Fabrication And W Elding

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Fabrication and WeldingEngineering

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Fabrication and WeldingEngineeringRoger Timings BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYOAMSTERDAMPARISNewnes is an imprint of Elsevier

Newnes is an imprint of ElsevierLinacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USACopyright 2008 Roger Timings, Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reservedThe right of Roger Timings to be identified as the author of this work has beenasserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system ortransmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisherPermissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & TechnologyRights Department in Oxford, UK: phone ( 44) (0) 1865 843830; fax ( 44) (0)1865 853333; email: [email protected] Alternatively you can submit yourrequest online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions,and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier materialNoticeNo responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons orproperty as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use oroperation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of CongressISBN: 978-0-7506-6691-6For information on all Newnes publications visit ourweb site at http://books.elsevier.comTypeset by Charon Tec Ltd., A Macmillan Company. (www.macmillansolutions.com)Printed and bound in Hungary08 09 10 11 1210 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ContentsPrefaceixAcknowledgements of figures and tablesxi1Health and safety1.1 Health, safety and the law1.2 Employers’ responsibilities1.3 Employees’ responsibilities1.4 Electrical hazards1.5 Fire fighting1.6 Fire precautions and prevention1.7 Accidents1.8 First aid1.9 Personal protection1.10 Hazards in the workplace1.11 Manual lifting1.12 Mechanical lifting equipment1.13 Use of lifting equipment1.14 Accessories for lifting gear1.15 Useful knots for fibre ropes1.16 Inspection (lifting equipment)1.17 Oxy-acetylene welding1.18 Arc-welding equipment (mains operated)1.19 Working on 2.12.22.32.42.55758596162Personal developmentBasic relationshipsRelationship with managers, supervisors and instructorsAttitude and behaviourImplementing company policyCreating and maintaining effective working relationships withother peopleExercises6466

viContents3Engineering materials and heat treatment3.1 States of matter3.2 Properties of materials3.3 Classification of materials3.4 Ferrous metals (plain carbon steels)3.5 Ferrous metals (alloy steels)3.6 Ferrous metals (cast irons)3.7 Abbreviations3.8 Non-ferrous metals and alloys3.9 The identification of metals3.10 Non-metals (natural)3.11 Non-metals (synthetic)3.12 Forms of supply3.13 Heat treatment processes (introduction)3.14 Heat treatment processes (safety)3.15 The heat treatment of plain carbon steels3.16 The heat treatment of non-ferrous metals and alloys3.17 Heat-treatment furnaces3.18 Temperature measurement3.19 Atmosphere 01021051081094Using and communicating technical information4.1 Selection of information sources4.2 Interpretation of information (graphical)4.3 Interpretation of information (tables, charts and schedules)4.4 Evaluating engineering information4.5 Recording and processing engineering information4.6 Methods of record keeping4.7 Communications (miscellaneous)4.8 Engineering drawing (introduction)4.9 First angle orthographic drawing4.10 Third angle orthographic drawing4.11 Conventions4.12 Redundant views4.13 Dimensioning4.14 Welding symbols4.15 The development of surfaces4.16 Interpenetration4.17 Pictorial 71172Measuring and marking outIntroductionLinear measurementAngular measurementCorrect use of measuring equipmentMarking out equipment (tools for making lines)

Contentsvii5.6 Marking out equipment (tools for providing guidance)5.7 Marking out equipment (tools for providing support)5.8 Techniques for marking out5.9 The need for templates5.10 The manufacture of templates5.11 The use of templates5.12 Condition and care of l removal6.1 Cutting tool principles6.2 The application of basic cutting tool angles to hand tools6.3 Drilling, drilling machines and routing6.4 Shearing sheet metal6.5 Portable power tools6.6 Blanking (stamping and piercing)6.7 Flame cuttingExercises2112122142262392492592632757Sheet and plate metalwork7.1 Sheet and plate metalwork (introduction)7.2 Roll-bending sheet metal and plate7.3 Flow forming sheet metal7.4 The principles of metal spinning7.5 Swaging sheet metal7.6 Basic fabrication ural steelwork and pipework8.1 Rolled steel sections8.2 Typical structural steel connections and assemblies8.3 Trusses and lattice frames8.4 Web stiffeners8.5 Fabricated lightweight beams8.6 Castellated beams8.7 Pipework (setting out bends)8.8 Pipe bending8.9 Pipe 9Joining processes (mechanical connections)9.1 Mechanical connections (threaded)9.2 Hand reamers and reaming9.3 Riveted joints9.4 Pop Diveting9.5 Self secured joints9.6 Folding and jointing allowance9.7 The Pittsburgh lockExercises385386404405411418421425428

viiiContents10 Joining processes (soldering, brazing and braze-welding)10.1 Soft soldering10.2 Soft-soldered joints using lead-free solders10.3 Hard soldering (brazing)10.4 Aluminium brazing10.5 Types of brazed joints10.6 Braze-weldingExercises42943044544745746046046611 Joining processes (welding)11.1 Fusion welding11.2 Oxy-acetylene welding11.3 Manual metal-arc welding11.4 Workshop testing of welds11.5 Miscellaneous fusion welding processes11.6 Workholding devices for fusion welding11.7 Resistance welding11.8 Further welding processesExercises46746846849050450650951551851912 Composite fabrication processes and adhesive bonding12.1 Introduction12.2 Lamination12.3 Fibre reinforcement12.4 Particle reinforcement12.5 The manipulation and fabrication of polymers (plastics)12.6 Adhesive bonding12.7 Adhesive bonding of metalsExercises521522522525531533540545554Appendix A555Index557

PrefaceThis book is designed to provide an accessible course in the basic sheet-metal fabrication and welding engineering principles and applications required in a wide rangeof vocational courses. No prior knowledge of sheet-metal fabrication and welding isassumed.I trust that Fabrication and Welding Engineering will be found to be a worthycomplement to my previous books on the fundamentals of general and mechanical engineering. As well as offering up-to-date best practice and technical information, this new title has been fully matched to the latest courses, in particular Level2 NVQs in Performing Engineering Operations from EAL and the City & Guilds.Guidance on the depth of treatment has been taken from the SEMTA NationalOccupational Standards on which all NVQs are based. The book is especially usefulfor trainees who are involved in a SEMTA Apprenticeship in Engineering.All of the chapters end with a selection of exercises. These will help with assessing the trainees’ performance criteria for the underpinning knowledge and understanding that is an essential part of their training. The book ends with an Appendixof useful websites on the more advanced aspects of welding and profile cuttinginvolving: plasma arc welding; electron beam welding; laser welding and cuttingand automated (robotic) welding and cutting (CNC).I also wish to pay tribute to the late Mr F.J.M. Smith who collaborated with meon matters of sheet-metal working and welding where this topic area occurred in myprevious books. I have drawn heavily on his expertise in this current book.

xPrefaceFinally, the author and publishers are grateful to SEMTA, Pearson EducationalLtd for allowing me to quote extensively from F.J.M. Smith’s book Fundamentals ofFabrication and Welding Engineering , Henkel Loctite, Tucker Fasteners Ltd and allthe other companies and organizations listed under acknowledgements for allowingthe reproduction and adaptation of their illustrations and material in this text.Roger Timings

Acknowledgements offigures and tablesThe author is indebted to Mr Bob Goss, Senior Technology Specialist at HenkelLoctite Adhesives Limited for his assistance in compiling the information onadhesive bonding in Chapter 12. The author also wishes to acknowledge EmhartTechnologies (Tucker Fasteners Ltd.) for permission to use illustrations in theextracts from Mechanical Engineer’s Pocket Book, 3rd Edn, Newnes, 2005, pp. 295to 300, 320 to 324 and 341 to 349.Further acknowledgement is for the Figures and Tables is given on the followingpages.

xiiAcknowledgements of figures and tablesFigure No.SourceCopyright 61.271.281.291.301.31R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, General Engineering, Longman, 1995R. Timings, General Engineering, Longman, 1995R. Timings, General Engineering, Longman, 1995R. Timings, General Engineering, Longman, 1995R. Timings, General Engineering, Longman, 1995R. Timings, General Engineering, Longman, 1995R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 20021.321.331.341.351.361.371.381.39R. Timings, General Engineering, Longman, 1995R. Timings, General Engineering, Longman, 1995R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, General Engineering, Longman, 1995R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992Training Publications LtdFederation of Building Trades EmployersTraining Publications LtdTraining Publications LtdPearson Education LtdBritish Standards InstitutionBritish Standards InstitutionBritish Standards InstitutionBritish Standards InstitutionTraining Publications LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdTraining Publications LtdTraining Publications LtdTraining Publications LtdTraining Publications LtdPearson Education LtdTraining Publications LtdTraining Publications LtdFederation of Building Trades EmployersFederation of Building Trades EmployersFederation of Building Trades EmployersFederation of Building Trades EmployersFederation of Building Trades EmployersTraining Publications LtdTraining Publications Ltd/PearsonEducation LtdBritish Standards InstitutionPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdTraining Publications Ltd1.401.411.421.43British Oxygen CompanyBritish Oxygen CompanyTraining Publications LtdTraining Publications Ltd(Continued)

Acknowledgements of figures and tablesFigure No.SourceCopyright holder1.44Pearson Education Ltd1.551.56F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 20022.12.22.3R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002Pearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education 3.153.163.173.183.193.20R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002Pearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education rson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdTraining Publications LtdTraining Publications LtdFederation of Building Trades EmployersFederation of Building Trades EmployersFederation of Building Trades EmployersFederation of Building Trades EmployersPearson Education LtdPearson Education Ltd(Continued)

xivAcknowledgements of figures and tablesFigure No.SourceCopyright .144.154.164.174.184.194.204.21R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992Pearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdBritish Standards InstitutionBritish Standards InstitutionBritish Standards InstitutionBritish Standards InstitutionBritish Standards InstitutionBritish Standards InstitutionPearson Education 34.344.35Pearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education LtdPearson Education Ltd(Continued)

Acknowledgements of figures and tablesFigure No.SourceCopyright holder4.36F.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEngineering, Longman, 1992E. Jackson, Jackson’s Geometrical and EngineeringDrawing, Longman, 1969E. Jackson, Jackson’s Geometrical and EngineeringDrawing, Longman, 1969R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002R. Timings, Engineering Fundamentals, Newnes, 2002Pearson Education LtdF.J.M. Smith, Fundamentals of Fabrication and WeldingEn

10.6 Braze-welding 460 Exercises 466 11 Joining processes (welding) 467 11.1 Fusion welding 468 11.2 Oxy-acetylene welding 468 11.3 Manual metal-arc welding 490 11.4 Workshop testing of welds 504 11.5 Miscellaneous fusion welding processes 506 11.6 Workholding devices for fusion welding 509 11.7 Resistance welding 515