X applies.DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A:APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITEDDDISTRIBUTION STATEMENT B:DISTRIBUTION AUTHORIZED TO U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIESONLY; (Indicate Reason and Date). OTHER REQUESTS FOR THISDOCUMENT SHALL BE REFERRED TO (Indicate Controlling DoD Office).r-]DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT C:DISTRIBUTION AUTHORIZED TO U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ANDTHEIR CONTRACTORS; (Indicate Reason and Date). OTHER REQUESTSFOR THIS DOCUMENT SHALL BE REFERRED TO (Indicate Controlling DoD Office).r-lDISTRIBUTION STATEMENT D:DISTRIBUTION AUTHORIZED TO DoD AND U.S. DoD CONTRACTORSONLY; (Indicate Reason and Date). OTHER REQUESTS SHALL BE REFERRED TO(Indicate Controlling DoD Office).-ElElElElDISTRIBUTION STATEMENT E:DISTRIBUTION AUTHORIZED TO DoD COMPONENTS ONLY; (IndicateReason and Date). OTHER REQUESTS SHALL BE REFERRED TO (Indicate Controlling DoD Office).DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT F:FURTHER DISSEMINATION ONLY AS DIRECTED BY (Indicate Controlling DoD Office and Date) or HIGHERDoD AUTHORITY.DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT X:DISTRIBUTION AUTHORIZED TO U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIESAND PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS OR ENTERPRISES ELIGIBLE TO OBTAIN EXPORT-CONTROLLEDTECHNICAL DATA IN ACCORDANCE WITH DoD DIRECTIVE 5230.25, WITHHOLDING OFUNCLASSIFIED TECHNICAL DATA FROM PUBLIC DISCLOSURE, 6 Nov 1984 (Indicate date of determination).CONTROLLING DoD OFFICE IS (Indicate Controlling DoD Office).This document was previously forwarded to DTIC onAD number is(date) and theElIn accordance with provisions of DoD instructions, the document requested is not supplied because:E'lIt will be published at a later date. (Enter approximate date, if known).El]Other. (Give Reason)DoD Directive 5230.24, "Distribution Statements on Technical Documents," 18 Mar 87, contains seven distribution statements, asdescribed briefly above. Technical Documents must be assigned distribution statements.Print or Type NameAuthorized Signature/DateTelephone Number
IINOTICiE1FMEITRICCI IANGEMII,-t 1I)B K-454NOTICF1 I28 May 1997lI)1iPART M IiNT 0OF 1)I FENSI:I'HlANI)BOOKGENNERA!. GIJII)liE.INIES FOR IFII 'RONIC I 1QUIIPM!iNTTO ALL IIOLI)IRS OF MIL-I I)BK-454:I.TIlE FO)IiOWING P'AGES OF: Mll-I1I)BK-454, I)A'I'I'I) 28i APR11. 1995, HIAVIi BlIliFN REVISIEI)AND SLJPERSEI)E TI E PAGES IAST111):NEW PAGEI)ATE'SUIPERSIi)FI) PAGED)A'I'Iiiiiiv5-129-164-1Blank28 MAY 1997unchanged28 MAY 199728 MAY 199728 MAY 199728 MAY 1997iii28 APRIL 19955-129-164-164-2 thru -428 APRIL 199528 APRIL 199528 APRIL 199528 APRIL 19952.TI[liE FOLLOWING ARE PF N AND INK CI IANGF.S WITIIIN TIlE IIANI)B(X)K:a.b.Page 1. Paragraph 1.3. Delete and replace with the following: "1.3 Method of reference.This handbook is for guidance only. This document cannot be cited as a requirement. If it is,the contractor does not have to comply. if referenced for guidance purposes in individualspecifications, specify by referencing M lI-1I)BK-454 and the guideline number and clearlyidentify that it is for guidance only and does not have to be complied with."Page 1. Paragraphs 2., 211, 2.1.1 and 2.1.2. Delete and replace with:2.Applicable documents.2.1 General. The documents listed in the individual guidelines are those referencedwithin that guideline.2.2 Government documents.2.2.1 Specifications, standards, and handbooks The specifications, standards, andhandbooks listed in section 2 of each individual guideline forms a part of this handbookto the extent specified in the guideline. Unless otherwise specified, the issues of thesedocuments are those listed in the latest issue of the Department of Defense Index ofSpecifications and Standards (l)Ol)ISS) and supplement thereto."c. Page 30-1. Paragraph 4. 1. delete in its entirety.3.RETAINTI IS NOTICE AND INSI ,R' BlF)FOR: I'ABLI 01OFCONT'F,NTS.AMSC N/AAREA GI)RQDISTRIBIllTION STATFIMININT A. Approved for Public release; distribution is unlimited.
METRIC]MIL-HDK-45428 APRIL 1995SUPERSEDINGMIL-STD-454N30 JUNE 1992MILITARY HANDBOOKGENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTThis handbook is for guidance only. Do not cite this document as a requirement.AMSC N/AAREA GDRQIDISTRIIUTION STA'TEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited
FIOR! WORI)I. This handbook is the technical baseline for the design and construction of electronic equipment for theI)epartment of I)efnse. It captures in one document, under suitable subject heading, fundamental designguidelines for multiple general electronic specifications. The opportunity to focus on a single document,afforded to contractors, results in substantial savings to the Government. This handbook was prepared byand is regularly updated through the cooperative efforts of Government and industry. The followingGovernment documents are intimately associated with this handbook.MIL-ST1)-2036M IL-I,-8189General Requirements for Electronic IEquipment Specifications.EIlectronic Equipment, Missiles, Boosters and Allied Vehicles,General Specification for ( Not for New Design).D)OI)-! ,-8983IE lectronic FEquipment, Aerospace, Extended Space IEnvironment,General Specification for.MIL-P- 11268Parts, Materials, and Processes Used in Electronic IE'quipment.M IL-I-D13 K- 11991 D)esign of Eilectrical, I lectronic, and IE lectro-mechanical Eýquipment,Guided Missile and Associated Weapo)n Systems.MIL-F-18870Fire Control Equipment, Naval Shipboard, General Specificationfor.Ml -PRF-288W()Test IFquipment for Use with Electrical and Electronic Equipment,General Specification for.2. This handbook is for guidance only. This handbook cannot be cited as a requirement. If it is, thecontractor does not have to comply.ii
MI1-I I)DBK-454GUlI)FEINl: 5SOLID)ERING1. Purpose. There are no longer l)ol) guidelines in soldering of electrical and electronic equipment.There are guidelines for non-electrical soldering.2. l)ocuments applicable to guideline 5:MI,-STI)-1866 Soldering Process, General (Non-IE.lectrical) (Mctric)!Military Suuidardl3. Definitions. Not applicable.4. Guidelines.4.1 General. "Ibe guidelines of DOI)-STD- 1866 should be considered for non-electrical soldering ofstructures.4.2 Workmanship. Workmanship of soldered non-electrical assemblies may be checked in accordancewith I)OI)-STI)- 1866 as appropriate.5-1
MIIII)BK-454GUIDEINE'I N 29EI! (71'RON TIJBIS1. Purpose. This guideline establishes that there are no longer any guidelines for electrontubes.29-1
MIH-l1 )BK-454GUIIL)FIINF 641.Purose. This guideline establishes criteria for the selection and application of microelectronicdevices. 'lese criteria are based on the objectives of achieving technological superiority, quality,reliability, and maintainability in military systems.2.D)ocuments applicable to guideline 64:MII,-I l)BK- 179Microcircuit Application Iludbhook.3.Definitions. Not Applicable.4.Guidelines. The guidelines for use of microcircuits are provided in MIl,-IlDBK-179.64-1
eNIL-HDBK-454.FOREWORDThis handbook is the technical baseline for the design and construction of electronic equipment for the Department of Defense.It captures in one document, under suitable subject heading, fundamental design guidelines for multiple general electronicspecifications. The opportunity to focus on a single document, afforded to contractors, results in substantial savings to theGovermnent. This handbook was prepared by and is regularly updated through the cooperative efforts of Government and industry.The following Government documents are intimately associated with this handbook.MIL-STD-2036General Requirements for Electronic Equipment Specifications.NIL-E-4158Electronic Equipment,MIL-STD-5400Electronic Equipment, Aerospace, General Standard for.MIL-E-8189Electronic Equipment, Missiles, Boosters and Allied Vehicles, General Specification for (Not for New Design).DOD-E-8983ELectronic Equipment, Aerospace, Extended Space Environment, General Specification for.NIL-P-11268Parts, Materials, and Processes Used in Electronic Equipment.MIL-STD-11991Electrical, Electronic and ELectro-mechanicaL Equipment, Guided Missile and Associated Weapon Systems,General Standard for.NIL-F-18870Fire Control Equipment,MIL-T-28800Test Equipment for Use with Electrical and Electronic Equipment, General Specification for.0Ground, General Specification for.Naval Shipboard, General Specification for.0Me1ii I
MI.L-HDBK-454.CONTENTS - 5767778.-LubricantsFibrous Materials, OrganicCorona and Electrical Breakdown PreventionMotors and Rotary Power ConvertersEncapsulation and Embedment (Potting)GearsHydraulicsIndicator LightsMeters, Electrical IndicatingThermal ,DesignWaveguides and Related DevicesMaintainabilityEnclosuresRotary Servo DevicesRelaysSultchesBrazingSockets and AccessoriesElectromagnetic Interference ControlHuman EngineeringSpecial ToolsMicroelectronic DevicesCable, Coaxial (RF)Cable, MulticonductorMarkingReadouts and DisplaysInternal Wiring PracticesElectrical FiltersCable and Wire, InterconnectionSubstitutabitityStandard Electronic ModulesGrounding, Bonding, and ShieldingElectrostatic Discharge ControlFiber Opticsintergrated 50-I53-166-I69-I71-171-11Probable effects of shockSuitable protective measuresFungi-susceptibility of materialsAbbreviations for thermocouple materialsWire, electricalGeneral comparison of metallic casting processesArc-resistant materialsMaterials for electrical spring applicationCorrosion resisting steel for springsCarbon steel for springsIndicator tights and associated itemsWaveguides and related devicesCable, multiconductorElectrical clearance and Leakage (creepage) distancesWire, electrical, interconnectionCable, mutticonductor, interconnectionIndexesOIndex I-1Index 1-2Index of Applicable DocumentsSubject Indexv
MIL-HDBK-454.GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT1. Scope.1.1Guidelines appticable to electronic equipment.specifications for electronic equipment.This handbook covers the common guidelines to be used in military1.2 Revision of guidelines. Revisions of individual guidelines are indicated by a date below the guideline number locatedat the bottom of the page. When the basic document is revised, those guidelines not affected by change retain their existingdate.1.2.1 Redatino. Although individual guidelines are reviewed and updated or validated at least once every eighteen months,guidelines are not redated untess technicat changes are made.1.3. Nethod of reference. Guidelines contained herein should be referenced in the individual specification by specifying thishandbook and the guideline number.1.4 Interrelationship of guidelines. Each guideline is intended to cover some discipline in the design ofas a procedure, a process or the selection and application of parts and iaterials. Many of these disciplines,retain a clear-cut separation or isolation from others so that when guidelines of NIL-HDBK-454 are referenced insome guidelines will undoubtedly have a direct interrelationship with other guidelines. This interrelationshipinto consideration when invoking or using these guidelines.equipment, suchhowever, cannota specificationshould be taken2. Applicable documents.See 2 of each individual guideline for a listing of applicable documents contained therein,2.1Individual Guidelines.including those for guidance only. Documents referenced in the individual guidelines apply to the extent specified therein.enUnless otherwise specified, the applicable issues should be those listed in that issue of the2.1.1 Appticabte issues.The applicable issue ofrtment of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) specified in the solicitation.overnment documents should be the issue specified.2.1.2 Copies. Copies of specifications, standards, drawings, and publications required by contractors in connection withspecific procurement functions should be obtained from the procuring activity or as directed by the contracting officer.
MIL-HDBK-4542.1.3 Industry addresses.follows:Addresses for obtaining documents referenced herein but not obtainable from the Government are asAGMAAmerican Gear Manufacturers Association1901 North Fort Meyer DriveSuite 1000Arlington VA 22209ANSSAE400 Commonwealth DriveWarrendale PA 15096ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute1430 BroadwayNew York MY 10018ASHAmerican Society for MetalsMetals Park ON 44073ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials1916 Race StreetPhiladelphia PA19103AWSAmerican Welding Society550 NW LeJeune RoadPO Box 351040Miami FL 33135EIAElectronic Industries Association2500 Wilson BlvdArLington.VA 22201-3834IEEEInstitute of ELectricaL and Electronics Engineers820 Second AvenueNew York NY 10017IPCInstitute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits7380 North Lincoln AvenueLincolnwood IL 60646NASNational Standards Association1200 Quince Orchard BoulevardGaithersburg ND 20878NFPANational Fire Protection AssociationBatterymarch ParkQuincy MA 02269ULUnderwriters Laboratories, Incorporated333 Pfingsten RoadNorthbrook IL 600622
MIL-HDBK-454.3.Definitions.3.1 As used in this handbook, the word "airborne" denotes those applications peculiar to aircraft and missile or other systemsdesigned for operation primarily within the earth's atmosphere; "space" denotes application peculiar to spacecraft and systemsdesigned for operation near or beyond the upper reaches of the earth's atmosphere; and "aerospace" includes both airborne andspace applications.3.2Other terms are defined in the individual guidelines.4. General guidelines.The Guidelines contained herein are intended to provide uniform guidelines applicable to electronic4.1Appolication.equipment, unless otherwise specified in the Guideline, and should be incorporated by reference in general equipmentOther documents may reference Guidelines when applicable.specifications.4.2 Use of selection and application standards. When a selection and application standard is invoked in a guideline, thedevices or parts selected should conform to the applicable military specifications referenced in the standard.5. Detail guidelines.5.1Individual guidelines for electronic equipment fottow.6. Notes.6.1 Changes from previous issue. The margins of this handbook are marked with asterisks to indicate where changes (additions,modifications, corrections, deletions) from the previous issue were made. This is done as a convenience only. and the Governmentassumes no Liability whatsoever for any inaccuracies in these notations. Bidders and contractors are cautioned to evaluate theguidelines of this document based on the entire content irrespective of the marginal notations and relationship to the Lastprevious issue.6.2Subject term (key word) listing.Cable selectionCorona protectionEncapsulationFastenersFlammabilityFungus protectioninterchangeability of partsMarkingMaterials selectionMicroelectronicsNomenclatureParts selectionPrinted wiringSafetySolderingSubstitutability of partsThermal designWaveguidesWire selectionWorkmanshipCONCLUDING MATERIALCustodians:Army - ERNavy - ASAir ForceDLA - ESPreparing activity:DLA - ES-11Project GDRQ-0162*Review activities:Army - AR, AV, CR, ME, MI, TENavy - EC, SH, OSAir Force - 17, 19, 853.
MI.L-HDBK-454.GUIDELINE 1SAFETY DESIGN CRITERIA - PERSONNEL HAZARDS1.Purpose.This guideline establishes safety design criteria and provides guidelines for personnel protection.2.Documents applicable to guideline SI NSI Z53.1NFPA 7010 CFR 2021 CFR 1000-105029 CFR 1910*3.Bonding, Electrical, and Lightning Protection, forAerospace SystemsShipboard Bonding, Grounding, and Other Techniques forElectromagnetic CompatibiLity and Safety ShieldingHuman Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems,Equipment and FacilitiesGuidelines for Identification, Markings, Labeling, Storage,and Transportation of Radioactive CommoditiesSafety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to RadioFrequency Electromagnetic Fields, 300 kHz to 100 GHzRadio Frequency Radiation Hazard Warning SymbolRadiation SymbolAccident Prevention Signs, Specification forAccident Prevention Tags, Specification forSpecification for Informational Signs Complementary toANSI Z35.1, Accident Prevention SignsMarking Physical Hazards, Safety Color Code forNational Electrical CodeCode of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Chapter 1, Part 20Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Chapter I, Parts 1000-1050Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Chapter XVII, Part 1910Definitions.3.1 Chassis, electrical equipment.The chassis is a structural item fabricated in such manner as to facilitate assemblageand interconnection of electrical or etectronic items for the specific purpose of providing a basis for electrical oreLectronic circuits. It normally has drilled or stamped holes to accommodate the items but may include only the itemsnecessary for its own mountting and support.3.2 Frame. The frame is any construction system fitted and united together, designed for mounting or supportingelectrical or electronic parts or units.3.3mode.Fail-safe.The design feature of a part, unit or equipment which allows the item to fail only into a nonhazardous3.4 Interlock. An interlock is an automatic switch which eliminates all power from the equipment when an access door,cover or plate is removed.3.4.1 Bypassabte interlock. A bypassable interlock is an automatic switch with a manually operated electrical bypassdevice to allow equipment maintenance operations on energized equipment.3.5 Battleshort. A switch used to bypass normal interlocks in mission critical equipment; (i.e., equipment which must notbe shut down or the mission function will fail) during battle conditions.4.Guidelines.4.1 FaiL-safe. The design and development of all military electronic equipment should provide fail-safe features forsafety of personnel during the installation, operation, maintenance, and repair or interchanging of a complete equipmentassembly or component parts thereof.4.2 Bonding in hazardous areas. Electronic equipment to be installed in areas where explosive or fire hazards existshould be bonded in accordance with MIL-B-5087 for aerospace systems, MIL-STD-1310 for shipboard systems, and NFPA 70,chapter 5, for ground systems, or as otherwise specified in the detail equipment [email protected]
MI L-HDBK-4544.3 Temperature. At an ambient temperature of 25 0 C, the operating temperature of control panels and operating controlsshould not exceed 49*C. Other exposed parts subject to contact by operating personnel should not exceed 60*C.4.4 Electrical. The design should incorporate methods to protect personnel from inadvertent contact with voltages capableof producing shock hazards.4.4.1 Power. Means should be provided so that power may be cut off while installing, replacing, or interchanging acomplete equipment, assembly, or part thereof.Interface with electrical power sources should be in accordance with theapplicable regulations or guidelines.If a main power switch is provided, it should be clearly labeled as such and shouldcut off all power to the complete equipment.4.4.2 Ground. The design and construction of equipment, excluding setf-powered equipment, should insu
MIL-HDBK-454. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT 1. Scope. 1.1 Guidelines appticable to electronic equipment. This handbook covers the common guidelines to be used in military specifications for electronic equipment. 1.2 Revision of guidelines.File Size: 6MBPage Count: 162Explore furtherDEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HANDBOOKwww.dla.milMIL-STD-454 N REQUIREMENTS ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENTeveryspec.com/MIL-STD/MIL-S…MILITARY HANDBOOK ELECTRONIC RELIABILITY DESIGN HA…www.navsea.navy.milRecommended to you b