Internet Of Things: Wireless Sensor Networks

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White Paper Internet of Things:Wireless Sensor Networks

Executive summaryToday, smart grid, smart homes, smart waternetworks, intelligent transportation, are infrastructure systems that connect our world more than weever thought possible. The common vision of suchsystems is usually associated with one single concept, the internet of things (IoT), where through theuse of sensors, the entire physical infrastructure isclosely coupled with information and communication technologies; where intelligent monitoring andmanagement can be achieved via the usage of networked embedded devices. In such a sophisticated dynamic system, devices are interconnected totransmit useful measurement information and control instructions via distributed sensor networks.Section 2 starts with the historical background ofIoT and WSNs, then provides an example from thepower industry which is now undergoing powergrid upgrading. WSN technologies are playingan important role in safety monitoring over powertransmission and transformation equipment andthe deployment of billions of smart meters.Section 3 assesses the technology and characteristics of WSNs and the worldwide applicationneeds for them, including data aggregation andsecurity.Section 4 addresses the challenges and futuretrends of WSNs in a wide range of applicationsin various domains, including ultra large sensingdevice access, trust security and privacy, andservice architectures to name a few.A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a networkformed by a large number of sensor nodes whereeach node is equipped with a sensor to detectphysical phenomena such as light, heat, pressure,etc. WSNs are regarded as a revolutionaryinformation gathering method to build theinformation and communication system whichwill greatly improve the reliability and efficiencyof infrastructure systems. Compared with thewired solution, WSNs feature easier deploymentand better flexibility of devices. With the rapidtechnological development of sensors, WSNs willbecome the key technology for IoT.Section 5 provides information on applications.The variety of possible applications of WSNs to thereal world is practically unlimited. On one hand,WSNs enable new applications and thus newpossible markets; on the other hand, the designis affected by several constraints that call for newparadigms. This section outlines WSN uses for thesmart grid, smart water, intelligent transportationsystems, and smart home domains.Section 6 offers analysis of standardization being amajor prerequisite in achieving the interoperabilityof WSNs, not only between products of differentvendors, but also between different solutions,applications and domains.In this White Paper we discuss the use andevolution of WSNs within the wider context ofIoT, and provide a review of WSN applications,while also focusing the attention on infrastructuretechnologies, applications and standards featuredin WSN designs. This White Paper is the sixth ina series whose purpose is to ensure that the IECcan continue to contribute with its InternationalStandards and Conformity Assessment servicesto solve global problems in electrotechnology.Section 7 concludes with a number of keyrecommendations for industry, regulators, the IEC,and general observations on WSN security anddata topics.3

Executive summaryAcknowledgmentsThis White Paper has been prepared by theWireless Sensor Networks project team, in the IECMarket Strategy Board. The project team includes:Dr. Shu Yinbiao, Project Leader, MSB Member,SGCCDr. Kang Lee, Project Partner, NISTMr. Peter Lanctot, IECDr. Fan Jianbin, SGCCDr. Hu Hao, SGCCDr. Bruce Chow, Corning IncorporatedMr. Jean-Pierre Desbenoit, Schneider ElectricMr. Guido Stephan, SiemensMr. Li Hui, SiemensMr. Xue Guodong, HaierMr. Simon Chen, SAPMr. Daniel Faulk, SAPMr. Tomas Kaiser, SAPMr. Hiroki Satoh, HitachiProf. Ouyang Jinsong, ITEI ChinaMr. Wang Linkun, ITEI ChinaMs. Wang Shou, ITEI ChinaDr. Zhen Yan, Nari Group CorporationDr. Sun Junping, China-EPRIProf. Yu Haibin, SIADr. Zeng Peng, SIADr. Li Dong, SIADr. Wang Qin, University of Science andTechnology, Beijing4

Table of contentsList of abbreviations9GlossarySection 11.112Introduction13Overview131.2 Scope of this White Paper14Section 2History and industrial drivers of WSNs15Section 3WSN technology193.1 Characteristic features of WSNs193.2 Sensor nodes203.2.1Miniaturization technology of sensor based on MEMS203.2.2Ambient energy harvesting technology213.3 Access network technologies223.4 Topology243.4.1Self-organizing and reliable networking technology253.4.2Low cost IP interconnection technology253.4.3Self-adaptive flow control technology273.5 Data aggregation283.6 Security293.6.1Trust, security and privacy293.6.2Crypto algorithms303.6.3Key management of WSNs313.6.4Secure routing of WSNs313.6.5Secure data aggregation of WSNs325

Table of contentsSection 4Challenges of WSNs334.1 System qualities, architecture divergence, and the need for an architecture framework334.2 Ultra-large sensing device access354.2.1Massive heterogeneous data processing354.2.2Intelligent control and services to dynamic changes354.3 Sensor network architecture364.4 High concurrent access364.4.1High concurrent access with frequency division multiplexing374.4.2High concurrent access with distributed antenna systems374.5 High real-time transmission374.5.1Distributed solution384.5.2Centralized solution384.6 Semantic representation and processing404.7 More secure WSNs404.7.1Protocol security framework414.7.2Trust, security and privacy41Section 5WSN applications in the infrastructure systems5.1 WSN application in the smart grid43435.1.1Online monitoring system for transmission lines435.1.2Intelligent monitoring and early warning system for substations445.1.3Online monitoring and early warning system for distribution networks465.1.4Smart electricity consumption services475.2 WSN application in smart water networks5.2.148Sustainability (water resource focus)485.3 WSN application in intelligent transportation505.3.1Sensing of traffic flows505.3.2City logistics515.3.3On-board WSNs515.3.4WSN in traffic infrastructures525.4 WSN application in smart homes525.4.1The energy challenge525.4.2Energy efficiency in buildings – Case study536

Table of contents5.4.3Active control in buildings545.4.4WSNs are key for improving the energy efficient performances of existing buildings555.5 Additional application benefits of WSN575.5.1Improve energy efficiency575.5.2Contribute to environmental monitoring575.5.3Enhance social services57Standards of WSNs and systems59Section 66.1 General596.2 Present status596.3 Standardization needs and outlook676.4 Challenges and future standardization needs68Section 77.1Conclusions and recommendationsGeneral recommendations697.2 Recommendations addressed to the IEC and its committeesAnnex A69Access technologies7071A.1 Developing trend of access technologies71A.1.1Bluetooth 4.071A.1.2IEEE 802.15.4e72A.1.3WLAN IEEE 802.11 73References757

List of abbreviationsTechnical andscientific termsABSanti-lock braking systemAMIadvanced metering infrastructureCAPEXcapital expenditureCoAPconstrained application protocolCOSEMcompanion specification for energy meteringCPUcontrol processing unitDLMSdevice language message specificationDSNdistributed sensor networkESCelectronic stability controlFCDfloating car dataFDMfrequency-division multiplexingFHfrequency hoppingGHGgreenhouse gasesGPSglobal positioning systemICTinformation and communication technologiesIoTinternet of thingsKPIkey performance indicatorM2Mmachine to machineMACmedia access controlMEMSmicroelectromechanical systemsMIMOmultiple-input multiple-outputOEMoriginal equipment manufacturerOFDMorthogonal frequency-division multiplexingOPEXoperational expenditurePHYphysical layerPVphotovoltaicQoSquality of serviceRESrenewable energy source9

List of abbreviationsOrganizations,institutions andcompaniesRFIDradio-frequency identificationSOAservice oriented architectureSOAPservice oriented architecture protocolTDMAtime division multiple accessTSMPtime synchronized mesh protocolTSPtrust, security and privacyUCCurban consolidation centreUSNubiquitous sensor networkWIA-FAwireless networks for industrial automation – factory automationWIA-PAwireless networks for industrial automation – process automationWISAwireless interface for sensors and actuatorsWLANwireless local area networkWMANwireless metropolitan area networkWPANwireless personal area networkWSNwireless sensor networkWWANwireless wide area networkXFCDextended floating car dataABBABB GroupARPANETAdvanced Research Projects Agency NetworkBBFBroadband ForumCABConformity Assessment Board (of the IEC)China-EPRI China Electric Power Research InstituteDARPADefense Advanced Research Projects Agency (USA)ETSIEuropean Telecommunications Standards InstituteIECInternational Electrotechnical CommissionIEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersIETFInternet Engineering Task ForceISOInternational Organization for StandardizationITEIInstrumentation Technology and Economy Institute (China)

List of abbreviationsITU-TInternational Telecommunication Union –Telecommunication Standardization SectorMSBMarket Strategy Board (of the IEC)NISTNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyOGCOpen Geospatial ConsortiumOMAOpen Mobile AllianceSGCCState Grid Corporation of ChinaSIAShenyang Institute of Automation (China)SMBStandardization Management Board (of the IEC)UCBUniversity of California Berkeley (USA)W3CWorld Wide Web Consortium11

Glossarywireless metropolitan area networkWMANalso known as a wireless local loop (WLL). WMANsare based on the IEEE 802.16 standard. Wirelesslocal loop can reach effective transfer speeds of1 to 10 Mbps within a range of 4 to 10 kilometresinternet of thingsIoTrefers to the interconnection of uniquely identifiableembedded computing-like devices within theexisting internet infrastructuremedia access control layerMAC layerpart of the data link protocol that controls accessto the physical transmission medium in IEEE 802networks (LANs)wireless personal area networkWPANa low-range wireless network which covers an areaof only a few dozen metressystem on a chipSoCintegrated circuit (IC) that integrates all componentsof a computer or other electronic system into asingle chipwireless sensor networkWSNself-organizing, multi-hop networks of wirelesssensor nodes used to monitor and control physicalphenomenatime synchronized mesh protocolTSMPa networking protocol that forms the foundationof reliable, ultra low-power wireless sensornetworkingwireless wide area networkWWANwireless network that provides communicationservices to a geographic area larger than a singleurban area. The most common of all wirelessnetworkswireless local area networkWLANlocal area network in which data are transferredwithout the use of wires12

Section 1Introduction1.1A WSN can generally be described as a networkof nodes that cooperatively sense and may controlthe environment, enabling interaction betweenpersons or computers and the surroundingenvironment [2]. In fact, the activity of sensing,processing, and communication with a limitedamount of energy, ignites a cross-layer designapproach typically requiring the joint considerationof distributed signal/data processing, mediumaccess control, and communication protocols [3].OverviewToday sensors are everywhere. We take it forgranted, but there are sensors in our vehicles,in our smart phones, in factories controlling CO2emissions, and even in the ground monitoringsoil conditions in vineyards. While it seems thatsensors have been around for a while, research onwireless sensor networks (WSNs) started back inthe 1980s, and it is only since 2001 that WSNsgenerated an increased interest from industrialand research perspectives. This is due to theavailability of inexpensive, low powered miniaturecomponents like processors, radios and sensorsthat were often integrated on a single chip (systemon a chip (SoC)).Through synthesizing existing WSN applicationsas part of the infrastructure system, potentialnew applications can be identified and developedto meet future technology and market trends.For instance WSN technology applications forsmart grid, smart water, intelligent transportationsystems, and smart home generate huge amountsof data, and this data can serve many purposes.The idea of internet of things (IoT) was developedin parallel to WSNs. The term internet of thingswas devised by Kevin Ashton in 1999 [1] and refersto uniquely identifiable objects and their virtualrepresentations in an “internet-like” structure.These objects can be anything from large buildings,industrial plants, planes, cars, machines, any kindof goods, specific parts of a larger system to humanbeings, animals and plants and even specific bodyparts of them.Additionally, as the modern world shifts to this newage of WSNs in the IoT, there will be a number oflegal implications that will have to be clarifiedover time. One of the most pressing issues is theownership and use of the data that is collected,consolidated, correlated and mined for additionalvalue. Data brokers will have a flourishing businessas the pooling of information from various sourceswill lead to new and unknown business opportunities and potential legal liabilities. The recent USNational Security Administration scandal and otherindignities have shown that there is wide interest ingathering data for varied uses.While IoT does not assume a specific communication technology, wireless communication technologies will play a major role, and in particular,WSNs will proliferate many applications and manyindustries. The small, rugged, inexpensive and lowpowered WSN sensors will bring the IoT to eventhe smallest objects installed in any kind of environment, at reasonable costs. Integration of theseobjects into IoT will be a major evolution of WSNs.One of the more complex issues which arisewithin this new world is the thought of machinesmaking autonomous decisions, with unknownimpact on the environment or society within which13

Introductionit functions. This can be as simple as a refrigeratorrequesting replenishment for milk and butter atthe local store for its owner, or as complex as arobot that has been programmed to survive in aharsh environment that originally did not foreseehuman interaction. It can also be as simple as avehicle that records its usage, as does the blackbox in the aerospace industry, but then not onlyusing the information to understand the cause ofan accident, but also to provide evidence againstthe owner and operator. For example, a machinethat notifies legal authorities if it was used againstthe law.1.2Scope of this White PaperThis White Paper is the sixth in a series whosepurpose is to ensure that the IEC can continueto contribute through its International Standardsand Conformity Assessment services solvingglobal problems in electrotechnology. The WhitePapers are developed by the IEC MSB (MarketStrategy Board), responsible for analyzing andunderstanding the IEC’s market so as to preparethe IEC to strategically face the future.It comes to the point where a machine starts actingas if it were a legal entity. The question of liabilitystarts to get fuzzy and the liability question for the“owner” and “operator” of the machine gets moredifficult to articulate if there is little to no real humanintervention in the actions of the machine or robot.This is certainly the worst case scenario, but thequestion is how to balance the cost of potentialliabilities with the benefits of IoT solutions? Thisquickly starts to become more of a societal orethical, and moral discussion. That is what weusually refer to as generational shifts in values –but the IoT trend will not wait a generation.14

Section 2History and industrial drivers of WSNsThe development of WSNs was inspired by militaryapplications, notably surveillance in conflict zones.Today, they consist of distributed independentdevices that use sensors to monitor the physicalconditions with their applications extended toindustrial infrastructure, automation, health, traffic,and many consumer areas.suitable for highly dynamic ad hoc environmentsand resource-constrained sensor nodes. Furthermore, the sensor nodes have been much smallerin size (i.e. from that of a pack of cards to dustparticle) and much cheaper in price, and thusmany new civilian applications of sensor networkssuch as environment monitoring, vehicular sensornetwork and body sensor networks have emerged.Research on WSNs dates back to the early1980s when the United States Defense AdvancedResearch Projects Agency (DARPA) carried out thedistributed sensor networks (DSNs) programmefor the US military. At that time, the AdvancedResearch Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)had been in operation for a number of years,with about 200 hosts at universities and researchinstitutes [4]. DSNs were assumed to have manyspatially distributed low-cost sensing nodes,collaborating with each other but operatedautonomously, with information being routed towhichever node that can best use the information.Even though early researchers on sensor networkshad the vision of a DSN in mind, the technology wasnot quite ready. More specifically, the sensors wererather large (i.e. the size of a shoe box and bigger),and the number of potential applications was thuslimited. Furthermore, the earliest DSNs were nottightly associated with wireless connectivity.Again, DARPA acted as a pioneer in the new waveof sensor network research by launching aninitiative research programme called SensIT [5]which provided the present sensor networkswith new capabilities such as ad hoc networking,dynamic querying and tasking, reprogrammingand multi-tasking. Currently, WSNs have beenviewed as one of the most important technologiesfor the 21st century [6]. China for example hasincluded WSNs in their national strategic researchprogrammes [7]. As a result, the commercializationof WSNs is accelerating and many new technologycompanies are emerging such as CrossbowTechnology (connecting the physical world to thedigital world) and Dust Networks.Today, industrial automation is one of the mostimportant areas of WSN applications. Accordingto Freedonia Group, the global market share ofsensors for industrial use is 11 billion USD, whilethe cost of installation (mainly cabling costs) andusage is up to more than 100 billion USD. This highcost is the main issue hindering the developmentof industrial communication technology. WSNtechnology, allowing “ubiquitous sensing” over thewhole industrial process, can secure the importantparameters which are not available by onlinemonitoring due to the cost reasons stated above.These parameters are important foundations forRecent advances in computing, communicationand micro-electromechanical technology haveresulted in a significant shift in WSN research andbrought it closer to the original vision. The new waveof research on WSNs started around 1998 andhas been attracting more and more attention andinternational involvement. The new wave of sensornetwork research puts its focus on networkingtechnology and networked information processing15

History and industrial drivers of WSNsthe implementation of optimal control in order toachieve the objective of improving product quality,and reducing energy consumption.In today’s market, three-fourths of the industrialWSN income comes from the process industry;with the oil and power industry being the fastestgrowing ones. For example, PetroChina is carryingout IoT projects in its oil fields, with the purposeto reconstruct 200 000 oil wells. WSN technologyapplied in the digital conversions of the oil wells willmake use of online monitoring to measure oil wellproduction and ensure production safety.According to ON World [8], wireless devices tobe installed in industrial fields will increase by553 % between 2011 and 2016 when there will be24 million wireless-enabled sensors and actuators,or sensing points, deployed worldwide. Amongthese, 39 % will be used fo

a low-range wireless network which covers an area of only a few dozen metres wireless sensor network WSN self-organizing, multi-hop networks of wireless sensor nodes used to monitor and control physical phenomena wireless wide area network WWAN wireless network that provides communication ser

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