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23EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe automotive sector is on the cusp of a revolution. The development of increasinglyconnected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) brings the potential for truly transformativechange in the way people and goods are transported, offering significant improvementsin safety, efficiency, mobility, productivity and user experience.This potential for transformative change creates huge opportunities for both new and existing players in theautomotive sector, but for a successful transition from basic functions like cruise control, to fully autonomousdriving, CAVs must overcome challenges to safety, cost, and customer perceptions. The CAV technologiesthat will enable this and their integration into user-centric systems is a fast-moving domain with significantindustry focus.The automotive sector is a key pillar of the UK economy, employing over 800,000 people, including 151,000specifically in motor vehicle manufacturing1. The CAV revolution brings with it the chance to not only maintainthe UK’s place in the global market, but to expand it, potentially unlocking a host of opportunities in terms ofemployment and wider economic benefits.However, the size of the opportunity that results from this transition will depend on the extent of thechanges to the automotive market overall, and the new technologies required specifically for CAVs will be afundamental part of this change. As such, capturing the maximum opportunities for the UK will require an astuteunderstanding of which UK capabilities could be effectively harnessed to provide the technologies which will bemost valuable to the burgeoning CAV market.In this context, the Centre for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CCAV) has commissioned this study toquantify the industrial opportunity to the UK that could result from CAV uptake, in terms of: the potential value of the domestic and global markets for CAVs and CAV technologies; the potential GVA for UK production of CAVs and CAV technologies; the potential for new UK jobs relating to the production of CAVs and CAV technologies.This work is intended to provide a greater understanding of the specific opportunities for UK industry that thetransition to CAVs could bring, to inform the development of a strong Industrial Strategy which will enable the UKautomotive sector to consolidate and expand on past successes, as the global market shifts.1WHAT IS THE OPPORTUNITY FOR UK CAV INDUSTRY?UK AUTOMOTIVEINDUSTRY151k 71.6bnDIRECTJOBSANNUALTURNOVER1.56m1.2mCARS BUILTEXPORTEDEXPORT POTENTIAL2035Understand & maximisedomestic and globalopportunity for theUK CAV industry 800kAUTOMOTIVEJOBS“Autonomous Vehicles” are expected to use information from on-board sensors and systems to understandtheir global position and local environment, enabling them to operate with little or no human input for some,or all, of their journey. “Connected Vehicles” are expected to have the ability to communicate with theirsurrounding environment (including infrastructure and other vehicles), and to provide information to the driverthat informs decisions about the journey and even activities at the destination.It is likely that autonomy and connectivity will complement and reinforce one another; the ability to receive andtransmit data, for example, is already being utilised in vehicles to help achieve autonomous capabilities. It islikely that technology convergence will result in the production and uptake of vehicles that are both connectedand autonomous. Such vehicles are the focus of this study, and are referred to as connected and autonomousvehicles (CAVs).“CAV technologies” are defined as the on-vehicle technologies that provide CAVs with their autonomous and/orconnected capabilities. This includes software (such as computer imaging and safety critical systems) as wellas hardware (such as radar, LIDAR and GPS receivers). ONS (2016) and SMMT (2016)Transport Systems Catapult - Market Forecast for Connected and Autonomous VehiclesTransport Systems Catapult - Market Forecast for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

45INDUSTRY CONSIDERED I n 2035, 70% of the UK jobs relating to CAV technology production are estimated to be in softwarerelated industries, where UK capabilities are strong, the value of the technologies is high, and the labourintensity of production is high. The remaining 30% would be in the production of CAV hardware suchas sensors. O ver 90% of the jobs created in developing CAV software and over 80% of the jobs relating to themanufacture of CAV hardware are expected to be in professional, technical and skilled trade occupations. A nnual GVA related to the production of CAVs is estimated to reach 6.9bn by 2035; GVA in firms thatare producing CAV technologies is expected to reach 1.2bn. As with the job estimates outlined above,only the GVA for CAV technologies should be considered net additional.DevelopmentConnected andAutonomous VehiclesAutomation: SAE: L3 L4 L5CAV Technologies DevelopmentConnectivity: C-ITS - V2x Software and SystemsHardware AI, Navigation, Maps, SecuritySensors, Camera, Lidar, RadarOUT OF SCOPEManufactureImport/ExportSAE: L1 L2Business Models: Mobility as a Service, Robo Taxis etcInsurance, GPS, etcTHE OPPORTUNITY FOR UK CAV INDUSTRYAs shown in the diagram, this study specifically considers the markets relating to uptake of connected andautonomous cars, vans, heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and buses, with high levels of autonomy2, and on-vehicleconnectivity features that complement autonomy (i.e. vehicle to infrastructure/ vehicle to vehicle technology).The focus of the economic analysis is on the gross contribution of manufacturing CAVs and enabling CAVtechnologies in the UK. The wider economic impacts of the use of CAV technologies and its potential creationof new business models are not estimated. Changes in use of vehicles, potential new services offered andproductivity or welfare improvements from more efficient use of travelling time are not considered.CAVS 907bn 28-52bnGLOBAL MARKETUK MARKETCAV TECHNOLOGIES 63bn 2.7-5.2bnGLOBAL MARKETUK MARKET 7-9bn 1.2-2.1bnGLOBAL MARKETUK MARKET27-37kUK JOBS6-10kUK JOBSKEY RESULTS- 2T he market for CAVs in the UK (specifically, for road vehicles with CAV technologies) is estimated to beworth 28bn in 2035, capturing 3% of the 907bn global market. I n the same year, the market for CAV technologies in the UK (as installed in vehicles sold in the UK) isestimated to be worth 2.7bn, capturing 4% of the 63 billion global market. I t is estimated that UK jobs in the manufacture and assembly of CAVs would reach 27,400 in 2035. Thiscompares to around 151,000 people who are currently employed in motor vehicle manufacturing3. Thesejobs would effectively replace the equivalent number of jobs in the manufacture of non-CAVs, so thesefigures should not be considered as net additional. H owever, jobs relating to the production of CAV technologies will be net additional. By 2035, there wouldbe an estimated 6,000 direct UK jobs in the production of CAV technologies, with a further 3,900 indirectjobs created in the supply chain for these technologies.GROSS VALUE ADDED2035 2015Size of the market in 2035Despite the significant surge in interest in this sector in recent years, CAVs and CAV technologies are yet tobe fully developed, and an industry consensus around factors such as costs and consumer attitudes has yet toemerge. Therefore, the accuracy of the forecasts set out in this study are inevitably limited by uncertaintiesaround adoption rates, costs and labour intensities for these technologies. It is important that the results areconsidered in the context of the assumptions made and the range of scenarios considered (all of which areexplained in detail in the report). Specifically SAE autonomy level 3 and above. SAE has defined 6 levels of autonomy. Level 0 translates to complete control by the driver and levels 1-2 include existing “advanceddriver assist” features. For level 3 and above, the full dynamic driving task can be undertaken by the vehicle, including monitoring of the environment as well as lateral andlongitudinal control. Level 5 corresponds to complete autonomy, with no input required by the driver.3 (Office for National Statistics, 2016).Transport Systems Catapult - Market Forecast for Connected and Autonomous VehiclesTransport Systems Catapult - Market Forecast for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

67WHAT IS THE OPPORTUNITY FOR UK CAV INDUSTRY?UK AUTOMOTIVEINDUSTRY151k 71.6bnDIRECTJOBSANNUALTURNOVER1.56m1.2mCARS BUILTEXPORTEDCONTENTSEXPORT POTENTIAL2035EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .2CONTENTS .7Understand & maximisedomestic and globalopportunity for theUK CAV industryRELEASE CONDITIONS .10AUTHORISATION PAGE .11AUTHORISATION . 11RECORD OF CHANGES .11 800kAUTOMOTIVEJOBSACRONYMS .12INDUSTRY CONSIDERED1. INTRODUCTION .13DevelopmentCAV Technologies DevelopmentConnected andAutonomous VehiclesConnectivity: C-ITS - V2x Software and SystemsHardware AI, Navigation, Maps, SecuritySensors, Camera, Lidar, RadarAutomation: SAE: L3 L4 L5ManufactureImport/ExportSAE: L1 L2Business Models: Mobility as a Service, Robo Taxis etcInsurance, GPS, etcOUT OF SCOPEUK MARKET1.1 BACKGROUND .131.2 OUTPUTS & DELIVERABLES .141.3 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT .142. SCOPE.152.1 DEFINING CONNECTED AND AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES .15GLOBAL MARKET2.2 TECHNOLOGIES IN SCOPE .16THE OPPORTUNITY FOR UK CAV INDUSTRY2.2.1 Levels of Autonomy in Scope .162.2.2 Connectivity and Autonomy Technologies in Scope .18CAVS 907bn 28-52bnGLOBAL MARKETUK MARKETCAV TECHNOLOGIES 63bn 2.7-5.2bnGLOBAL MARKETUK MARKET 7-9bn 1.2-2.1bnGLOBAL MARKETUK MARKET27-37kUK JOBS6-10kUK JOBSGROSS VALUE ADDED2035 2015Size of the market in 2035Transport Systems Catapult - Market Forecast for Connected and Autonomous VehiclesTransport Systems Catapult - Market Forecast for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

893. SIZING THE CAV MARKET.204.6 IMPACTS ON GVA .563.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS .204.6.1 Direct effects .563.2 SUMMARY OF APPROACH .224.6.2 Indirect effects . 573.3 SCENARIOS FOR FUTURE CAV SALES .234.7 IMPACTS ON JOBS .583.3.1 Projected vehicle sales by region . 234.7.1 Direct effects .583.3.2 Global uptake scenarios . 244.7.2 Indirect effects .593.3.3 Regional uptake assumptions and UK uptake scenarios . 264.8 SENSITIVITY TO KEY ASSUMPTIONS .603.4 VALUE OF CAV COMPONENTS AND TECHNOLOGIES . 304.8.1 High UK capabilities sensitivity .613.4.1 Cost of autonomy packages over time . 304.8.2 Low software share sensitivity .623.4.2 Relative value of components for autonomy packages . 323.4.3 Key areas of uncertainty in cost projections .373.5 PROJECTED MARKET SIZE FOR CAVS AND CAV TECHNOLOGIES .383.5.1 Size of the UK market .383.5.2 Size of the global market .404. ECONOMIC IMPACTS FOR THE UK.434.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS .434.2 SCOPE OF ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS .464.3 OVERVIEW OF ECONOMIC METHOD .484.4 IMPACTS ON TRADE . 494.4.1 Imports .504.4.2 Exports .524.5 IMPACT ON GROSS OUTPUT AND INVESTMENT . 544.5.1 Gross output .544.5.2 Investment .555. CONCLUSIONS.635.1 CAV MARKET VALUE .635.2 UK ECONOMIC IMPACTS .645.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.656. APPENDICES.666.1 A – EXTRACT FROM SAE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD J3016 .666.2 B – ASSUMPTIONS FOR RELATIVE COMPONENT VALUES.676.3 C – APPROACH TO ECONOMIC IMPACTS ANALYSIS.72TRADE .72GROSS OUTPUT AND INVESTMENT .73GVA .74JOBS .74LIMITATIONS OF APPROACH TO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS . 756.4 D – MAPPING OF CAV TECHNOLOGIES TO UK SIC (2007) CODES .766.5 E – COMPARISON OF DATA AND LITERATURE ON UK CAV CAPABILITIES .787. BIBLIOGRAPHY.87Transport Systems Catapult - Market Forecast for Connected and Autonomous VehiclesTransport Systems Catapult - Market Forecast for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

1011AUTHORISATION PAGEAUTHORISATIONACTIONSIGNATURE BLOCKNAME AND POSITIONWritten by:Sophie Lyons, Senior Consultant,Element EnergySachin Babbar, Economist, CambridgeEconometrics (section 4)Reviewed by:Celine Cluzel, Associate Director,Element EnergyAlex Stewart, Director, Element EnergyHector Pollitt, Director, CambridgeEconometrics (section 4)Authorised by:Matthew Barton, Principal TechnologistTransport Systems CatapultRECORD OF CHANGES:RELEASE CONDITIONSTHIS DOCUMENT AND THE INFORMATION IN IT ARE PROVIDED IN CONFIDENCE, FOR THE SOLE PURPOSE OF USE BY THE CENTREFOR CONNECTED AND AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES AND OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, AND MAY NOT BE DISCLOSED TO ANY THIRDPARTY OR USED FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN PERMISSION OF THE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS CATAPULT,NOT TO BE UNREASONABLY WITHHELD.DISCLAIMERThis report has been produced by Element Energy and Cambridge Econometrics on behalf of the Transport Systems Cata

uk market global market 2035 2015 cavs cav technologies gross value added 27-37k 907bn ukjobs 6-10k uk jobs 7-9bn global market 28-52bn global market uk market 2.7-5.2bn uk market 63bn global market 1.2-2.1bn uk market the opportunity for uk

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