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Independent Personal PronounsTypes of Pronouns: Personal [I, you, he, she, it, we, etc.] Possessive [my, your, his, her, their, our] Demonstrative [this, these (near); that, those (far)] they point things out. Interrogative [Who? What? Where?] Indefinite [whoever, anyone, someone] they don’t point things out. Relative [who, which, that] links to previous or latter part of sentence.2

Independent Personal Pronouns This presentation will deal with independent personalpronouns.3

Independent Personal Pronouns A personal pronoun is a word that refers back to aparticular person called an antecedent. Moses (antecedent) was the leader; he (personalpronoun) led the Israelites. That person can be obvious or implied.4

Independent Personal Pronouns Independent personal pronouns are pronouns: That stand alone. That are not attached to other words as prefixes orsuffixes.5

Independent Personal PronounsPersonal Pronouns in EnglishPerson, SubjectGender,NumberObjectPerson, eher2csyouyou2cpyou (all)you (all)1cpImy1cpusourExample: She (subject) saw them (object).6

Independent Personal Pronouns In Hebrew, independent personal pronouns are usedas subjects: In sentences without a verb: I [am] YHVH א ֲִני י ְהו ַה You [are] righteous צַדִיק אַתָּה Word order does not matter In verbal sentences for emphasis (even though thesubject is already embedded in the verb): I descended I (myself) אָּנֹכי י ָּרַ ַ֫דְ תי 7

Independent Personal Pronouns Hebrew independent personal pronouns have: Person [1st, 2nd, 3rd] Gender [masculine, feminine] Number [singular, plural]8

Independent Personal PronounsPersonal Pronouns in mberPlural3ms (he, it) ה ִוא היא אַתָּה ְ אַת אָּנֹכי , א ֲִני 3mp (they) הֵם , הֵמַָּ֫ה הֵן , הֵנ ָּ ַ֫ה אַתֶּם אַתֵן א ֲִנ ַ ַ֫חְנ ִו 3fs (she, it)2ms (you)2fs (you)1cs (I)3fp (they)2mp (you all)2fp (you all)1cp (we)9

Independent Personal Pronouns The 3rd person masculine and feminine independentpersonal pronouns (he, she, it, they) are the same asthe masculine and feminine demonstrative pronouns(that, those). You must use context to determine which way totranslate them.10

Independent Personal Pronouns The 1st person forms are common to both genders. These common forms are not neuter forms; Hebrewdoes not have neuter forms like Greek and someother languages do. The 2nd and 3rd person forms exist in both masculineand feminine forms.11

Independent Personal Pronounsָּ ך ִ ש ֶּ ִָּ ה ִו ַא ייר He will be your heir (from the verb ש ִ ִַ )י ָּר Genesis 15:4 Proverbs 3:18 עֵץ הַייםִ היא She [referring to wisdom] )is( a tree of lifeְ ךְ א ַת ִ ֵ בַת אמ You (are) your mother’s daughter Ezekiel 16:4512

Independent Personal Pronouns Numbers 18:17 ש הֵם ִ ִֶּ קֹד You are holy Numbers 9:7ִ א ֲִנ ַחְנ ִו ְְמֵאים We are defiled Genesis 24:43ִ אָּנֹכי נצָּב עַל עֵין הַמ ִָּים I stand by the well of the water13

Independent Personal Pronouns Sometimes the 3rd person singular or plural can beused as a copula [linking verb] and can be translatedwith a form of “to be.” Genesis 36:8b עֵשָּו ה ִוא אֱדוִֹם Esau is Edom14

Independent Personal Pronouns Biblical Hebrew A Compact Guide, Miles Van Pelt,Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, copyright 2012. Biblical Hebrew An Introductory Grammar, PageH. Kelly, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company,Grand Rapids, Michigan, copyright 1992.15

Hebrew lessons compiled by: Beth C. Mehaffeyhttps://holyhiway.wordpress.comContact: betmeh2 at gmail.com16

Independent Personal Pronouns Personal Pronouns in Hebrew Person, Gender, Number Singular Person, Gender, Number Plural 3ms (he, it) א ִוה 3mp (they) Sֵה ,הַָּ֫ ֵה 3fs (she, it) א O ה 3fp (they) Uֵה , הַָּ֫ ֵה 2ms (you) הָּ תַא2mp (you all) Sֶּ תַא 2fs (you) ְ תַא 2fp (you

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Last previous edition approved in 2018 as A234/A234M – 18. DOI: 10.1520/A0234_A0234M-18A. 2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specifi-cation SA-234 in Section II of that Code. 3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, or contact ASTM Customer Service at For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer .