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UNIT 3 RESOURCES Surface Processes On Earth

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UNIT 3 RESOURCESSurface Processes on Earth

Send all inquiries to:Glencoe/McGraw-Hill8787 Orion PlaceColumbus, OH 43240-4027ISBN: 978-0-07-879210-6MHID: 0-07-879210-XPrinted in the United States of America1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 009 11 10 09 08 07Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the conditionthat such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students,teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with theGlencoe Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe program.Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior writtenpermission of the publisher.

Table ofContentsTo the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivUnit 3 Surface Processes on EarthReproducible Student PagesStudent Lab Safety Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viChapter 7Weathering, Erosion, and Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Chapter 8Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Chapter 9Surface Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Chapter 10Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Groundwater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Teacher Guide and AnswersChapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112Chapter 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116iii

Teacher Approval InitialsDate of ApprovalLab Safety FormName:Date:Lab type (circle one) : Launch Lab, MiniLab, GeoLabLab Title:Read carefully the entire lab and then answer the following questions. Your teacher must initialthis form before you begin.1. What is the purpose of the investigation?3. Is this a design-your-own procedure? Circle:YesNo4. Describe the safety procedures and additional warnings that you must follow as you performthis investigation.5. Are there any steps in the procedure or lab safety symbols that you do not understand? Explain.viCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.2. Will you be working with a partner or on a team?

Table ofContentsReproducible PagesChapter 7 Weathering, Erosion, and SoilMiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2GeoLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Study Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Chapter Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

NameMiniLab 7ClassDateModel ErosionHow do rocks erode? When rocks are weathered by their surroundingenvironment, perticles can be carried away by erosion.Procedure1. Read and complete the lab safety form.2. Carve your name deeply into a bar of soap with a toothpick. Measure themass of the soap.3. Measure and record the depth of the letters carved into the soap.4. Place the bar of soap on its edge in a catch basin.5. Slowly pour water over the bar of soap until a noticeable change occurs inthe depth of the carved letters.6. Measure and record the depth of the carved letters.1. Describe how the depth of the letters carved into the bar of soap changed.2. Infer whether the shape, size, or mass of the bar of soap changed.3. Consider what additional procedure you could follow to determinewhether any soap wore away.2Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the UniverseGeoLab and MiniLab WorksheetsCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Analysis

NameClassDateModel MineralWeatheringany factors affect the rate of weathering of Earth materials. Two major factorsthat affect the rate at which a rock weathers include the length of time it isMexposed to a weathering agent and the composition of the rock.P R E PA R AT I O NObjectivesIn this Geolab, you will: Determine the relationship between the lengthof time that rocks are exposed to running waterand the degree of weathering of the rocks. Describe the appearance of weathered rocks. Infer what other factors may influence the rateof weathering. Apply your results to a real-world situation.ProblemWhat is the relationship between exposure timeand weathering?Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Materialsplastic jar with lidwater (300 mL)halite chips (100 g)balancetimerpaper towelsSafety PrecautionsWear splash-resistant safety goggles and an apronwhile you do this activity. Do not ingest the halitechips.Weathering DataShakingTime (min)StartingMass ofChips (g)Final Massof Chips (g)Change inMass ofChips (g)2468GeoLab and MiniLab WorksheetsChapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe3

NameClassDateModel Mineral WeatheringPROCEDURE1. Read and complete the8. Secure the lid on the jar, and shake the jar forlab safety form.the assigned period of time.2. Soak 100 g of halite chips in water overnight.3. As a class, decide on a uniform method ofshaking the jars.9. Pour the water from the jar.10. Use paper towels to gently dry the halite chips.11. Use a balance to find the final mass of the4. Pour off the water, and use paper towels togently dry the halite chips. Divide them intofour piles on the paper towel.5. Use a balance to find the starting mass of onepile of the chips.6. Place the halite chips in the plastic jar.7. Add 300 mL of water to the jar.chips. Record your measurement in a datatable similar to the one provided.12. Subtract the final mass from the starting massto calculate the change in mass of the halitechips.13. Repeat Steps 4 to 12 using a fresh pile of halitechips for each period of time.A N A LY Z E A N D C O N C L U D E1. State What real-world process did you model in this investigation?3. Compare the lab procedure with actual weathering processes. What did the haliterepresent? What process did shaking the jar represent?4Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the UniverseGeoLab and MiniLab WorksheetsCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.2. Infer Why did you need to soak the halite chips before conducting the expenment?

NameClassDateModel Mineral WeatheringC O N C L U D E A N D A P P LY4. Deduce How would acid precipitation affect this process in the real world?5. Conclude How would the results of your investigation be affected if you usedpieces of quartz instead of halite?INQUIRY EXTENSIONCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Design an Experiment This lab demonstrated the relationship betweenexposure time and weathering. Consider other factors that affect weathering.Design an experiment to measure the effects of those factors.GeoLab and MiniLab WorksheetsChapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe5

Teaching Transparencyhematiteferrous oxygenoxidegaswatercarbonicacidwaterin tricacidNO 2HNO3sulfuricacidsulfur watertrioxide3NO2 H2OH2SO4SO3 H2OChemical WeatheringcarbondioxideH2CO3H2O CO2potassiumionAcid Precipitation FormationkaoliniteAl2Si2O5(OH)4 2K 2HCO3 4SiO216Carbonic Acid Formation2Fe2O3Oxidationcarbonicacid4FeO2 O2potassiumfeldspar2KAlSi3O8 2(H HCO3 ) H2OHydrolysisCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.MASTERTEACHING TRANSPARENCYUse with Chapter 7Section 7.1Transparency Master 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe7

NameWORKSHEETClass16DateTEACHING TRANSPARENCYChemical WeatheringUse with Chapter 7Section 7.11. What is chemical weathering?2. What is hydrolysis?3. According to the chemical equation, what happens to potassium feldsparduring hydrolysis?4. How is carbonic acid formed, and what is its role in chemical weathering?Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.5. What substances react and form during oxidation?6. Which chemical processes shown involve carbon acid?7. What substances react during the formation of acid precipitation?8. What products result from acid precipitation formation?9. Which chemical processes shown involve H2O?8Transparency Worksheet 16 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the UniverseTeaching Transparency

Teaching TransparencyonsitoepDIncoming wavesCliffsSandbarMovement of sandgrains carried by wavesBarrier islandBeach with dunesShoreline currentcarrying sand17ArchErosionDepositiionCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.MASTERTEACHING TRANSPARENCYCoastal Erosion andDepositionUse with Chapter 7Section 7.2Transparency Master 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe9

NameWORKSHEETClass17DateTEACHING TRANSPARENCYCoastal Erosion andDepositionUse with Chapter 7Section 7.21. What causes coastal erosion?2. Which coastal features shown were carved by erosion?3. What is deposition?4. What causes deposition to occur along a shoreline?5. Which coastal features shown were created by deposition?Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.6. What is a sand bar, and how does it form?7. How did the barrier island likely form?8. Describe how sand grains carried by waves move.10Transparency Worksheet 17 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the UniverseTeaching Transparency

Teaching TransparencyBedrockC horizonB horizonA horizonStage 3. Weathering andorganic decay continue.Water leaches soluble mineralsdownward from the A horizon,and a mineral-rich B horizonforms.Soil FormationBedrockC horizonA horizonStage 2. Weathering of rockpieces continues. Organismsliving in the weathered materialdie and decay, forming anorganic-rich top layer, or Ahorizon.18BedrockC horizonStage 1. Weathering breakssolid bedrock into smallerpieces, forming the C horizon.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.MASTERTEACHING TRANSPARENCYUse with Chapter 7Section 7.3Transparency Master 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe11

NameWORKSHEETClass18DateTEACHING TRANSPARENCYSoil FormationUse with Chapter 7Section 7.31. What occurs at the beginning of the soil formation process?2. Are weathered rocks the only components needed to form soil?Explain your answer.3. Is the soil shown a residual soil or a transported soil? Explain your answer.4. Which horizon contains the least-weathered parent material?Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.5. What occurs during the second stage of soil formation?6. Which is the last horizon to form, and how does it form?7. What process occurs during all three stages?12Transparency Worksheet 18 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the UniverseTeaching Transparency

NameClassCHAPTERDate7STUDY GUIDEWeathering, Erosion, and SoilSECTION7.1WeatheringIn your textbook, read about weathering.In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false,change the italicized word or phrase to make it true.1. Weathering is the process by which rocks on or near Earth’s surfacebreak down and change.2. Mechanical weathering changes the chemical composition of rocks.3. Weathering rate depends on temperature.4. Acid precipitation has a pH value above 5.6.5. The repeated thawing and freezing of water in the cracks of rocksis called frost wedging.6. Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and acids are significant agents ofmechanical weathering.7. Oxidation occurs in the decomposition of iron ore.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.8. The chemical reaction of carbon dioxide with other substances iscalled oxidation.Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.9. The reaction below is an example of which of the following processes?a. oxidation2FeO4 O2 3Fe2O3b. exfoliationc. freezingd. mechanical weathering10. The pH scale is used to measurement which of the following?a. oxidationb. exfoliationc. acidityd. precipitation11. The process by which outer layers of rock are stripped away is calleda. chemical weathering. b. oxidation.c. exfoliation.d. frost wedging.12. In which of the following climates would physical weathering most readily occur?a. wet and warmb. dry and warmc. wet and hotd. dry and cool13. Large amounts of carbonic acid are found ina. the soil.b. acid precipitation.c. limestone.d. automobile exhaust.14. Buildings and monuments that are made of limestone are greatly damaged bya. freezing.b. acid precipitation. c. oxidation.d. frost wedging.15. Which of the following factors does NOT exert pressure on rocks that leads to physical weathering?a. plant rootsb. overlying rocksc. freezing waterd. carbonic acidStudy GuideChapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe13

NameClassCHAPTERSECTION7.1Date7STUDY GUIDEWeathering, continuedIn your textbook, read about weathering and what affects the rate at which weathering occurs.Use the terms below just once to complete the passage.wateracid precipitationcarbonic acidcarbon dioxidetemperaturemechanicalcompositionpressureThe process by which rocks and minerals break down into smaller pieces is(16)weathering, also called physical weathering. Two factorsthat play a significant role in this type of weathering are (17)(18). To some extent, the (19)the effects that chemical weathering will have on them. (20)andof rocks determinesis an importantagent in chemical weathering because it can dissolve many kinds of minerals. An atmospheric gasthat contributes to the chemical weathering process is (21), which is pro-duced by living organisms. When this gas combines with water, it produces a weak acid called(22). Another agent of chemical weathering is (23),which is caused mainly by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Answer the following questions.24. What climate conditions promote chemical weathering?25. What rock type is most easily weathered? Why?26. How is surface area related to weathering?27. How does slope affect the rate of weathering?14Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the UniverseStudy Guide

NameClass7CHAPTERSECTIONDate7.2STUDY GUIDEErosion and DepositionIn your textbook, read about erosion and deposition.For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.Column AColumn B1. The final stage of the erosional process in whicha. slopematerials are dropped in another location2. The force that tends to pull all materials downhill3. The steeper the, the greater the potentialfor flowing water to erode earth materials.4. Coastal areas undergo erosion byb. ocean wavesc. windd. glaciersand wind.5. Erode by scraping, gouging, and picking up largee. gravityrocks and debris piles6. A major erosional agent in areas with limitedf.depositionprecipitation and high temperaturesAnswer the following questions.7. Give two examples of how plants and animals move Earth’s surface materials fromCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.one place to another as they carry on their life processes.8. Explain rill erosion and how it differs from gully erosion.9. Describe the formation of barrier islands.Study GuideChapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe15

NameClassCHAPTERSECTION7.27DateSTUDY GUIDEErosion and Deposition, continuedThe following statements list types of erosion. Using the numbers 1–4, label them bytheir ability to transport materials.1. wind erosion2. water erosion3. glacial erosion4. plant and animal erosionFor each statement below, write true or false.5. When a river enters a large body of water, the water generally slowsdown and deposits large amounts of sediments.6. The Nile Delta was formed from ocean waves and currents.7. The constant movement of water and the availability of accumulatedweathered material creates continuous erosion.8. Unlike water, glaciers do not move material over a long distance.9. Wind is a major erosional agent in areas on Earth that have bothlimited precipitation and high temperatures.10. Wind barriers are trees and other vegetation planted perpendicularCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.to the wind direction.11. The movement of soil and other Earth materials by humans as theybuild highways and bridges, is not considered erosion.12. Barrier islands, which form from offshore sand deposits, can continueto be built up from sediments and form sandbars.13. The continued erosion of rill channels can develop into gully erosion.14. Winds cannot blow against the force of gravity.15. Wind can always move more material than water.16. A U-shaped valley indicate that glacial erosion has taken place.17. Waves, tides, and currents are responsible for erosion of islands.16Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the UniverseStudy Guide

NameClassCHAPTERSECTION7.3Date7STUDY GUIDESoilIn your textbook, read about soils and how they form.Complete each statement.is the loose covering of weathered rock particles and1.decaying organic matter overlying the bedrock of Earth’s surface.2. Soil that is located above its parent material is known as.3. Soil that has been moved away from its parent bedrock is called.4. When heavy machinery digs out soil in the process of building a road,a vertical sequence layers of soil, called a(n),will often be exposed.5. A distinct layer, or zone, located within a soil profile is known as a(n).6. Soils formed in dry, hot areas with low rainfall are classified asCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.7. A(n)is a type of soil that forms in a prairie environment.8. The layer of a soil which is composed of humus and leaf litter is called thehorizon.9. Soil forms as a result ofand biological activity that breaksdown and changes soil materials over long periods of time.10. The relative proportions of particle sizes make up a soil’s11. Soil.is the measure of how well a soil can support thegrowth of plants.Study GuideChapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe17

NameClassCHAPTERSECTION7.37DateSTUDY GUIDESoil, continuedIn your textbook, read about soil profiles.Complete the soil profile by filling in the horizons. Then answer the questions.12.13.14.Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.15. Which horizon is the surface layer? Describe it.16. Which horizon is the subsoil? Describe it.17. Which horizon occurs directly above bedrock? Describe it.18Chapter 7 Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the UniverseStudy Guide

Table ofContentsReproducible PagesChapter 8 Mass Movements, Wind, and GlaciersMiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28GeoLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Study Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Chapter Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5727

NameMiniLab 8ClassDateModel Glacia l DepositionHow

Glencoe Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe program. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027 ISBN: 978-0-07-879210-6 MH