Fitness InstructorWorkbook 1BLevel 2Anatomy and Physiologyfor Exercise
FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Workbook 1bIntroductionContentsThese workbooks have been designedto help you learn the contents of theLevel 2 Anatomy and Physiology unit.Completing the learning activitiesthroughout as you learn will help youprepare for your assessment. You canalso use the online resources in theLifetime E-learning Zone, or speak tolearner services, your tutor or trainer,should you require further support.Workbook 1BSection 5.The muscular system68Section 6.The energy systems84Section 7.The nervous system94Section 8.Learning activity answers102Section 9.References and further reading108Workbook 1ASection 1.The circulatory system1Section 2.The respiratory system15Section 3.The skeletal system27Section 4.Learning activity answers57The following colours are used in this workbook:KeyLearning activitiesNeed to knowDefinition
LeveL 2 Anatomy and Physiology for ExerciseSection 5Section 5: The muscular systemWhat you will coverBy the end of this section you will:FFknow the structural characteristics and functionsof the three types of muscle tissueFFknow the structure of skeletal muscle fibresFFknow the names and locations of the major anterior andposterior muscle groupsFFknow the structure and function of the pelvicfloor musclesFFunderstand the types of muscle contractionFFunderstand the relationship between muscle contractionsand movement of the major jointsFFknow the characteristics of different muscle fibre typesand how this relates to function, andFFbe able to recognise changes in muscle tissuewith ageing.Types of muscleSkeletal muscleSkeletal muscle has the following properties:Figure 5.1 Skeletal muscle it is also known as striated muscle due to its stripedappearance. This effect results from the structure ofsarcomeres, the segments of muscle fibres that divide themuscles along their length it only shortens in one direction it is sometimes called voluntary muscle because it is used tomove the body to perform conscious actions, such as walkingand picking things up, and it can work both aerobically and anaerobically.68
FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Workbook 1bCardiac muscleCardiac muscle has the following properties:Figure 5.2 Cardiac muscle it is found only in the heart it is striated (striped) in appearance but unlike skeletal muscleits fibres branch off and connect to one another it operates using only the aerobic energy system. The relianceon this energy system means it is heavily dependent on oxygenand is extremely efficient at extracting it from blood it is involuntary as it contracts without conscious thought, and it is intrinsically activated by electrical impulses generatedinside the heart. This electrical impulse is passed from onecardiac muscle cell to the others, resulting in the coordinatedcontractions of the heart.Smooth muscleSmooth muscle has the following properties: it is found in various places of the body, such as the bloodvessels, digestive tract, airways and lungs it is not striated and contracts in all directions to causeconstriction (narrowing) of the blood vessel/organ.Conversely, when smooth muscle relaxes the blood vessel/organ dilates (widens) it is activated involuntarily, meaning it requiresno conscious thought, and it works anaerobically (without oxygen).69Figure 5.3 Smooth muscle
LeveL 2 Anatomy and Physiology for ExerciseSection 5Muscle anatomySkeletal muscle structureFigure 5.4 Muscle structureFascia: layers of connective tissuethat bind structures together. Thisconnective tissue is continuous withthe tendons and transfers tensionto bring about muscle contraction.Muscle fibres: thecells of the muscle.Muscle fibreMyofibril: a basicunit/strand withina muscle fibre.FasciaMyofibril(showing sarcomeres)Skeletal(striated)muscleFascicle (bundleof muscle fibres)Muscle fibresSarcomere: the functional unitof a myofibril, responsible formuscle contraction.Fascicle: a bundle of muscle fibres.Muscle fibre structureMuscle fibres are the cells of muscles, but they are not thesmallest functional units within a muscle. Inside musclefibres are myofilaments that run the length of the fibre. Eachmyofilament is divided along its length into functional unitscalled sarcomeres. Each sarcomere contains the mechanism ofmuscle contraction, the ‘sliding filaments’ – actin and myosin.Figure 5.5 The structure of a sarcomereMyosinActinSarcomere70
FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Workbook 1bLearning activity 5.1Summarise the characteristics of the three different types of muscle found in the human bodyin the table below.Muscle type AppearanceEnergy systemLocationCardiacSmoothSkeletalLearning activity 5.2Study the labelled figure of muscle structure on the previous page and then attempt to labelthe figure below without refering back.71
LeveL 2 Anatomy and Physiology for ExerciseThe sliding filament theory is the method by which muscles arethought to contract. The two key components of this mechanismare proteins that cause the contraction: actin and myosin.For the sliding filament theory to work and cause muscles tocontract, energy is required. When skeletal muscle producesenergy aerobically the mitochondria within the muscle areresponsible for converting oxygen into usable energy in theform of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).Actin and myosinActin: i s the thin filament and looks likea strand of twisted beads, and e ach actin filament is anchoredto one end of the sarcomere.Myosin:Sliding filament theory i s the thick filament that appears to havearms (known as cross bridges), andWhen a skeletal (voluntary) muscle is about to contractthe following things will happen: b undles of myosin filaments are locatedin the middle of the sarcomere.1c alcium is released and frees up the binding siteson the actin filaments2t he arms (cross bridges) of the myosin filament bindto the actin3t he myosin filaments pull on the actin, shortening thesarcomere and making the muscle contract, and4 hen the muscle lengthens they return to their originalwposition ready to contract again.Section 5Sliding filamentsMitochondriaMitochondria can be thought of as thepowerhouse of the muscle cell. This iswhere aerobic energy production takesplace within a muscle as oxygen isconverted into ATP.72
FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Workbook 1bMuscles of the bodyThere are over 600 muscles within the human body. Manyof these are not necessary to know to be an effective fitnessinstructor. It is important, however, to know the locationsand functions of the major muscles of the body involvedin movement.Figure 5.6 Major anterior and posterior muscles of the bodyAnterior (front) musclesPosterior (back) musclesTrapezius (rhomboidssit underneath)Pectoralis majorDeltoidIntercostalsTricepsBicepsRectus abdominisLatissimus inis)External obliqueInternal oblique(deep)Erector spinae (run upentire length of spine)Gluteus mediusand minimus(abductors)Gluteus maximusHip bialis anterior73SoleusHamstrings
LeveL 2 Anatomy and Physiology for ExerciseThe coreSection 5Core and pelvic floor musclesFigure 5.8 Posterior core musclesThe core is traditionally thought of as the area betweenthe pelvis and the rib cage, in particular it refers to the musclesthat support, stabilise and move the lumbar region of the spine.Some core muscles cannot be seen, sitting underneath othermuscles meaning their functioning is invisible to the eye.The muscles here are particularly important to the correctfunctioning of the body. The core of the body relies heavily onmuscular control to stabilise it as well as control movement.When the muscles of the cylinder contract the pressure inthe abdomen is increased and this helps to stabilise the area,maintaining neutral spine.Figure 5.7 Anterior core musclesDeeplower backmuscles Primal pictures 2009The muscles of the core can be thought of as a cylinder, withthe pelvic floor muscles forming the base of the cylinder and thediaphragm the top. The anterior of the cylinder is made up ofthe rectus abdominis (the ‘six pack’ muscle) and at the sides arelayers of muscles, starting with the deep transversus abdominis,then internal obliques and on top, the external obliques. Theposterior of the cylinder comprises a large sheet of connectivetissue along with the erector spinae muscles and other deeplower back muscles.ErectorspinaeThe pelvic floorThe muscles at the base of theabdomen attached to the pelvis.They form a ‘figure of eight’ shapeand play an essential role in corestability as well as controlling bladderand bowel continence.Rectus abdominisTransversus abdominisInternal obliquesExternal obliques74
FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Workbook 1bLearning activity 5.3Fill in the labels on the diagram below.Muscle contractionsSkeletal muscles can contract in various ways depending onthe role they have been asked to perform at the time.Isotonic contractionsIsotonic contractions are ones where movement occurs – suchas lifting and lowering a weight. There are two phases to anisotonic contraction: the concentric phase: this is the lifting phase, wherea muscle shortens to work against a load, and the eccentric phase: this is the lowering phase, wherea muscle lengthens under tension to control a weight.It is important to remember that this applies to the load (orweight) being lifted, so in an exercise such as a lat pull down,even though an exerciser is pulling the bar downwards, theweight is lifting upwards, making it the concentric phase.75Delayed onset musclesoreness (DOMS)Eccentric muscle contractionsare responsible for the musclepain and soreness that peopleexperience in the one to two daysfollowing strenuous exercise. This iscommonly known as DOMS and isa natural process that occurs as themuscles repair and adapt.
Section 5LeveL 2 Anatomy and Physiology for ExerciseConcentric (clouds)A concentric contraction is where the muscle is shorteningagainst a load or gravity. Remember this by visualising ‘C’ forclouds – during concentric contractions the weight is liftedupwards, towards the clouds.Eccentric (earth)An eccentric contraction is where the muscle is lengtheningunder tension, with gravity. Remember this by visualising ‘E’ forearth – during eccentric contractions the weight is lowereddown, towards the earth.Isometric contractionsIsometric contractions are where a muscle contracts andtension is created but the muscle length remains the same.Increases in blood pressure are associated with this type ofcontraction, so it is not advised for some people, for examplethose with high blood pressure.Muscles and movementIsometric Iso means equal. Metric means length.Examples of isometric exercises includeplank and static wall squats.Muscle contractions only produce movement because musclesare attached at each end via tendons to bones across joints.A muscle can only act across a joint to produce movement bycontracting to move one end of the muscle towards the other.In this way the human body is a little like a puppet: insteadof pulling on different strings in a specific order to producemovements, the brain uses nerves to activate different musclesin a coordinated pattern to create the desired action. For thisreason, a muscle can only ‘pull’ to create movement acrossone side of a joint. Agonist (prime mover): the majormuscle working during an exerciseto bring about movement.During exercise muscles can play various roles depending onthe movement being performed. These roles are: A ntagonist: the opposing muscle to theagonist. This relaxes to allow movementto occur. agonist antagonist synergist, and fixator.Roles of a muscle S ynergist: smaller helper muscles thataid the agonist to assist with movement. Fixators: act as stabilisers bycontracting isometrically to preventunwanted movement in other muscles,making movements more efficient.76
FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Workbook 1bAgonists and antagonistsMuscles always work in the same agonist and antagonist pairs.For example, when the biceps are working (the agonist), thetriceps are always the antagonist. This works the opposite wayaround, so when the triceps are the agonist, the biceps are theantagonist. This is true of all exercises involving these muscles.Table 5.1 Muscle pairsAgonist*Antagonist*DeltoidsLatissimus dorsiPectoralis majorEvery muscle has an antagonistic partner. The commonagonist/antagonist pairs are listed in table 5.1.Trapezius andrhomboidsBicepsTricepsRectus abdominisErector spinaeExamplesHip flexorsGluteus maximusBiceps curlHip adductorsHip abductorsQuadricepsHamstringsTibialis anteriorGastrocnemiusand soleusWhen performing a biceps curl, the agonist is the bicepsmuscle. The other major muscle crossing the elbow, is thetriceps. It is located on the posterior of the upper armopposite to the biceps. In order for the biceps to flex theelbow, the antagonist – the triceps – must be relaxed. Smallermuscles in the upper arm act as synergists to help the bicepswith the exercise. To keep the upper arm stable, manyother muscles act on the shoulder joint and shoulder girdle,including pectoralis major, deltoid, latissimus dorsi, trapeziusand the rhomboids. These all play the role of fixators.* When the muscles in the right-hand columnare working they become the agonist, andthe opposing muscle in the pair becomes theantagonist.Remember!It is important to be aware that even as the weight is lowering(elbow extension), the biceps are contracting not the triceps.Gravity will lower the arm to a fully extended position with noassistance from the triceps muscle.The biceps have to contract concentrically (towards theclouds) to lift the weight, and eccentrically (towards the earth)to control the weight back to its start position.Throughout this the triceps remain relaxed in their role ofantagonist and merely lengthen and shorten under no tensionto allow the biceps to work.Table 5.2 Biceps curl muscle rolesRole of icepsTricepsSmaller musclesin upper armCore muscles/shoulder stabilisers
LeveL 2 Anatomy and Physiology for ExerciseSection 5Shoulder pressTable 5.3 Shoulder press muscle rolesRole of toidsLatissimus dorsiTricepsCore muscles/shoulderstabilisersSeated rowTable 5.4 Seated row muscle rolesRole of muscleAgonistMuscle/sTrapezius and rhomboidsAntagonistSynergistFixatorPectoralis majorBicepsCore muscles/shoulderstabilisersSynergistsOne simple rule for rememberingsynergists in upper body exercises is: i f it is a pull exercise such as a lat pulldown or a seated row, the biceps arealways a synergist, and i f it is a push exercise such as a chestpress or press-up, then the triceps arealways a synergist.Learning activity 5.4In your own words define the following typesof muscle contraction.Concentric:Now look at the following examplesof exercises and state whether aconcentric, eccentric or isometriccontraction is taking place.1. Lowering towards the floor whenperforming a squat.Eccentric:2. Holding dumbbells up in front ofyou in a fixed position as in a frontraise exercise.Isometric:3. Pushing the weight overhead whendoing a shoulder press.78
FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Workbook 1bLearning activity 5.5Learning activity 5.6List the antagonist for eachof the following.Do each of the following exercises until you canfeel a muscle working. Identify the joint actionyou are performing and the muscle that you canfeel getting icepsRectusabdominisHip flexorsHipadductorsSeated leg extensionSitting on a chair, hold your thigh still and slowlystraighten your leg from the knee until the leg ishorizontal. Pause briefly then slowly lower it back down.Repeat until you can feel a muscle working. What joint action were you performing as youlifted the leg? What joint action were you performing as youlowered the leg? What muscle could you feel working?QuadricepsTibialisanteriorLinking muscle actionto joint actionKnowing the location of a muscle andbeing aware of the joints it crossesare essential in understanding whatmovement will occur when thatmuscle contracts. Doing resistancetraining exercises is a great way to feelthe relationship between a particularmovement or joint action and themuscles that cause it.79Lateral raiseHold a heavy book or full water bottle in one hand.Keeping your body still, slowly lift your arm straight outto the side until it is horizontal. Pause briefly then lowerit slowly back to your side. Repeat this until you feel amuscle working. What joint action were you performing? What muscle could you feel working?
Muscle action matrixThe following table links together the knowledge you have covered in sections 3 and 4. It shows the jointactions possible at each joint and which muscles work to produce these actions.SpineAnkle KneeHipElbowShoulderTable 5.5 Muscle action matrixJointMuscle contracting (agonist)crossedbymuscleJoint action(during concentric phase)Joint action(during eccentric phase)Latissimus tissimus alis majorHorizontal flexionHorizontal extensionTrapezius and rhomboidsHorizontal extensionHorizontal onHip flexorsFlexionExtensionGluteus ionHamstringsFlexionExtensionGastrocnemius and soleusPlantar flexionDorsi flexionTibialis anteriorDorsi flexionPlantar flexionRectus abdominisFlexionExtensionErector spinaeExtensionFlexionObliquesLateral flexionLateral flexionObliquesRotationRotationThings to rememberAs you can see from the table above, some muscles can contractto perform more than one joint action, such as the deltoids thatcan bring about shoulder abduction or shoulder flexion.You will see that when the obliques contract concentrically theybring about either lateral flexion or rotation. In the eccentricphase, the same joint actions occur but in the opposite directionto bring the body back to its original position.80Section 5LeveL 2 Anatomy and Physiology for Exercise
FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Workbook 1bMuscle physiologyNot all muscle fibres are the same: even within a single musclethere is a variety of types. The different types have their owncharacteristics and come into play at different intensities ofactivity. Muscles vary in the proportions of different fibre typesthey contain according to their location and function in thebody. The proportions of different fibre types in a muscle groupalso vary between one person and another. This is one of thefactors that make some people good at explosive power sportsand others better at endurance activities.Muscle fibre type characteristicsMyoglobinMyoglobin is a substance that binds tooxygen allowing muscles to produceaerobic energy more effectively.Myoglobin, much like haemoglobin,contains iron and this is what givestype 1 muscle fibres their bright redappearance.As type 2 muscle fibres produce energyanaerobically they have lower levelsof myoglobin and are therefore whitein colour.There are two main muscle fibre types.Type 1 fibres, also known as slow twitch fibres. These fibres are red in colour because they contain a largeTable 5.6 Characteristics of musclefibre typesamount of myoglobin (a substance similar to haemoglobinCharacteristic Type 1Type 2that can bind oxygen in muscles).ColourRedWhiteContractiontimeSlowFastTime tofatigueLongShort They also contain large numbers of mitochondria(the aerobic energy power stations of cells). They have many capillaries (tiny blood vessels)surrounding them. They are slow to contract and slow to fatigue. They are recruited for lower intensity, longer duration types ofactivity, meaning they are best for endurance or aerobic work. Elite marathon runners will have a high percentage of type 1fibres in their muscles.Type 2 fibres, also known as fas
LeveL 2 ANATOmy ANd PhySIOlOgy FOR ExERCISE 74 Section 5 Core and pelvic floor muscles The core The core is traditionally thought of as the area between the pelvis and the rib cage, in particular it refers to the muscles that support, stabilise and move the lumbar region of the spine. Some core muscles cannot be seen, sitting underneath other muscles meaning their functioning is invisible to .
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