LEVEL 3 The Structural Organisation Of The Human Body

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LEVEL3The structuralorganisation ofthe human body6 Anatomy and Physiology for Sports Massage

LEVEL3Glossary of termsChemicalCellTissueConnectivetissueMuscle tissueNervous tissue- The smallest structure in the body, e.g. oxygen.- The smallest structure capable of performing activities essential for life.- Collections of similar cells grouped together to perform a specific function, e.g.muscle tissue.- Binds and supports tissues and organs; provides protection and support to organs;stores energy as fat and provides immunity.- Skeletal, cardiac or smooth. Produces motion.- Enables transmission of nerve impulses.Organs- Structures that operate to perform a specific function. Consist of two or moretypes of tissue.System- A group of organs that work collaboratively to perform specific functions.OrganismActive transportDiffusionOsmosisHomeostasisEnzyme- A living form, e.g. humans.- The movement of substances across cell membranes.- Movement of molecules from a place of higher concentration to a place oflower concentration.- The movement of materials across membranes.- The maintenance of a constant internal environment.- A substance that speeds up the chemical reactions in cells.Anatomy and Physiology for Sports Massage 7

LEVEL3Structural organisation of the bodyThe human body consists of several layers of structural organisation. The levels of structural organisation from thesmallest to the largest are: Chemical Cellular Tissues Organs System OrganismsFig 2: Structural organisation of the body8 Anatomy and Physiology for Sports Massage

LEVEL3StructuresExamplesDescriptionChemical Adenosine triphosphate The smallest layer of structural organisation. Oxygen The body is made up of various chemicals.Different chemicals combine to form the variousmolecules found in the human body. Carbon dioxide HydrogenCells Muscle cells Nerve cells Blood cellsTissues Nervous tissue Muscular tissue The building blocks of the human body. Thesmallest structures capable of performing activitiesessential for life. Tissues are collections of similar cells groupedtogether to perform a specific function. Epithelial tissue Connective tissueOrgans The heart The lungs The liver The kidneys Structures that operate to perform aspecific function. Consist of two or more types of tissue, whichenable them to perform a specific role or function. The skinSystems The integumentary system The skeletal system A group of organs that work collaboratively toperform specific functions. The muscular system The circulatory system The respiratory system The nervous system The endocrine system The digestive system The urinary system The reproductive systemOrganisms Humans A living form. Mammals All the other body structures function to bring lifeto the organism. ReptilesAnatomy and Physiology for Sports Massage 9

LEVEL3ChemicalsThe lowest level of structural organisation consists of all the chemicals that are essential for maintaining life.Chemicals are made up of atoms that combine together in different ways to form molecules. For example, hydrogenand oxygen atoms combine to from a molecule of water - H20, which is essential for survival of the body. Saliva,tears and many other body fluids are made of water.CellsCells are the basic building blocks of all living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. In the humanbody there are many types of cell which vary in size, structure and function – there is no such thing as a ‘typical cell’.However cells do share certain structural characteristics.They provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food, convert those nutrients into energy and carry outspecialised functions. Cells also contain the body’s hereditary material and can make copies of themselves.Cells have many parts, each with a different function. Some of these parts, called organelles, are specialisedstructures that perform certain tasks within the cell.Figure 3: Structure of a human cell10 Anatomy and Physiology for Sports Massage

LEVEL3TermDefinitionVisualsCytoplasmWithin cells, the cytoplasm is made up of a jelly-like fluid (called the cytosol) and otherstructures that surround the nucleus.CytoskeletonThe cytoskeleton is a network of long fibres that make up the cell’s structural framework.The cytoskeleton has several critical functions, including determining cell shape,participating in cell division and allowing cells to move. It also provides a track-likesystem that directs the movement of organelles and other substances within cells.EndoplasmicreticulumA network of channels running through the cytoplasm. Helps process molecules createdby the cell. Transports molecules to their specific destinations either inside or outside thecell.GolgiapparatusThe Golgi apparatus packages molecules processed by the endoplasmic reticulum to betransported out of the cell.LysosomesContain enzymes that break down molecules and digest bacteria that enter the cell.These organelles are the recycling centre of the cell. They digest foreign bacteria thatinvade the cell, rid the cell of toxic substances, and recycle worn-out cell components.PeroxisomesSimilar structure to lysosomes. Abundant in liver cells. Metabolise hydrogen peroxide,which is toxic to the cells of the body.MitochondriaThe powerhouse of the cell, plays a central role in producing adenosine triphosphate(ATP)NucleusThe nucleus serves as the cell’s command centre, sending directions to the cell to grow,mature, divide, or die. It also houses DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the cell’s hereditarymaterial. The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane called the nuclear envelope, whichprotects the DNA and separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell.PlasmamembraneThe plasma membrane is the outer lining of the cell. It separates the cell from itsenvironment and allows materials to enter and leave the cell.RibosomesRibosomes are organelles that process the cell’s genetic instructions to create proteins.These organelles can float freely in the cytoplasm or be connected to the endoplasmicreticulum.The protein factory of the cell.Figure 4: Structure of the human cellAnatomy and Physiology for Sports Massage 11

Anatomy and Physiology for Sports Massage 11. LEVEL: 3: Term: Definition: Visuals: Cytoplasm Within cells, the cytoplasm is made up of a jelly-like fluid (called the cytosol) and other : structures that surround the nucleus. Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is a network of long fibres that make up the cell’s structural framework. The cytoskeleton has several critical functions, including .

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