Annual Report On Sexual Harassment And Violence At The .

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Annual Report onSexual Harassment andViolence at the MilitaryService AcademiesAcademic Program Year2015-2016The Department of DefenseSAPRO ODMEO

Department of DefenseAnnual Report on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the Military ServiceAcademies, Academic Program Year 2015-2016The estimated cost of report or study forthe Department of Defense isapproximately 928,000 in Fiscal Years2015-2016. This includes 811,000 in expensesand 117,000 in DoD labor.Generated on 2017Jan181RefID: 9-596730CDoD SAPRO ODMEO

Table of ContentsExecutive Summary . 4Spotlight: APY 15-16 Data . 6Introduction . 7U.S. Military Academy Data . 8U.S. Naval Academy Data . 9U.S. Air Force Academy Data .10Focus Area One: Sexual Assault Prevention .11Self-Assessment Highlights of Sexual Assault Prevention Efforts in APY 15-16 .15USMA.15USNA .16USAFA .17Focus Area Two: Sexual Assault Response.18Self-Assessment Highlights of Sexual Assault Response Efforts in APY 15-16 .19USMA.19USNA .20USAFA .20Focus Area Three: Efforts to Address Retaliatory Behavior.22Self-Assessment Highlights of Retaliation Efforts in APY 15-16.23USMA.23USNA .23USAFA .23Focus Area Four: Sexual Harassment Prevention and Response .25Self-Assessment Highlights of Sexual Harassment Prevention and Response Efforts in APY15-16 .26USMA.26USNA .26USAFA .27Conclusion .282APY 2015-2016

List of AppendicesAppendix A: DoD Assessment of the United States Military AcademyAppendix B: DoD Assessment of the United States Naval AcademyAppendix C: DoD Assessment of the United States Air Force AcademyAppendix D: Statistical Data on Sexual Harassment and Sexual AssaultAppendix E: APY 15-16 Data Matrices and MSA Case SynopsesAppendix F: Acronym ListList of EnclosuresEnclosure 1: United States Military Academy Self-AssessmentEnclosure 2: United States Naval Academy Self-AssessmentEnclosure 3: United States Air Force Academy Self-AssessmentAnnexAnnex 1: 2016 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey Report3DoD SAPRO ODMEO

MARCH 2017DOD ANNUAL REPORT ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT ANDVIOLENCE AT THE MILITARY SERVICE ACADEMIES,ACADEMIC PROGRAM YEAR 2015-2016REPORTING REQUIREMENTSection 532 of the JohnWarner National DefenseAuthorization Act for FiscalYear 2007 (Public Law 109364) requires theDepartment of Defense toconduct an annualassessment of the MilitaryService Academies todetermine the effectivenessof policies, training, andprocedures with respect tosexual harassment andsexual violence involvingAcademy personnel. TheDepartment accomplishedthis requirement byreviewing self-assessmentsfrom the Academies andconducting the 2016 ServiceAcademy Gender RelationsSurvey in this report.PLANNED ACTIONS The Military ServiceAcademies should betteralign their preventionefforts with activitiesdemonstrated to reducethe occurrence of sexualassault and sexualharassment. The Military ServiceAcademies should expandtheir local expertise toincorporate more primaryprevention resources. Spring 2017 on-siteassessments at the MSAwill assist with enhancingAcademy preventionpolicies and programs.The entire report isavailable on-line atSAPR.mil4Executive SummaryThe Military Service Academies (United States MilitaryAcademy, United States Naval Academy, and United States AirForce Academy) continue to make clear and demonstrableprogress in supporting cadets and midshipmen who reportsexual assault and sexual harassment. Each academy providedsubstantial evidence that victim response, healthcare,investigative, and military justice resources work well inresponse to sexual assault.The past-year estimated prevalence (occurrence) ofunwanted sexual contact increased for cadets and midshipmenat all three Academies, as compared to rates last measured in2014, notwithstanding considerable investment in activitiesexpected to prevent sexual assault. The Military ServiceAcademies, much like the rest of the Department of Defense,find it challenging to sustain lasting decreases in past-yearprevalence rates. Despite the increase in past-year prevalence,rates of unwanted sexual contact at the Military ServiceAcademies appear to be lower than civilian colleges anduniversities as reported in the 2015 Association of AmericanUniversities Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault andSexual Misconduct.iThe survey conducted this year with cadets andmidshipmen indicates that efforts to improve sexual harassmentprevention and to promote example setting by cadet andmidshipman leaders may prove helpful in decreasing theoccurrence of sexual assault. In addition, more work must bedone to help cadets and midshipmen recognize situations atrisk for sexual assault. Data indicates that when cadets andmidshipmen identify these situations, the vast majority of themtake some kind of action to defuse the situation. Survey resultsfurther indicate that better recognition of risky situations andsubsequent intervention may reduce sexual assault by up toone third.The Academies continue to field well-organized and wellfunctioning sexual assault response systems. Academy officialshave ensured full staffing, training, and certification of sexualassault response personnel. In addition, all three academiesnow have Sexual Assault Response Coordinators, VictimAdvocates, and Special Victims’ Counsel/Victims’ LegalCounsel on campus and committed full-time to serving theAPY 2015-2016

cadet and midshipman populations.Overall reporting of sexual assault decreased slightly in academic program year 2015-2016.The three Academies received 86 reports of sexual assault, down from 91 reports received inthe year prior. Thirteen of the eighty-six reports received were for allegations about incidentsthat occurred prior to military service. Additionally, 12 Restricted Reports converted toUnrestricted Reports, an increase of five conversions from the last academic program year.iiAlthough the overall reporting numbers decreased from academic program year 2014-2015,the United States Military Academy and the United States Naval Academy saw increases inreports of sexual assault. The Military Academy received 26 reports (20 Unrestricted and 6Restricted Reports) up from 17 reports and the Naval Academy received 28 reports (20Unrestricted and 8 Restricted Reports) up from 25 reports in academic program year 20142015. The decrease in overall reports occurred due to a decrease in reporting at the Air ForceAcademy, which received 32 reports of sexual assault (15 Unrestricted and 17 RestrictedReports) down from 49 reports in academic program year 2014-2015.This year the Department used a new sexual harassment measure to obtain more depthand better standardize the survey question. Survey responses indicate that 48 percent of femalecadets and midshipmen and 12 percent of male cadets and midshipmen experienced sexualharassment in the past year. The prevalence of sexual harassment in 2016 remains at about thesame level as it was in 2014 for all cadets and midshipmen; however, exact comparisons tomeasurements made in 2014 cannot be made due to a new measure utilized in the 2016survey.Fewer cadets and midshipmen chose to make sexual harassment complaints this year thanlast year. Across all three Academies, there were two formal complaints and eight informalcomplaints. The 10 total complaints this year are down from the 28 complaints received lastyear.The Department recommends the Military Service Academies review their sexual assaultand sexual harassment prevention programs and better align them with activities demonstratedto reduce the occurrence of sexual assault and achieve other prevention-related goals. TheMilitary Service Academies would greatly benefit from expert resources to better work evidencebased prevention initiatives within the academy community. The Department will focus itsupcoming on-site assessment visits in 2017 to assist with prevention programming at theMilitary Service Academies.5DoD SAPRO ODMEO

Spotlight: APY 15-16 Data6APY 2015-2016

IntroductionThe Department of Defense (DoD)annually assesses the Military ServiceAcademies’ (MSA) programs addressingsexual harassment and sexual assault.Section 532 of the John Warner NationalDefense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year2007 (Public Law 109-364) requires anassessment of the MSAs during eachacademic program year (APY). This reportsatisfies this requirement by reviewing theeffectiveness of the Academies’ policies,training, and procedures regarding sexualharassment and sexual violence involvingAcademy personnel at the: United States Military Academy (USMA);United States Naval Academy (USNA);andUnited States Air Force Academy(USAFA).DoD assessment reports for the APYsbeginning in odd-numbered years, as is thecase for this year’s report, include eachAcademy’s self-assessment and a scientific,anonymoussurveyofcadetsandmidshipmen, conducted by the Office ofPeople Analytics (OPA).1 The biennialsurvey, known as the Service AcademyGender Relations (SAGR), covers topicssuch as the past-year estimated prevalenceof sexual assault and sexual harassment,factors impacting reporting and training, andcharacteristics of the unwanted sexual andgender-related behaviors. The Academies’self-assessments are Enclosures 1-3, and theresults of the 2016 SAGR are Annex 1.The MSA self-assessments describeprogress in their Sexual Assault Preventionand Response (SAPR) and Prevention ofSexual Harassment (POSH) programs, newinitiatives, and program improvement effortsundertaken during the APY. The MSAs alsoprovide updates on their work to respond toSecretary of Defense initiatives, action items,and program enhancements the Departmentrecommended in previous reports. TheAcademies have all made progress towardscompleting their pending items with USMAcompleting 10 of 16, USNA completing 20 of24, and USAFA completing 22 of 33. Asummary of the actions taken by eachAcademy to complete the pending itemsalong with their completion status can befound in Appendices A-C of this report.This year’s report for APY 15-16 (June 1,2015 – May 31, 2016) is organized by fourfocus areas: sexual assault prevention,sexual assault response, efforts to addressretaliatory behavior, and sexual harassmentprevention and response. The followingsection includes infographics that highlight2016 SAGR survey and statistical data aboutsexualassaultreportsandsexualharassment complaints made at the MSAs.More detailed statistical data from APY 15-16and an analysis of these data is inAppendices D and E of this report.1The Department conducts on-site assessments at the MSAsfor the reports beginning with even-numbered APYs, as wasthe case with last year’s report. In addition, OPA conducts theSAGR Focus Groups with cadets, midshipmen, faculty, andstaff to inform the on-site assessments. Reports on even-yearAPYs comment on the MSAs’ compliance with applicableDepartment and Service policies addressing sexualharassment and sexual assault. OPA was previously namedthe Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC).7DoD SAPRO ODMEO

U.S. Military Academy Data8APY 2015-2016

U.S. Naval Academy Data9DoD SAPRO ODMEO

U.S. Air Force Academy Data10APY 2015-2016

Focus Area One: Sexual AssaultPreventionThe Academies continue to employprevention programs that intend to empowercadets and midshipmen to identify andintervene in situations at risk for sexualassault, promote peer-to-peer education, andimprove command climate.The 2014-2016 DoD Sexual AssaultPrevention Strategy recognizes that trueprevention is much more than an annualtraining or a weekend safety briefing. Sexualviolence prevention involves a wide range ofintegrated elements addressing cation, deterrence, and otherfactors. Within the United States ArmedForces, leaders at all levels are the "center ofgravity" that can leverage these manyelements to grow an overall climate of dignityand respect. Prevention efforts at theAcademies reflect this approach andempower cadets and midshipmen torecognize and take action in situations at riskfor sexual assault. Such initiatives are alsointended to improve each Academy’scommand climate.Primary prevention programming includesinitiatives that stop the crime from happeningin the first place. It can have several goals: 2Prevention efforts should ultimatelydisrupt the offense cycle of mote social norms or expectationsabout behavior that make sexualassault less likely, and;As used in this report, the term “victim” includes allegedvictims and the use of the terms “subject”, “offender”, or“perpetrator” does not convey any presumption about the guiltor innocence of any individual, nor does the term “incident” or“report” substantiate an occurrence of a sexual assault.11 Prevention initiatives should teachskills people can use to preventsexual assault, establish respectfuland protective working and livingenvironments, and inspire andmotivate people to recognize riskysituations and take appropriate actionto intervene.The evidence for sexual assaultprevention is less developed compared toother types of violence and other publichealth topics. The Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC) has onlyidentified a handful of programs that showevidence of achieving one or more preventiongoals.iii Based on emerging expert advice,there is evidence that some approaches,such as short briefings on sexual assaultprograms, do not work to prevent sexualassault perpetration. DoD continues to adjustits combination of policies, programs, andtraining to achieve better prevention of sexualassault.The MSAs have a big challenge in thatthey are both accession sources for theMilitary Services and educational institutions.Their requirement to deliver quality educationis paired with the need for them to acculturatecivilian men and women to the military andprepare them for leadership roles.All three MSAs documented substantivework to incorporate prevention-focusedactivity into course curricula, commandpolicies, and academy doctrine this past year.Academies have recently adjusted theirprevention approaches by modifying thematerials delivered to each class year ofcadets and midshipmen. This approachreflects a gradual increase in the kind andcomplexity of information imparted to eachclass year. In addition, each of theAcademies documented numerous activitiesDoD SAPRO ODMEO

and resources they employed to promote theimportance of sexual assault prevention.Despite its prevention activities, the MSAsdid not achieve a continuing decrease in theestimated percentage of cadets andmidshipman who experience sexual assaultthroughout the year. OPA estimates pastyear prevalence of unwanted sexual contact(USC)3 every two years with the SAGR.Overall, the 2016 SAGR found that 12.2percent of Academy women and 1.7 percentof Academy men indicated experiencing USCduring APY 15-16. These overall rates reflectstatistical increases for both male and femalecadets and midshipmen when compared tothe rates last measured by the SAGR in2014. However, these overall rates do not tellthe full story at each MSA.Female cadets at USMA experiencedstatistically higher rates of USC than in 2014(10.2percentversus6.5percent).Nonetheless, rates of USC for women atUSMA are lowest amongst the three MSAs.There was a statistical difference in rates ofUSC for Military Academy men between thisyear and 2014, due to a trend upwards (0.8percent in 2014 vs 1.4 percent in 2016).An estimated 14.5 percent of NavalAcademy women experienced USC, astatistical increase from 8.1 percent in 2014.Naval Academy men also experienced astatistical increase in USC, with a rate of 2.1percent versus 1.3 percent in 2014.3Although the term “unwanted sexual contact” does notappear in Articles 120, 125, or 80 of the Uniform Code ofMilitary Justice (UCMJ), for the purposes of the SAGR and thisreport, it is used to refer to a range of sex-related offenses thatthe UCMJ prohibits. These offenses include completed orattempted oral, anal, or vaginal penetration by a body part oran object, and the unwanted touching of genitalia, buttocks,breasts, or inner thighs when the victim did not or could notconsent. The survey is conducted in April of even numberedyears (2012, 2014, 2016, etc.). Respondents to the survey areasked about their experiences of unwanted sexual contact inthe 12 months that constitute the APY (June 1 to May 31). Thedefinition of unwanted sexual contact used in the SAGR isbehaviorally based and not intended to designate specificUCMJ offenses or establish crime rates.12Finally, an estimated 11.2 percent of AirForce Academy women experienced USC,which is a statistical increase from 9.7percent in 2014. Rates of USC for Air ForceAcademy men remained unchanged thisyear, despite a statistically insignificantincrease from 1.4 percent in 2014 to 1.6percent in 2016.The Academies and the Department areinterested in whether the increase in the ratesof USC is uniform across class years in orderto best direct future program efforts. Lookingat changes over time by class year, therewere statistically significant increases in therates for women across all classes, but theincreases were most notable for juniors andseniors. For men there were also increasesfor juniors and seniors. There were somevariations in

Unrestricted and 8 Restricted Reports) up from 25 reports in academic program year 2014-2015. The decrease in overall reports occurred due to a decrease in reporting at the Air Force Academy, which received 32 reports of sexual assault (15 Unrestricted and 17 Restricted Reports) down from 49 reports in academic

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