DOCUMENT RESUME ED 274 022 CS 505 394

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DOCUMENT RESUMEED 274 022AUTHORTITLEINSTITUTIONSPONS AGENCYREPORT NOPUB DATECONTRACTGRANTNOTEAVAILABLE FROMPUB TYPEEDRS PRICEDESCRIPTORSCS 505 394O'Brien, Nancy, Ed.Status Report on Speech Research: A Report on theStatus and Progress of Studies on the Nature ofSpeech, Instrumentation for Its Investigation, andPractical Applications, January 1-March 31, 1986.Haskins Labs., New Haven, Conn,National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, Md.;National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.; Officeof Naval Research, Washington, D.C.SR-85(1986)86NICHHD-N01-HD-5-2910; ONR-N00014-83-K-0083NICHHD-HD-0109904; NIH-BRS-RR-05596; NINCDS-NS-13617;NINCDS-NS-13870; NINCDS-NS-18010; NSF-85207!)9;NSF-BNS-8111470273p.U.S. Department of Commerce, National TechnicalInformation Service, 5285 Port Royal Rd.,Springfield, VA 22151.Collected Works - General (020) -- Reports Research/Technical (143) -- Viewpoints (120)MF01/PC11 Plus Postage.*Communication Research; *Deafness; Morphophonemics;Phonology; Reading Research; *Speech CommunicationABSTRACTThe articles in this report explore the status andprogress of studies on the nature of speech, instrumentation for itsinvestigation, and practical research applications. Titles of thepapers and their authors are as follows: (1) "Phonological Awareness:The Role of the Reading Experience" (Virginia A. Mann); (2) "AnInvestigation of Speech Perception Abilities in Children Who Differin Reading Skill" (Susan Brady, Erica Poggie, and Michele Merlo); (3)"Phonological and Morphological Analysis by Skilled Readers ofSerbo-Croatian" (Laurie B. Feldman); (4) "Visual and ProductionSimilarity of the Handshapes of the American Manual Alphabet" (JohnT. Richards and Vicki L. Hanson); (5) "Short-term Memory for PrintedEnglish Words by Congenitally Deaf Signers: Evidence of Sign-BasedCoding Reconsidered" (Vicki L. Hanson and Edward H. Licktenstein);(6) "Morphophonology and Lexical Organization in Deaf Readers" (VickiL. Hanson and Deborah Wilkenfeld); (7) "Perceptual Constraints andPhonological Change: A Study of Nasal Vowel Height" (Patrice StreeterBeddor, Rena Arens Krakow, and Louis M. Goldstein); (8) "The ThaiTonal Space" (Arthur S. Abramson); (9) "P-Centers Are Unaffected byPhonetic Categorization" (Andre Maurice Cooper, D. H. Whalen, andCarol Ann Fowler); (10) "Two Cheers for Direct Realism" (MichaelStuddert-Kennedy); (11) "An Event Approach to the Study of SpeechPerception from a Direct-Realist Perspective" (Carol A. Fowler); (12)"The Dynamical Perspective on Speech Production: Data and Theory" (J.A. S. Kelso, E. L. Saltzman, and B. Tuller); (13) "The Velotrace:Device for. Monitoring Velar Position" (Satoshi Horiguchi andFredericka Bell-Berti); (14) "Towards an Articulatory Phonology"(Catherine P. Browman and Louis P. Goldstein); (15) "Representationof Voicing Contrasts Using Articulatory Gestures" (Louis Goldsteinand Catherine P. Browman); and (1b) "Mainstreaming Movement Science"(J. A. S. Kelso). (HTH)

SR-85 (1986)Status Report onSPEECH RESEARCHA Report onthe Status and Progress of Studies onthe Nature of Speech, Iv Arumentationfor its Investigatior., and PracticalApplications1 January - 31 March 1986U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONOffice ot Educahonal Research and ImprovementHaskins Laboratories270 Crown StreetNew Haven, Conn. 06511EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATIONCENTER (ERIC)\IiiLThis document has been reproduced asreceived from the person or organizationoriginating it0 Minor changes have been made to improvereproduction qualityPomts of view or opinionsstated in this docu.ment do not necessarily represent officialOERI position or policyDISTRIBUTION OF THIS DOCUMENT IS UNLIMITED(The information in this document is available to the general public. Haskins Laboratories distributes it primarilyfor library use. Copies are available from the Nationallbchnical Information Service or the ERIC Document Reproduction Service. See the Appendix for order number ofprevious Status Reports.)

Ignatius G. Mattingly, Acting Editor-in-ChiefNancy O'Brien, Editor

SR-85 (1988)(January-March)ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe research reported here was made possiblein part by support from the following sources:NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENTGrant HD-01994NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENTContract NO1-HD-5-2910NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTHBiomedical Research Support Grant RR-05596NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATIONGrant BNS-8111470Grant BNS-8520709NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF NEUROLOGICAL AND COMMUNICATIVEDISORDERS AND STROKEGrant NS 13870Grant NS 13617Grant NS 18010OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCHContract N00014-83-K-00834

SR-85 (1986)(January-March)HASKINS LABORATORIES PERSONNEL IN SPEECH RESEARCHInvestigatorsArthur S. Abramson*Peter J. Alfonso*Thomas BaerFredericka Bell-Berti*Catherine Best*Geoffrey BinghamtGloria J. Borden*Susan Brady*Catherine P. BrowmanFranklin S. Cooper*Stephen Crain*Robert Crowder*Laurie B. Feldman*Anne FowlertCarol A. Fowler*Louis Goldstein*Vicki L. HansonKatherine S. Harris*Amelia I. Hudson"Leonard Katz*J. A. Scott KelsoAndrea G. Levitt*Alvin M. Liberman*Isabelle Y. Liberman*Leigh Lisker*Virginia Mann*Ignatius G. Mattingly*Nancy S. McGarr*Richard S. McGowanKevin G. MunhallHiroshi Muta2Susan NittrouertfPatrick W. NyeLawrence J. Raphael*Bruno H. ReppPhilip E. RubinElliot Saltzmannonald Shankweiler*Michael Studdert-Kennedy*Betty Tuller*Michael T. Turvey*Douglas H. WhalenTechnical/SupportPhilip ChagnonAlice DadourianMichael D'AngeloBetty J. DeliseVincent GulisanoDonald HaileyRaymond C. Huey*Sabina D. KorolukYvonne ManningBruce MartinNancy O'BrienWilliam P. ScullyRichard S. SharkanyEdward R. WileyStudents*Joy ArmsonDragana BaracEric BatesonSuzanne BoyceTeresa CliffordAndre CooperMargaret DunnCarole E. GelferBruce KayNoriko KobayashiRena A. KrakowDeborah KuglitschHwei-Bing LinKatrina LukatelaHarriet MagenSharon ManuelJerry McRobertsLawrence D. RosenblumArlyne RussoRichard C. SchmidtJohn ScholzRobin SeiderSuzanne SmithKatyanee SvastikulaDavid Williams*Part-time'Visiting from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA2Visiting from University of Tokyo, JapantNIH Research FellowttNRSA Training Fellow5

SR-85 (1986)(January-March)CONTENTSPHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS: THE ROLE OF READING EXPERIENCEVirginia A. Mann1-22AN INVESTIGATION OF SPEECH PERCEPTION ABILITIESIN CHILDREN WHO DIFFER IN READiNG SKILLSusan Brady, Erika Poggie,and Michele Merlo23-37PHONOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS BY SKILLEDREADERS OF SERBO-CROATIANLaurie B. Feldman39-50VISUAL AND PRODUCTION SIMILARITY OF THE HANDSHAPESOF THE AMERICAN MANUAL ALPeABETJohn T. Richards and Vicki L. Hanson51-64SHORT-TERM MEMORY FOR PRINTED ENGLISH 'WORDS BY CONGENITALLYDEAF SIGNERS: EVIDENCE OF SIGN-BASED CODING RECONSIDEREDVicki L. Hanson and Edward H. Lichtenstein65-7/MORPHOPHONOLOGY AND LEXICAL ORGANIZATION IN DEAF READERSVicki L. Hanson and Deborah Wilkenfeld73-84PERCEPTUAL CONSTRAINTS AND PHONOLOGICAL CHANGE:A STUDY OF NASAL VOWEL HEIGHTPatrice Streeter Beddor, Rena Arens Krakow,and Louis M. Goldstein85-104THE THAI TONAL SPACEArthur S. Abramson105-114P-CENTERS ARE UNAFFECTED BY PHONETIC CATEGORIZATIONAndré Maurice Cooper, D. H. Whalen,and Carol Ann Fowler115-131TWO CHEERS FOR DIRECT REALISMMichael Studdert-Kennedy133-138AN EVENT APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF SPEECH PERCEPTION FROM ADIRECT-REALIST PERSPECTIVECarol A. Fowler139-169THE DYNAMICAL PERSPECTIVE ON SPEECH PRODUCTION: DATA AND THEORYJ. A. S. Kelso, E. L. Saltzman,and B. Tuller171-205THE VELOTRACE: A DEVICE FOR MONITORING VELAR POSITIONSatoshi Horiguchi ami Fredericka BeIl-Berti207-218vii

SR-85 (1986)(January-March)TOWARDS AN ARTICULATORY PHONOLOGYCatherine P. Browman and Louis M. Goldstein219-250REPRESENTATION OF VOICING CONTRASTS USINGARTICULATORY GESTURESLouis Goldstein and Catherine P. Browman251-254MAINSTREAMING MOVEMENT SCIENCEJ. A. S. Kelso255-262PUBLICATIONS265-266APPENDIX:DTIC and ERIC numbers(SR-21/22 - SR-84)267-2687viii

Status Report on Speech ResearchHaskins Laboratories8

PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS:THE ROLE OF READING EXPERIENCE*Virginia A. ManntAbstract.A cross-cultural study of Japanese and American childrenhas examinedthe development of awareness aboutsyllables andphonemes. Using counting tests and deletiontests,Experiments Iand III reveal that in contrast to first graders in America, most ofwhom tend to be aware of both syllables and phonemes,almost allfirst graders in Japan are aware of mora (phonological units roughlyequivalent to syllables), but relatively few are aware of phonemes.This difference in phonological awareness may be attributed to thefact that Japanese first graders learn to read a syllabary, whereasAmerican first graders learn to read an alphabet. For most childrenat this age, awareness of phonemeb may require experience withalphabetic transcription, whereas awareness of syllables may befacilitated by experience with a syllabary, but be less dependentupon it. To clarify further the role of knowledge of an alphabet onchildren's awareness of phonemes, Experiments II and IV administeredthe same countingand deletion tests to Japanese children in thelater elementary grades. Here the data reveal that many Japanesechildren become aware of phonemes by age ten whether or not theyhave received instruction in alphabetic transcription.Discussionofthese results focuses on some of the other factors that maypromote phonological awareness.IntroductionThe primary language activities of listening and speaking do not requirean explicit awareness of the internal phonological structure of words any morethan they require an explicit awareness of the rules of syntax.Yet a"metalinguistic" awareness that words comprise syllables and phonemes isprecisely what is needed when language users turn from the primary languageactivities of dpeaking and listening to the secondary language activities ofreading, versification, and word games (Liberman,1971;Mattingly,1972,*Coznition, in press.tAIso bryn Mawr College.Acknowledgment. The research reported in this paper was completed while theauthor was a Fulbright Fellow and was partially funded by NICHD GrantHD21182-01 and by NICHD Grant HD01994 to Haskins Laboratories, Inc.Thisstudy could not have been completed without the help of Dr. Seishi Hibi, whoserved as research assistant, and without the very gracious compliance ofMs. Shizuko Fukuda and the children and teachers of the primary schoolattached to Ochanomizu University.I am also indebted to Dr. M. Sawashima,Dr. Isabelle Liberman, Dr. T. Ueno, and Dr. S. Sasanuma for their adviceduring many stages of this project.[HASKINS LABORATORIES:Status Report on Speech Research SR-85 (1986)]9

Mann:Phonological Awareness1984).While all members of a given community become speakers and hearers,not all become readers, nor do they all play word gaAes or appreciate verse.This difference raises the possibility that the development of phonologicalawareness might require some special cultivating experience above and beyondthat which supports primary language acquisition.Several different research groups have reported that adults who cannotread an alphFI:etic orthography are unable to manipulate phonemes (Byrne &Ledez, 1986; Liberman, Rubin, Duquès, & Carlisle, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria,&Bertelson,1979;Read, Zhang, Nie, & Ding, 198)4), raising the possibilitythat knowledge of the alphabet is essential to awareness of phonemes.Infurther pursuit of the factors that give rise to phonological awareness, thepresent study has explored thr awareness of syllables and phonemes amongJapanese children and American children. This particular cross-linguisticcomparison is prompted by certain differences between the English and Japaneseorthographies, and by certain differences in the word games and versificationdevices that are available to children in the two language communities.Children in America learn to read the English orthography, an alphabetrepresents spoken language at the level of the phoneme. Many of themalso play phoneme-based word games such as "pig-Latin" and "Geography," andlearn to employ versification devices such as alliteration that involvemanipulations of phonemes, as well as word games and versification devicesthat exploit meter and thus operate on syllable-sized units.In contrast,virtually all of the secondary language activities that are available toJapanesechildren manipulate mora--phonological units that are roughlyequivalent to syllables--if they manipulate phonological structure at all.Japanese children learn to read an orthography that comprises two types oftranscription:Kanji, a morphology-based system, and Kana, a phonology-basedsystem. Kanji is derived from the Chinese logography and represents the rootsof words without regard to grammatical inflecticns, whereas Kana is of nativeorigin and comprises two syllabaries,Hiragana and Katakana, which canrepresent the root and inflection of any word in terms of their constituentmora.Typically: the two orthographies function together, with Kenjirepresenting most word roots and Kana representing all word inflections andthe rootsof those words that lack Kanji characters.As for other secondarylanguage activities, Japanese word games such as "Shiritori"(amora-basedequivalent of "Geography") and versification.devices such as Haiku manipulatethatmora.In short, Japanese secondary language activities do not manipulatelanguage at the level of the phoneme, whereas several English secondarylanguageactivities hy.Both Japanese and English afford versification devices and wordgames that manipulate syllable- sized units, but the Japanese orthography isunique in its inclusion of a syllabary.Given these similarities anddifferences between the orthographies and other secondary language activitiesin English and Japanese, it may be reasoned that, if experience with secondarylanguage activities plays a specific role in the development of awarenessabout syllablesandphonemes, Japanese children should be aware of mora(syllables), whereas American children should be aware of both phonemes andsyllables.Should the experience of learning to read a given type oforthography play a particularly critical factor, Japanese children should bemore aware of syllables than their American counterparts. who should be moreaware of phonemes. It seems unlikely that the posJession of primary language2u

Mann:Phonological Awarenessskills is sufficient to make Japanese and American children euivalent inawareness of phonemes, given findings that alphabet-illiterate adults are notaware of phonemes.However,itremains possible that children in the twocountries will be equivalent in phonological awareness shouldreadingexperience or some other form of secondary language experience that draws thechild's attention to the phonological structure of language promote theawareness of both syllables and phonemes.The possibility that reading experience plays a particularly importantrole in the development of phonological awareness arises from the many studiesthat reveal an association between phonological awareness and success inlearning to read an alphabetic orthography. These reveal that performance ontasksthat require manipulations of phonologicalstructurenotonlydistinguishes good and poor readers in the early elementar'y grades (see, forexample, Alegria, Pignot, & Morais, 1982; Fox & Routh, 1976; Katz,1982;Liberman,1973;Rosner & Simon, 1973) but also correlates with children'sscores on standard reading tests (see, for example, Calfee, Lindamood, &Lindamood,1973;Fox & Routh, 1976; Perfetti, 1985; Stanovich, Cunningham, &Freeman, 1984b; Treiman & Baron, 1983).In many studies of reading ability and phonological awareness,thequestion of cause and effect has been broached, but never completely resolved.One of the earliest studies revealed that American children's awareness ofphonologicalstructure markedly improves at justthat age when they arebeginning to read (Liberman, Shankweiler, Fischer, & Carter, 1974):Among asample of four, five, and six-year-olds, none of the youngest children couldidentify the number of phonemes in a spoken word, while half could identifythe numberof syllables;ofthe five-year-olds,17percent could countphonemes while, again, half could count syllables.Most dramatically,70percent of the six-year-olds could count phonemes and 90 percent could countsyllables.Did the older children become aware of syllables and phonemesbecause they were learning to read, was the opposite true, or both?Certain evidence suggests that phonological awareness can precede readingability or develop independently. First of all, various measures of phonemeawareness and syllable awareness are capable of presaging the success withwhich preliterate kindergarten children will learn to read the alphabet in thefirst grade (see, for example, Bradley & Bryant, 1983; Helfgotc,1976;Jusczyk,1977; Liberman et al., 1974; Lundberg, Oloffson, & Wall, 1980; Mann,1984; Mann & Liberman, 1984; Stanovich, Cunningham, & Cramer, 1984a). Second,there is evidence that explicit training in the ability to manipulate phonemescan facilitate preliterate children's ability to learn to read (Bradley &firyant,1985).Third,the awareness of syllables, in particular, does notappear to depend upon reading experience,asthe majority of preliteratechildren can manipulate syllables by age six without having been instructed inthe use of a syllabary or an alphabet (Amano, 1970; Liberman et al., 1974;Mann & Liberman,1984),and the ability to manipulate syllables is notstrongly influenced by the kind of reaaing instruction, "whole-word" or"phonics," that children receive in the first grade (Alegria et al., 1982).Other evidence, however, has revealed that at least one component ofphonological awareness--awarcness cf phonemes--may depend on knowledge of analphabet.As noted previously, several different investigators have reportedthat theability to manipulate ponemes is markedly deficient in adWts whocannot read alphabetic transcription.Awareness of phonemes is del'icient311

Mann:Phonological Awarenessamong semi-literate American adults (Liberman et al., 1985), reading-disabledAustralian adults (Byrne & Ledez, 1986), illiterate Portugese adults (Moraisetal.,1979),and Chinese adults who can read only the Chinese logographicorthography (Read et al., 1984). In addition, the type of reading instructionthatchildrenreceivecan influence the extentoftheir awareness:first-graders who have been taught to read the alphabet by a "phonics"approach tend to be more aware of phonemes than those who have learned by a"whole-word" method (Alegria et al., 1982).Present evidence, l awareness and reading ability is a two-way street (Perfetti,1985), which may depend on the level of awareness being addressed.Awarenessof syllables is notvery dependent on reading experience and could be anatural cognitive achievement of sorts, whereas awareness of phonemes maydepend upon the experience of learning to read the alphabet, in general, andon methods of instruction that draw attention to phonemic structure, inparticular.As a test of this view, the present study examined the phonemeand syllable awareness of children in a Japanese elementary school, predictingthat thesechildren would be aware of syllables, but would not be aware ofphonemes until that point in their education when they receive instruction inthe use of alphabetic transcription.The design of the study i7volvesfourexperiments that focus on theawareness of syllables (mor.:. and phonemes among children at different ages.Two different experimental parad,gms are employed as a control against anyconfounding effects of task-specific variables.One paradigm is the countingtest developed by Liberman and her colleagues, a test used in several studiesof phonological awareness among American children (see, for example, Libermanet al., 1974; Mann & Liberman, 198)4).The other is a deletion task, much likethat employ

and III reveal that in contrast to first graders in America, most of whom tend to be aware of both syllables. and phonemes, almost. all. first graders in Japan are aware of mora (phonological units roughly equivalent to syllables), but relatively few are aware of. phonemes. This diff

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