Thermal Testing Of Singulated Devices Get Us Closer To .

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Thermal Testing of Singulated DevicesGet Us Closer to Known-Good Die/StackTakashi NaitoADVANTESTGrant WagnerIBMDave ArmstrongADVANTEST

Overview1. Background2. Die Level Testing3. Challenges4. Dual Fluid Thermal Control System5. Thermal Evaluation6. Summary

Background Technology Node Transitions are SlowingThe semiconductor industry moves quickly toward more and more2.5D and 3D integration. KGD and KGSD are Critical for 2.5D/3D IntegrationWithout it final product yield. Test Conference (ITC), 2014 IEEE InternationalDirect probing on large-array fine-pitch micro-bumps of awide-I/O logic-memory interfaceEJ. Marinissen, B. De Wachter, K. Smith, J. Kiesewetter,M. Taouil, S. Hamdioui

Typical Test ProcessFrontendProcessProbe TestGrindingBumpingDicingDie Level TestNot enough thermal test of thin wafer in wafer-Level- Wafer support has high thermal resistanceTarget : PKG test on dieShippingPKG TestPKG Burn-inDieBonding

Challenges Thermal Control System for High Watt Density- Low thermal resistance is needed to minimize temperature risein die-level testingElectric Carpet0.02Electric Iron5.74Soldering Iron9.4850Processor Chip010203040Watt Density (W/cm2)5060 Rapid Setting Temperature Change- High response thermal control for high power die- Reducing die-level test time Thermal Model for New Thermal Control System- Predict thermal performance for variety die conditions

Dual Fluid Thermal Control SystemThermal ChuckDieTCFeatureFlow Control ValveATCDual Fluid ChillerHot Loop Rapid Temperature Change- Active Thermal Control- Switching Hot and Cold Cooling Liquid- Wide Temperature Range (-40 to 125C)Cold Loop Low Thermal Resistance Chuck- Liquid Cooling Chuck- Microchannel Heat Transfer- Low Temperature Gradient

Dual Fluid Thermal ChuckMicrochannelHeat Transfer MatrixDieActive AreaFluid OutFluid In Low Thermal Resistance- Microchannel Heat Transfer Matrix Low Temperature Gradient- Fresh Coolant is supplied to the entire of surface equally Vacuum Chuck- Available die size is from 3x3mm to 33x33mm- Capable of chucking a warped thin die

HA1000 Die-Level Test SystemDie-Level Test Solution Thick and Thin Die Handling- Die size : 3x3 to 33x33mm- Thickness : Minimum 75um Fine Pitch Probing- Vision Alignment- Micro-Bump, Cu Pillar, TSV High and Low Temp.- Dual Fluid Thermal Control- Temp. Range: -40 to 125C- Cooling Capacity : 300 Watt

Thermal Evaluation Objectives1. Characterize performance of thermal chuck2. Make thermal model for simulate other conditions3. Explore possibility of new use models

Characterization of Thermal Chuck Evaluation items– Steady State Thermal Resistance– Temperature Gradient– Cooling Capacity– Effective Chip Area– Single Insertion Multiple Temperature Test

Thermal Evaluation EnvironmentHeaterThermalTest Chip100uAV meas.SourceMeterPowerSupplyFlowMeterTempOutTempIn IOTech Data Acquisition System– 48 channels Agilent 6651A Power Supplies– To power chip heaters Keithley 2400 Current Sources– To power diodes– Monitored by a current meter Laptop– Application to control power supplies and current sources via GPIB

Thermal Test Chip5X5 CellUnit Cell Test chips are made up of a matrix of 2.54 mm square cells Each cell contains 4 diodes and 2 heaters- Maximum heat dissipation 12W/cell

Evaluation ConditionsItemConditionTest Chip Size1x1, 4x4, 5x5, 10x10 cell(Unit Cell Size 2.54 x 2.54mm)Max Power 380W(Current limit of Probe)Set Temperature25CFluidHFE-7500Flow Rate1.0lpmProbe CardCobra ProbeProbing Force25lbs and 70lbs (11.3kgf, 31.8kgf)(Calculation Value from Servo Motor Amp.)

Evaluation Procedure1. Determine max power for 30C rise2. Temp vs power, steady state response at max power step‒ Temperature gradient power on and off3. Repeat multiple powers‒ 25%, 50% and 75% max power4. Use steady state temp from each power step to plot temp vs power‒ Confirm linearity of temp vs power‒ Slope is steady state thermal resistance5. Repeat for other chip size, adjusted power, same equipment conditions‒ 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% power6. Assess impact of effective chip area, using 10x10 cell chip‒ Repeat steady state tests to create temp vs power curve‒ Power only 1x1, 5x5, 5x7 and full 10x10 cell area

Max Power for 30C Rise(Individual 10x10 Chip)Chuck has cooling capacity of 305W for 30C rise. ConditionDie Size: 25.4 x 25.4mm (10X10 Cell)Fluid Temp, FR : 25C, 1.0lpmProbe Force: 70lbs( 31.8kgf)

Thermal Resistance and Linearity Check(Individual 10x10 Chip)Gradient 11.4CTres 0.09 C/WTres 0.06 C/WChuck has a good linearity and Tres is less than 0.09C/W. ConditionDie Size: 25.4 x 25.4mm (10X10 Cell)Fluid Temp, FR : 25C, 1.0lpmProbe Force: 70lbs( 31.8kgf)16

Thermal Resistance of Chip Center(Individual Chip vs Effective Area)Tres value is depends on the chip area and the contact force.

Thermal Model Details Solidworks CAD modelComsol Multiphysics finite element analysisTook advantage of symmetry to cut model in half10x10 cell chip (25.68 x25.68 mm)– Silicon– 200W heat load on die surface Thermal interface layer– Air– Increased layer thickness for model simplification, and increasedthermal conductivity by the same factor to compensate. Thiswas the starting point.– Adjusted thermal conductivity for model correlation – contact ismore a weighted average of direct contact and air gap (iterative) Chuck– Copper– Heat transfer coefficient on backside to simulate chuckperformance (iterative)18

Thermal Head200W heat loadChipThermalinterface(scaled)Convective heat coefficient tosimulate thermal headperformance19Thickness of thermal headfrom surface to fluid channel

Model Results44C59C A properly validated model can be used to predict performancefor other device conditions (ie. power maps)20

Model Correlation with Measured Data 10x10 cell chip, 200W power step at 25lbs forceCorner-to-center gradient from 42–59 C21

Single Insertion Multi-Temp Test(25C - -10C - 65C - 25C)20C Rise22C Rise19C Rise-10C - 65Cis 1min20C Rise25C - -10Cis 1min Temperature Change Time at 25C - -10C & -10C - 65C is 1min.Same temperature rise suggests that chuck was able to keep goodthermal contact condition at each set temperature.

Summary1. Low thermal resistance for a dry condition– 0.09C/W for 2.5cm x 2.5cm2. Achieved excellent cooling capacity– 50W/cm2 for 30C Rise– 300W for 30C Rise3. Confirmed Single Insertion MultipleTemperature Test– Rapid Temp. Change 25C- -10C & -10C- 65C is 1min– Possible to Reduce Waiting Time for Changing Temperature4. Thermal model can be used to predictperformance for other device conditions.Dual fluid cooling system can provide a significantvalue for die-level thermal testing

Thermal Control System for High Watt Density - Low thermal resistance is needed to minimize temperature rise in die-level testing Rapid Setting Temperature Change - High response thermal control for high power die - Reducing die-level test time Thermal Model for New Thermal Control System - Predict thermal performance for variety die conditions

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