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Anatomy andphysiology forsports massageUSP41J/506/7220Learner name:VRQLearner number:

VTCT is the specialist awarding organisation for the Hairdressing, Beauty Therapy,Complementary Therapy, Hospitality and Catering and Sport and Active Leisure sectors, withover 50 years of experience.VTCT is an awarding body regulated by national organisations including Ofqual, SQA, DfES andCCEA.VTCT is a registered charity investing in education and skills but also giving to good causes inthe area of facial disfigurement.Statement of unit achievementBy signing this statement of unit achievement you are confirming that all learning outcomes, assessmentcriteria and range statements have been achieved under specified conditions and that the evidencegathered is authentic.This statement of unit achievement table must be completed prior to claiming certification.Unit codeDate achievedLearner signatureAssessorinitialsIV signature(if sampled)Assessor tracking tableAll assessors using this Record of Assessment book must complete this table. This is required forverification purposes.Assessor nameAssessor signatureAssessorsinitialsAssessor number(optional)

USP41Anatomy and physiology forsports massageThe aim of this unit is to develop the knowledge andunderstanding of anatomy and physiology relevantto sports massage. You will explore the anatomy andphysiology of each of the body systems and look at thephysical, physiological, neurological and psychologicaleffects of sports massage on these systems.USP41 v2

Level3Credit value10GLH70Observation(s)0External paper(s)1

Anatomy and physiology forsports massageLearning outcomesOn completion of this unit you will:1.Understand the structural organisation ofthe human body2.Understand the structure and functions ofthe skin3.Understand the structure and functions ofthe skeletal system4.Understand the structure and functions ofjoints5.Understand the structure and functions ofthe muscular system6.Know the structure and functions of thenervous system7.Understand the structure and functions ofthe endocrine system8.Understand the structure and functions ofthe cardiovascular system9.Understand the structure and functions ofthe respiratory systemEvidence requirements1.Knowledge outcomesThere must be evidence that you possessall the knowledge and understandinglisted in the Knowledge section of thisunit. In most cases this can be doneby professional discussion and/or oralquestioning. Other methods, such asprojects, assignments and/or reflectiveaccounts may also be used.2.Tutor/Assessor guidanceYour tutor/assessor must adhere to the‘Assessment Guidance and EvidenceRequirements’ for this unit. This can befound under documents on the relevantqualifcation page at www.vtct.org.uk.You will be guided by your tutor/assessoron how to achieve learning outcomes in thisunit. All outcomes must be achieved.3.External paperThe external paper will test your knowledgeof Learning Outcomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10and 13. There is one external paper thatmust be achieved.10.Understand the structure and functions ofthe lymphatic system11. Know the structure and functions of thedigestive system12.Know the structure and functions of theurinary system13.Understand the effects of sports massageon the body systemsUSP413

Developing knowledgeAchieving knowledge outcomesYou will be guided by your tutor and assessoron the evidence that needs to be produced.Your knowledge and understanding will beassessed using the assessment methods listedbelow*: ProjectsObserved workWitness statementsAudio-visual mediaEvidence of prior learning or attainmentWritten questionsOral questionsAssignmentsCase studiesProfessional discussion*This is not an exhaustive list.Where applicable your assessor will integrateknowledge outcomes into practical observationsthrough professional discussion and/or oralquestioning.When a criterion has been orally questionedand achieved, your assessor will record thisevidence in written form or by other appropriatemeans. There is no need for you to produceadditional evidence as this criterion has alreadybeen achieved.Some knowledge and understanding outcomesmay require you to show that you know andunderstand how to do something. If you havepractical evidence from your own work thatmeets knowledge criteria, then there is norequirement for you to be questioned again onthe same topic.Tutor/assessor guidanceYour tutor/assessor must adhere to the‘Assessment Guidance and EvidenceRequirements’ for this unit. This document willgive guidance for the tutor/assessor on breadthand depth of content that must covered in thisunit. This can be found under the documentstab on the relevant qualification page at www.vtct.org.uk.Achieving the external paperThe external paper will test your knowledge ofLearning Outcomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and13. A pass mark of 70% must be achieved.In addition to the overall 70% pass mark,learners must achieve 40% or more in eachsection:Section 1 - Skeletal system and joints (LO3,LO4)Section 3 - Cardiovascular and respiratory(LO8, LO9)Section 4 - Skin, nervous, lymphatic systems,and effects of sports massage(LO2, LO6, LO10, LO13)Learning outcomes 1, 7, 11 and 12 are notassessed in the MCQ and therefore portfolioevidence must be provided.Section 2 - Muscular system (LO5)PaperDate achieved1 of 14USP41Assessor initials

KnowledgeLearning outcome 1Understand the structural organisation of the human bodyYou can:a.Outline the structural organisation of the human bodyb.Describe the structure of the human cellc.Describe the functions of the human celld.Describe the different types of human tissuee.Explain the functions of the different types of human tissuePortfolio referenceUSP415

Learning outcome 2Understand the structure and functions of the skinYou can:a.Describe the structure of the skinb.Describe the functions of the skinThis learning outcome will be assessed in the external paper.6USP41Portfolio reference

Learning outcome 3Understand the structure and functions of the skeletal systemYou can:a.Describe the structure of the skeletal systemb.Describe the functions of the skeletal systemc.Explain the classification of bonesd.Explain the stages of bone growth and repairPortfolio referenceThis learning outcome will be assessed in the external paper.USP417

Learning outcome 4Understand the structure and functions of jointsYou can:a.Describe the different joint categoriesb.Explain the structure of synovial jointsc.Describe joint actions at the major jointsd.Explain the characteristics of ligamentse.Explain the characteristics of tendonsThis learning outcome will be assessed in the external paper.8USP41Portfolio reference

Learning outcome 5Understand the structure and functions of the muscularsystemYou can:a.Describe the characteristics of the types of muscle tissueb.Locate the major anterior and posterior skeletal musclesc.Identify and locate the muscle attachment sites for the majormuscles of the bodyd.Describe the action of the major anterior and posterior skeletalmusclese.Describe the roles of muscles during movementf.Explain the different types of muscle contractiong.Explain the principles of muscle contractionPortfolio referenceThis learning outcome will be assessed in the external paper.USP419

Learning outcome 6Know the structure and functions of the nervous systemYou can:a.Describe the structure of the nervous systemb.Outline the functions of each subdivision of the nervous systemc.Explain the characteristics of the different types of nervesThis learning outcome will be assessed in the external paper.10USP41Portfolio reference

Learning outcome 7Understand the structure and functions of the endocrinesystemYou can:a.Describe the structure of the endocrine systemb.Explain the role of hormonesc.Name key hormones and their actionsPortfolio referenceUSP4111

Learning outcome 8Understand the structure and functions of the cardiovascularsystemYou can:a.Describe the structure of the cardiovascular systemb.Describe the functions of the cardiovascular systemc.Decscribe the flow of blood around the circulatory systemd.Describe the composition of bloode.Describe blood pressuref.Describe factors that may affect blood pressureThis learning outcome will be assessed in the external paper.12USP41Portfolio reference

Learning outcome 9Understand the structure and functions of the respiratorysystemYou can:a.Describe the structure of the respiratory systemb.Describe the functions of the respiratory systemc.Identify the main muscles involved in breathingd.Describe the passage of air through the cardio-respiratory systemsincluding gaseous exchangePortfolio referenceThis learning outcome will be assessed in the external paper.USP4113

Learning outcome 10Understand the structure and functions of the lymphaticsystemYou can:a.Outline the structure of the lymphatic systemb.Describe the functions of the lymphatic systemc.Describe the structure of a lymph noded.Explain the functions of a lymph nodee.State the location of the major lymph nodesThis learning outcome will be assessed in the external paper.14USP41Portfolio reference

Learning outcome 11Know the structure and functions of the digestive systemYou can:a.Outline the structure of the digestive systemb.Outline the functions of the digestive systemPortfolio referenceUSP4115

Learning outcome 12Know the structure and functions of the urinary systemYou can:16a.Outline the structure of the urinary systemb.Outline the function of the urinary systemUSP41Portfolio reference

Learning outcome 13Understand the effects of sports massage on the body systemsYou can:a.Explain the physical effects of sports massageb.Explain the physiological and neurological effects of sportsmassagec.Explain the psychological effects of sports massagePortfolio referenceThis learning outcome will be assessed in the external paper.USP4117

Unit contentThis section provides guidance on the recommended knowledge and skills required to enable youto achieve each of the learning outcomes in this unit. Your tutor/assessor will ensure you have theopportunity to cover all of the unit content.Learning outcome 1: Understand the structural organisation of the humanbodyStructural organisation: Chemical,cellular, tissues, organs, systems,organisms.Structure of human cell: Extracellularfluid, cell membrane, protoplasm,cytoplasm, cytosol, organelles (nucleus,nucleolus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum(ER), rough ER, ribosomes, golgiapparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria,vacuole), cytoskeleton (microfilaments,intermediate filaments, microtubules,flagella, cilia).Functions of human cell: Function ofeach structural component and organelle.Human tissue: Epithelial tissue (simplesquamous, columnar, cuboidal, ciliated,stratified and transitional epitheliumcells), glandular tissue, (exocrine,endocrine), connective tissue (areolar,adipose, fibrous, elastic, reticular), bone(compact and cancellous), lymphoidtissue, nervous tissue, cartilage (hyaline,elastic, fibrocartilage), muscle tissue(smooth, striated, voluntary, involuntary),membranes (mucous, synovial, serous).Functions of human tissue: Functionsof each type of human tissue (epithelial,glandular, connective, bone, lymphoid,nervous, cartilage, muscle, membranes).Learning outcome 2: Understand the structure and functions of the skinStructure of skin: Epidermis (horny,clear, granular, prickle cell, basal), dermis,subcutaneous layer, appendages (arrectorpili, eccrine glands, pores, apocrine glands,sebaceous glands, sensory nerve endings,blood vessels).Function of skin: Sensation, heatregulation (vasoconstriction, vasodilation,shivering and sweating), absorption,protection, excretion, secretion, synthesisof vitamin D.18USP41

Learning outcome 3: Understand the structure and functions of the skeletalsystemStructure of skeletal system:mineral homeostasis, storage.Axial skeleton – cranium, cervicalvertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbarvertebrae, sacral vertebrae, coccyx,intervertebral discs, sternum, ribs.Classification of bones: Composition ofbone, microscopic structure of (compact,cancellous), types of bone (long, short, flat,irregular, sesamoid), locations of types ofbone throughout the body, classificationbased on structure and function.Appendicular skeleton – scapula,clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals,metacarpals, phalanges, ilium, ischium,pubis, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals,metatarsals, phalanges.Functions of skeletal system: Supportand shape, protection, muscle attachmentand movement, production of blood cells,Bone growth and repair: Processesof bone growth, processes of bonerepair, bone remodelling, cells involved(osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes),ossification (intramembranous,endochondral).Learning outcome 4: Understand the structure and functions of jointsJoint categories: Structural classification(fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial), functionalclassification (synarthrosis/immovable,amphiarthrosis/slightly moveable,diarthrosis/freely moveable), types ofsynovial joint (gliding, pivot, ball andsocket, hinge, saddle, condyloid).Synovial joints: Articulating bone, articularcapsule, fibrous capsule, synovial cavity,synovial membrane, synovial fluid, articularcartilage, menisci, bursae, periosteum,accessory ligaments (intra/extra capsule),fat pads.circumduction, rotation, pronation,supination, inversion, eversion, retraction,protraction, elevation, depression, plantarflexion, dorsi-flexion, medial rotation,lateral rotation.Ligaments: Structure, function, properties.Tendons: Structure, function, properties.Joints:Major joints – cervical spine, shoulder,elbow, wrist, thoracic spine, lumbar spine,hip, knee, ankle.Joint actions – flexion, extension,hyperextension, abduction, adduction,horizontal flexion, horizontal extension,USP4119

Learning outcome 5: Understand the structure and functions of themuscular systemMuscle tissue: Types (skeletal, cardiac,smooth), characteristics of each type(location, microscopic structure, nervouscontrol, fibre diameter, fibre length,contraction speed).Anterior and posterior muscles:Scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, levatorscapular, pectoralis major/minor, deltoids,biceps, triceps, trapezius, rhomboids,rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus,teres minor, subscapularis), teres major,brachioradialis, coracobrachialis, commonwrist flexors/extensors, brachialis, serratusanterior, latissimus dorsi, erector spinae,quadratus lumborum, rectus abdominis,obliques (internal/external), transversusabdominis, diaphragm, intercostals,Iliopsoas (psoas and iliacus), gluteusmaximus, abductors (gluteus medius,minimus, tensor fascia latae), piriformis,gracilis, adductors (longus, magnus,brevis), quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastusgroup), hamstrings (biceps femoris,semitendinosus, semimembranosus),pectineus, sartorius, gastrocnemius,soleus, plantaris, popliteus, tibialis anterior,peroneus(fibularis)-longus, brevis, tertius,tibialis posterior, extensor/flexor digitorumlongus, extensor/flexor hallucis longus.Muscle attachment sites: Origin andinsertion sites for major anterior andposterior muscles (as above).Actions of anterior and posteriormuscles: Joint actions controlled by themajor muscles (as above).Roles of muscles: Agonist (prime mover),antagonist, fixator, synergist, musclesworking in pairs, muscle roles duringfunctional and sporting movements.Types of muscle contraction: Concentric,eccentric, static/isometric, isotonic,isokinetic.Principles of muscle contraction:Sliding filament theory, componentsinvolved (myofibril, sarcomere, actin,myosin, troponin, tropomyosin,calcium, sarcoplasmic reticulum, ATP),neurotransmitters, synapse, restingpotential, action potential, all or none law.Learning outcome 6: Know the structure and functions of the nervoussystemStructure of nervous system: Central(brain, spinal cord), peripheral, sensory,motor, somatic, autonomic (sympathetic,parasympathetic).Functions of nervous system: Central(brain, spinal cord), peripheral, sensory,motor, somatic, autonomic cs of nerves: Types ofnerves (motor, sensory, inter-neurons),characteristics (dendrites, axons, axonterminals, myelin sheath, cell body).

Learning outcome 7: Understand the structure and functions of theendocrine systemStructure of the endocrine system:Hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid,pituitary, pineal and adrenal, pancreas,ovaries, testes.Role of hormones: Regulate chemicalcomposition and volume of body fluidswithin internal environment, regulatemetabolism and energy balance, regulatecontraction of smooth and cardiac muscle,maintain homeostasis, regulate immunesystem activity, growth and development,reproductive processes.Key hormones and actions: Thyroxine,adrenaline, noradrenaline, human growthhormone, melatonin, cortisol, insulin,glucogen, oestrogen, progesterone,testosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH).Learning outcome 8: Understand the structure and functions of thecardiovascular systemStructure of cardiovascular system:Heart (endocardium, myocardium,pericardium, atria, ventricles, septum,nodes), heart valves (bicuspid, tricuspid,semi-lunar), coronary circulation, cardiacconduction (sinoatrial node, atrioventricularnode, right and left bundle branches,bundle of HIS, purkinje fibres), bloodvessels (arteries, veins, capillaries).Functions of cardiovascular system:Transport (oxygen, carbon dioxide,nutrients, waste products, hormones),regulation (body temperature, acidbalance), protection (blood loss, fightingforeign microbes).Flow of blood: Systemic circulation(oxygenated blood from lungs, pulmonaryvein, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta,arteries, arterioles, capillaries, musclesand organs), pulmonary circulation(deoxygenated blood from musclesand organs, capillaries, venules, veins,vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle,deoxygenated blood to the lungs foroxygenation).Composition of blood: Plasma, plasmaproteins, red blood cells (haemoglobin),white blood cells, platelets.Blood pressure: Definition of bloodpressure, systolic pressure, diastolicpressure, blood pressure classifications(hypotension, normal, high normal, mildhypertension, moderate hypertension,severe hypertension).Factors affecting blood pressure:Nutrition, exercise, alcohol, smoking,stress, medication, medical conditions.USP4121

Learning outcome 9: Understand the structure and functions of therespiratory systemStructure of respiratory system: Nose(cilia, mucus and goblet cells), pharynx,larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs,alveoli, diaphragm.Functions of respiratory system:Breathing (inspiration and expiration),pulmonary ventilation, external respiration,internal respiration, sense of smell, filtrationof inspired air, production of sound,elimination of wastes.Breathing muscles: Muscles duringnormal breathing (diaphragm, externalintercostals), accessory muscles duringforced inspiration (sternocleidomastoids,scalenes, pectoralis minor), accessorymuscles during forced expiration (internalintercostals, transversus abdominus, rectusabdominus).Passage of air: Upper respiratorytract (mouth, nose and pharynx), lowerrespiratory tract (larynx, trachea, bronchi,bronchioles), alveoli, alveolar sacs,process of gaseous exchange (pulmonaryventilation, external respiration, internalrespiration, partial pressure differences,diffusion of gases, relative composition ofinhaled and exhaled air).Learning outcome 10: Understand the structure and functions of thelymphatic systemStructure of lymphatic system:Capillaries, vessels, ducts, nodes, lymphfluid (monocytes, lymphocytes), primaryand secondary lymph organs.Functions of lymphatic system: Fightinfection, white blood cells, immunity,distribution of fluid throughout the body,transportation of fats.Structure of lymph nodes: Capsule,trabeculae, cortex, follicles, medulla,medullary cords, afferent vessels, efferentvessels.Functions of a lymph node: Filtration offoreign substances, destruction of foreignsubstances, immune

Anatomy and physiology for sports massage The aim of this unit is to develop the knowledge and understanding of anatomy and physiology relevant to sports massage. You will explore the anatomy and physiology of each of the body systems and look at the physical, physiological, neurological and psychological effects of sports massage on these systems.