South Dakota Science Standards Adopted By The South

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South Dakota Science StandardsAdopted by the South Dakota Board of EducationMay 18, 20151

AcknowledgementsThese revised science standards are the result of the contributions of several educators from across the state.Many hours have been devoted to research and thoughtful consideration of issues to ensure the standardsreflect rigorous science teaching and opportunities for students to learn essential science concepts andprocedures with deep understanding. The Science Standards Revision Committee members represent the manyindividuals across the state dedicated to their profession and to high quality science education for all SouthDakota students. Without their contributions the revision of the science content standards would not have beenpossible. The South Dakota Department of Education wishes to express our appreciation and gratitude to theindividuals and the organizations they represent who contributed both expertise and time to the revision ofSouth Dakota’s Science Content Standards.South Dakota Science Standards Committee MembersMarc Aisenbrey, 5th Grade Teacher, Elk Point-Jefferson Elementary, Elk Point, SDDr. Michael Amolins, AP Chemistry, Chemistry Advanced Studies, and Scientific Research and Design Teacher,Harrisburg High School, Harrisburg, SDMichelle Bartels, 6th Grade, 7th Grade Science Teacher, Hamlin Middle School, Hayti, SDMari Biehl, SDIL STEM Coordinator, South Dakota Innovation Lab, Platte, SDBarbara Boone-Graves, 7th Grade Life Science Teacher, Patrick Henry Middle School, Sioux Falls, SDJulie Dahl, Science Education Specialist, Center for the Advancement of Math and Science Education, Black HillsState University, Spearfish, SDDonna DeKraai, 3rd Grade Teacher, Hillcrest Elementary, Brookings, SDDr. Cathy Ezrailson, Associate Professor, Curriculum and Instruction: Secondary Education, USD School ofEducation, Vermillion, SDMarie Gillespie, 5th Grade Mathematics, 7th and 8th Grade Science Teacher, Pierre Indian Learning Center,Pierre, SDMark Iverson, 4th Grade Teacher, Castlewood Elementary, Castlewood, SDRoby Johnson, 6th Grade Science Teacher, Holgate Middle School, Aberdeen, SDNicole Keegan, 7th Grade, 8th Grade Science Teacher, East Middle School, Rapid City, SDLisa Ketelhut, K-8 Special Education Teacher, Tea Area Elementary, Tea, SDDr. Kevin Lein, High School Principal, Harrisburg High School, Harrisburg, SDFrances Linn, High School Biology Teacher, Rapid City High School, Rapid City, SDJustin Lovrien, High School AP Biology and Biology Teacher, Brandon Valley High School, Brandon, SD2

Bobbie Matthews, English Language Learning Teacher, Huron Middle School, Huron, SDElizabeth McMillan, Curriculum Education Coordinator, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SDMatt Miller, Associate Professor, Chemistry and Science Methods Instructor, South Dakota State University,Brookings, SDKate Mogard, Kindergarten Teacher, Hillcrest Elementary, Brookings, SDJeff Noll, Administrative Intern, George McGovern Middle School, Sioux Falls, SDKathy O’Hara, 2nd Grade Teacher, West Central Elementary, Hartford, SDJulie Olson, High School Biology, Environmental Science and Physical Science Teacher, Mitchell High School,Mitchell, SDJacqueline Omland, Astronomy and Physics Master Teacher, Northern State University E-Learning Center,Aberdeen, SDBetsy Schamber, 7th Grade Life Science Teacher, Madison Middle School, Madison, SDSam Shaw, Division of Learning and Instruction, South Dakota Department of Education, Pierre, SDMarie Steckelberg, SD NASA SoI and Rising Star Project Coordinator, Steckelberg Consulting, Yankton, SDMolly TenBroek, High School Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Anatomy and Physical Science Teacher, McIntoshHigh School, McIntosh, SDMichelle Vande Weerd, Curriculum Director, Brookings School District, Brookings, SDSarah Weber, Gifted Education Teacher, West Central Elementary, Hartford, SDJanelle Whitlock, Program Supervisory, Kirby Science Discovery Center, Washington Pavilion, Sioux Falls, SD3

Table of ContentsPrefaceIntroductionHow to Read the StandardsSouth Dakota Science StandardsKindergarten Science StandardsFirst Grade Science StandardsSecond Grade Science StandardsThird Grade Science StandardsFourth Grade Science StandardsFifth Grade Science Standards6-8 Physical Science Standards6-8 Life Science Standards6-8 Earth/Space Science Standards9-12 Physical Science Standards9-12 Life Science Standards9-12 Earth/Space Science StandardsAppendix A – Disciplinary Core Idea ProgressionsAppendix B – Science and Engineering Practices and CrosscuttingConcepts Frequency TablesAppendix C – Grade-Banded Engineering Design 9-2021-2223-2425-2627-2930-3233-3435-4950-5253-544

PrefaceIn 2014, with input from K-16 educators, administrators, community members, and informal educators fromacross South Dakota, the Science Standards Revision Workgroup was charged with evaluating the 2005 SouthDakota Science Standards. Following the evaluation of the South Dakota Science Standards, it was determinedby the group that rewriting was necessary to reflect the most recent research in science teaching and learning.This document was guided by recent research in best practices in science teaching, experience in classroomswith the existing South Dakota Content Standards, the progression of recently published standards fromMassachusetts and South Carolina, the Next Generation Science Standards document, the National ResearchCouncil’s Framework for K-12 Science Education, and lengthy discussions by experienced kindergarten throughgrade sixteen South Dakota educators.The standards were constructed from the three major dimensions: Science and Engineering Practices,Disciplinary Core Ideas, and Crosscutting Concepts. With student mastery of these dimensions, South Dakotaschools will be competitive with the best educational systems in other states and nations. The standards arecoherent, adaptable, rigorous, attainable, and represent South Dakota’s commitment to excellence for allstudents. The standards have been restructured to reflect current research and science and engineeringpractices, and will be reevaluated in future years in accordance with the state standards adoption timeline.SD Codified Law 13-3-48. Standards revision cycle--Content standards. The secretary of the Department ofEducation shall prepare and submit for approval of the South Dakota Board of Education a standards revisioncycle and content standards for kindergarten through grade twelve.IntroductionThe South Dakota Science Standards realize a vision for science education in which students are expected toactively engage in science and engineering practices and apply crosscutting concepts to deepen theirunderstanding of core ideas. These standards are designed to guide the planning of instruction and thedevelopment of assessments of learning from kindergarten through twelfth grade. This document presents astarting point for informed dialogue among those dedicated and committed to quality education in SouthDakota. By providing a common set of expectations for all students in all schools, this dialogue will bestrengthened and enhanced.The concepts and content in the science standards represent the most current research in science and scienceeducation. All theories are presented in a way that allow teachers to structure an experience around multiplepieces of scientific evidence and competing ideas to allow students to engage in an objective discussion. Thetheories are presented because they have a large body of scientific evidence that supports them. These5

standards were developed in such a manner to encourage students to analyze all forms of scientific evidenceand draw their own conclusions.Through the public hearing process related to adoption of the South Dakota Science Standards, it is evident thatthere is particular sensitivity to two issues: climate change and evolution. The South Dakota Board of Educationrecognizes that parents are their children’s first teachers, and that parents play a critical role in their children’sformal education. The South Dakota Board of Education also recognizes that not all viewpoints can be covered inthe science classroom. Therefore, the board recommends that parents engage their children in discussionsregarding these important issues, in order that South Dakota students are able to analyze all forms of evidenceand argument and draw their own conclusions.KEY SHIFTS IN 2014 SOUTH DAKOTA SCIENCE STANDARDSK-12 Science Education should reflect the interconnected nature of science as it is practiced and experienced inthe real world.These standards integrate disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineeringpractices. Past South Dakota Science Standards focus almost exclusively on content. The integration ofrigorous core ideas, concepts, and practices reflect how science and engineering is applied and practicedevery day and is shown to enhance student learning of both.South Dakota Science Standards are set forth to ensure graduates of South Dakota’s public schools have theknowledge, skills, and competencies essential to be college, career, and life ready.These standards detail key knowledge and skills students need to succeed in entry-level, credit- bearingscience courses in postsecondary schools; certificate or workplace training programs requiring anequivalent level of science; as well as jobs and postsecondary opportunities that require scientific andtechnical proficiency.The South Dakota Science Standards are expectations for student outcomes– NOT curriculum.Each standard has a specific integration of the three dimensions (Science and Engineering Practices,Disciplinary Core Ideas, and Crosscutting Concepts). The designated integrations of the South DakotaStandards do not predetermine how the three are linked in curriculum, units, or lessons. Thesestandards simply clarify the expectations of what students will know and be able to do by the end of thegrade level or grade band.Previous South Dakota Science Standards treated the three dimensions of science as separate entitiesleading to preferential treatment of singular dimensions in assessment or instruction. It is essential tounderstand that the emphasis placed on a particular Science and Engineering Practice or CrosscuttingConcept in a standard is not intended to limit instruction, but to make clear the intent of theassessments. During the course of instruction, students will engage in multiple Science and EngineeringPractices to reach the learning outcome set by the teacher.The South Dakota Science Standards build coherently from K–12.The focus on a few Disciplinary Core Ideas is a key aspect of a coherent science education. TheFramework identified a basic set of core ideas that are meant to be understood by the time a studentcompletes high school:6

“To develop a thorough understanding of scientific explanations of the world, students needsustained opportunities to work with and develop the underlying ideas and to appreciate thoseideas’ interconnections over a period of years rather than weeks or months [1]. This sense ofdevelopment has been conceptualized in the idea of learning progressions [1, 25, 26]. If masteryof a core idea in a science discipline is the ultimate educational destination, then well-designedlearning progressions provide a map of the routes that can be taken to reach that destination.Such progressions describe both how students’ understanding of the idea matures over timeand the instructional supports and experiences that are needed for them to make progress.”(2011). A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and coreideas. (p. 26). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from id 13165There are two key points that are important to understand:First, focus and coherence must be a priority. What this means to teachers and curriculum developers isthat the same ideas or details are not covered each year. Rather, a progression of knowledge occursfrom grade band to grade band that gives students the opportunity to learn more complex material,leading to an overall understanding of science by the end of high school. Historically, science educationwas taught as a set of disjointed and isolated facts. The Framework and the South Dakota ScienceStandards provide a more coherent progression aimed at overall scientific literacy with instructionfocused on a smaller set of ideas.Second, the progressions in the South Dakota Science Standards automatically assume that previousmaterial has been learned by the student. Choosing to omit content at any grade level or band willimpact the success of the student in understanding the core ideas and put additional responsibilities onteachers later in the process.Science and Engineering are integrated in the South Dakota Science Standards, from K–12.The idea of integrating technology and engineering into science standards is not new. Chapters on thenature of technology and the human-built world were included in Science for All Americans (AAAS 1989)and Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS 1993, 2008). Standards for “Science and Technology” wereincluded for all grade bands in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996).Engineering is integrated within the discipline specific standards in areas of Life Science, PhysicalScience, and Earth/Space Sciences. This integration is achieved by raising engineering design to the samelevel as scientific inquiry in classroom instruction. Engineering is included in the science and engineeringpractices and technology is included in the crosscutting concepts.South Dakota Science Standards focus on deeper understanding and application of concepts.These standards are focused on a small set of disciplinary core ideas that build across grades and lead todeeper understanding and application of concepts. The standards are written to articulate the broadconcepts and key components that specify expected learningSouth Dakota Science Standards provide relevance to students in South Dakota.Life Science:It is crucial that South Dakota students have a strong foundation in life science in order to maintain theirown health as well as the ecosystems in which they live and work. South Dakota’s agricultural economyrecognizes the importance of breeding selective traits in both plants and animals. Understanding DNAand genetics can be applied to modern agriculture and medicine by emphasizing biotechnology,7

genetically modified organisms, and the development of resistant pests. South Dakota’s geological andarcheological history gives students a relevant context to understand the fossil evidence to supportchanges over time. Students must be able to evaluate and mitigate the effects of human activity inorder to protect biodiversity within the state’s diverse ecosystems. Proper management of the state’swildlife and recreational activities rely upon an understanding of carrying capacities so that theseactivities can continue to be enjoyed by future generations of South Dakotans.Physical Science:From a local context, South Dakota students will appreciate how production of ethanol for use as agasoline additive involves chemical reactions and that developing techniques for specifying themolecular and energy changes involved in these reactions will enhance the production of this fuel.Students will be able to understand the substructure of the atom and subatomic particles and be able touse that knowledge to understand work being done at the Sanford Underground Research Facility.They will be able to understand how forces interacting can change the behavior of objects. This isessential for everything from daily activities, like driving a car, to engineering the building of structuresthat can withstand tornadoes or generate the electricity we use. Students will be able to analyze dataand interpret graphs in order to solve problems unique to South Dakota, such as the sustainability ofland, crop, water, and livestock conservation. The study of wave properties and information technology,enhanced by an understanding of wave mechanics in systems and models, will allow students tounderstand and appreciate the importance of electronics, digital equipment, and information storageand transfer in the global market of the 21st century.Earth and Space Science:South Dakota is rich in geologic resources, many unique to the Great Plains. Grasslands, the Badlands,Black Hills, and Missouri River Basin all provide unique opportunities for students to investigate theEarth and its interacting systems. In South Dakota, the use, management, and protection of naturalresources have an economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical impact. Natural hazard mitigation(severe weather, flooding, and drought) has a direct impact on the people and environment of ourstate. Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have major impacts on the soil, air,and water of South Dakota.8

How to read the South Dakota Science StandardsEach of the three-dimensions from A Framework for K-12 Science Education can be referenced in everystandard. This information can be used to interpret a deeper meaning for each of the threedimensions. Below is a legend to decode the components involved within each standard.SEP Science and Engineering Practices (Chapter 3: Page 41 of Framework)1. Asking Questions and Defining Problems2. Developing and Using Models3. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations4. Analyzing and Interpreting Data5. Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking6. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions7. Engaging in Argument from Evidence8. Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating InformationThe reader will notice engineering is integrated through inclusion as a Disciplinary Core Idea,Crosscutting Concept or by use of a Science and Engineering Practice. All standards with an emphasison engineering are marked by an asterisk (*). For more information on Engineering see the Frameworkpage 201and Appendix C of the South Dakota Science Standards.DCI: Disciplinary Core Idea (Chapter 5: Page 103 of Framework)These are listed as written in A Framework for K-12 Science Education. For example PS1 standsfor Physical Science Core Idea 1: Matter and Its Interactions. You will notice that next to the standard itwill read, for example, PS1.A. In this case, the coding is referring to Physical Science Core Idea 1:Matter and Its Interactions, Component Idea A: Structure and Properties of Matter.PS Physical ScienceLS Life ScienceESS Earth and Space ScienceETS Engineering, Technology and Applications of SciencesCCC Crosscutting Concept (Chapter 4: Page 83 of Framework)Patterns PatternsCause/Effect Cause and EffectScale/Prop. Scale, Proportion, and QuantitySystems Systems and System ModelsEnergy/Matter Energy and MatterStructure/Function Structure and FunctionStability/Change Stability and ChangeThe Framework specifies two core ideas that relate science, technology, society and the environment: theinterdependence of science, engineering and technology, and the influence of science, engineering andtechnology on society and the natural world. These two core ideas may accompany or replace crosscuttingconcepts related to standards that include engineering. In this instance, we refer to them as connectionstatements because they are not true crosscutting concepts. When this occurs, we use the following legend.Technology Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science9

KindergartenThe Core Ideas of the Kindergarten standards include: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions Energy From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes Earth’s Systems Earth and Human ActivityKindergarten Physical Science Conceptual Understanding:Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions, and can change the speed or direction ofmoti

4 Table of Contents Page Number(s) Preface 6 Introduction 7-8 How to Read the Standards 9 South Dakota Science Standards Kindergarten Science Standards 10-11 First Grade Science Standards 12 Second Grade Science Standards 13-14 Third Grade Science Standards 15-16 Fourth Grade Science Standards 17-18 Fifth Grade Science Standards 19

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