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Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy SPEECH ACTS MIND
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64 ROBERT M HARNISH, Davidson D Moods and Perfonnances In A Margalit ed Meaning and Use Dordrecht Reidel 1979. FRANK KANNETZKY, Fodor J and Z Pylyshyn Connectionism and Cognitive Architecture In S Pinker and J Mehler eds. Connections and Symbols Cambridge MA Bradford MIT Press 1988. Gale R Do Perfonnative Utterances have any Constative Function Journal ofPhilosophy 5 1970 1 1 7. Ginet C Perfonnativity Linguistic and Philosophy 3 1979 245 265 EXPRESSIBILITY EXPLICABILITY AND. Grewendort G Explicit Perfonnatives and Statements Journal ofPragmatics 3 1979 43 1 445. Grice H P Studies in the Way of Words Cambridge MA Harvard University Press 1987 TAXONOMY. Harnish R Some Implications oflllocutions Lingua 62 112 1984 121 144. Some Remarks on the Principle ofExpressibility, Harnish R Perfonnatives are Default Reflexive Standardized Indirect Acts Acta Linguistica Hungarica 38. 1 4 1988 83 106, Harnish R Meaning and Perfonnatives In M Thelen et al eds Meaning and Translation Maastricht. The Netherlands Rijkshogeschool 1991, Harnish R Perfonnatives and Standardization A Progress Report Linguistische Berichte 8 1997 161.
Heal J Explicit Perfonnative Utterances and Statements Philosophical Quarterly 24 95 1974 106 1. Lemmon E J On Sentences Verifiable by their Use Analysis 22 1962 86 89 Searle s principle of expressibility the claim whatever can be meant can be said. Recanati F Meaning and Force The Pragmatics of Performative Utterances Cambridge Cambridge. University Press 1987 Searle 1969 19 is often understood as the postulate that the transformation of. Reimer M Perfonnative Utterances A Reply to Bach and Harnish Linguistics and Philosophy 18 1995 implicit or primary speech acts into explicit ones is always possible This reading. 655 i75 is supported by the following claim it is always possible for him the speaker to. Sampson J Pragmatic SelfVerification and Perfonriatives Foundations ofLanguage 7 1971 300 302 say exactly what he means Therefore it is in principle possible for every speech act. Searle J R Speech Acts Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1969. Searle J R 1975a ATaxonomy oflllocutionruy Acts Reprinted in Searle 1979 op cit one performs or could perform to be uniquely determined by a given sentence or set. Searle J R 1975b Indirect Speech Acts Reprinted in Searle 1979 op cit of sentences given the assumptions that the speaker is speaking literally and that. Searle J R Expression and Meaning Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1979 the context is appropriate Searle 1969 18 my emphasis. Searle J R How Perfonnatives Work Linguistics and Philosophy 12 1989 535 538 Reprinted in R The distinction explicit implicit js often explained in terms of conscious. Harnish ed Basic Topics in the Philosophy ofLanguage Prentice Hall Wheatsheaf 1994. Searle J R The Construction ofSocial Reality New York The Free Press 1995 unconscious or intentional unintentional e g in analogy to the difference between. Searle J R Mind Language and Society New York Basic Books 1998 knowledge currently not present and knowledge directly available at the moment. Searle J R and D Vanderveken Foundations of Illocutionary Logic Cambridge Cambridge University Another characterization of that pair of terms aims at the difference between what is. Press 1985 said in literal meaning explicit and what is said due to conceptual and contextual. Schiffer S Meaning Oxford Oxford University Press 1972. Sperber D and D Wilson Relevance Cambridge MA Harvard University Press 1986 relations implicit consequences and implicatures that is it aims at the logical and. Sadock J and A Zwicky Speech Act Distinctions in Syntax In T Shopen ed Language Typology and pragmatic preconditions that are necessary for what is said being in effect or valid. Syntactic Description Vol I Cambridge University Press 1985 presuppositions. Staugaard A Robotics and Al Englewood Cliffs NJ Prentice Hall 1987 Concerning the pragmatic role of utterances which has to be inferred primarily. Warnock G J Some Types of Perfonnative Utterance In I Berlin et a eds Essays on J L Austin. Oxford Oxford University Press 1973 from the context I will not use the terms explicit and implicit in the first sense. but rather in the second For example the utterance You stand on my foot is. usually treated as a demand and not as a statement and the illocutionary role of that. utterance is explicated correspondingly Here the distinction between explicit and. implicit coincides at least partly with the distinction clear distinct vs. unclear indistinct or between unambiguous vs ambiguous Accordingly a. speech act is implicit if what the speaker means by a corresponding utterance is not. unmistakably accessible from its form A paradigmatic case is irony Explicating a. speech act means nothing else than giving the utterance an unmistakable form at. least with respect to the given situation In this sense the principle of expressibility. states that such an explication is always possible by choosing the explicit. performative form of the speech act Austin calls such a form the normal or. standard form For Searle explicit performative speech acts take the following. G Grewendorf and G Meggle eds Speech Acts Mind and Social Reality Discussions with John R. Searle 65 82, 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers Printed in the Netherlands. 66 FRANK KANNETZKY EXPRESSIBILITY EXPLICABILITY AND TAXONOMY 67. form F p where F stands for an explicit performative verb illocutionary force 2 EXPLICATION AS THE ASSIGNMENT OF A SYNTACTIC FORM. indicating devices that represents the corresponding illocutionary force and p. If possible misunderstandability or partial incomprehensibility is a ondition for. stands for the propositional content of the speech act it takes expressions for. propositions Here the words are used in their literal meaning Searle 1969 31 a given utterance to be implicit then making it explic it means nothmg el e than. making the utterance unambiguous or fully comprehensible That means to glVe the. Searle 1975 1 According to Searle this form is the real object of the theoretical. utterance a certain syntactic form the so called normal or standard form T is. analysis of speech acts In effect the principle of expressibility works as a. form will make explicit the illocutionary role i e the modus of the u 1erance ts. translation thesis It is always possible to translate the normal language into a kind. propositional content reference and predication and e c ndttt n for tts. of an ideal language that does not eave space for misunderstandings because of its. fulfilment or happiness Austin Disregarding the dtfficulttes wtth this tmagmed. standardization This is the methodical role of the principle of expressibility If the. separation between modus and content and provided that the e phca 10n of e. principle holds it is sufficient to examine the linguistic expressions in order to grasp. propositional content does not produce any prob ems the question stdl rem ms. the meaning of utterances, whether every illocutionary role could be syntactically represented Searle clatms. If the principle of expressibility is interpreted as the claim that all speech acts. that there is a kind of correspondence principle between semantics and syntax He. can be made explicit in the sense explained then one faces the following question. thinks that basic semantic differences are likely to have syntactical consequences. Is the principle not restricted by the fact that most of our speech acts really are. Searle 1975 1 Therefore it see s re sonable to look for semanti difference f. implicit in some way or other and by the fact that there are even certain implicit or. there are syntactic ones The question IS whether there Is an unambigu us exphett. indirect speech acts or illocutionary roles that cannot be performed at all if we would. performative conventional verbaliz tio f r every illocution role which captures. make them explicit It is reasonable to understand the principle of expressibility not. the semantic differences only by lmguisttc expressions Is 1t possible to te e. only as a claim of the semantic equivalence of implicit and explicit expressions for. illocutionary role of an expression in a context invaria t manner by givmg Its. the purpose of analysis but also as a claim of a pragmatic equivalence of implicit. explicit performative form despite the different ways of usmg expresstons. and explicit utterances in concrete situations Standard counterexamples against the. The question presupposes the existence of such an expression But let us ask frrst. claim for pragmatic equivalence of implicit and explicit speech acts and therefore. if there are explicit speech acts in the sense of unmistakable utterances at all The. against the principle itself are apparently lying offending and hinting 3 If I. answer is yes and no We usually understand what other pe ple mean We know the. want to offend someone I will miss my intent ifi say Hereby I offend you Such. fulfilment conditions of their speech acts we are able to Judge the consequences. an utterance is not an offence If I tell someone explicitly that I am lying to him. then there is no lying at all The same holds for hinting In those cases an explicit e g what social facts are produced by and which commitments and entitlements. arise from the performance of these speech acts for speakers and hearers. expression prevents the success of the speech act, Understanding is indicated then by the proper continuation of either a disco e or a. Searle is right however not to be moved by such considerations Implicit speech. common action or in the following or resulting actions for example positive or. acts do not contradict the principle of expressibility One reason for that is that the. negative sanctions or simply the absence of inadequate reactions The. principle does not fix the addressee of the explication it merely states that one can. corresponding criteria of correctness and adequacy are normally not ex r ssed but. explicate what was implicitly meant The addressee must not be identical with the. they are known implicitly or practically due to the fa t that we Pru ti Ipate m a. hearer When I explain my behaviour to someone by using the words I lied to. collective practice If intelligibility is a sufficient condition for exphcitness en. Miller I also make my speech act explicit Nevertheless to Miller I lied The. there exist explicit speech acts in the sense of the concept of understand g. difference between the two kinds of explication is that in the case of direct lying. mentioned However explicitness in this sense does not depend on a certam. the addressee is the target of the speech act while in the second case he is my. syntactic form of the utterances e g the standard form of speech acts. peer This differentiation is irrelevant for the principle of expressibility. On the other hand misunderstanding can never be completely excluded even If. Second it is not in any case reasonable to make the speech act explicit to. the explicit performative form or standard form of speec acts is used Therefore. everyone if it is to have success Theoretically this is not too relevant The. the question whether there exists explicit and therefore unmistakabl speech acts has. circumstance that a speech act does not lead to the intended outcome for example. a nega ive answer The reason is this explicating a g ve u eran e m order to make. that the addressee is offended if it is made explicit to the addressee does not affect. it understandable is to explain wh t can be done with It m a given con ext wh t. the possibility of the explication With respect to the intended result the use of. follows from it logically and pragmatically what counts as reason for It what s. explicit performative verbs or any other explication of the speech act could be a. regarded as proper response etc That is explicating an utterance means to explam. pragmatic mistake, how it is embedded into a given familiar practice. Third one should not confuse performing a speech act with reflecting upon it. Speech act theory wants to translate the utterance into its explicit performative. and reflecting upon it with explicating it, form and state the corresponding rules for the proper and meanmgful use of these.
linguistic forms Searle or its conditions of happiness Austin 4 However can. 68 FRANK KANNETZKY EXPRESSIBILITY EXPLICABILITY AND TAXONOMY 69. there eally be a theory of the structure of speech acts and of the corresponding rules In his book Speech Acts Searle showed how speech acts and meaning cohere. for usmg performatlve verbs that can fulfill this task The the meaning of utterances is composed of the illocutionary role and the propositional. explicit performative form, of an utterance that is given by a speaker for example in order to clarify the content This is a structural analysis of speech acts but not a complete theory of. meaning of his initial utterance to the hearer has to fit in the context as well as the meaning It would allow full understanding of every possible speech act only if one. implicit form This means that the explicit form is subjected to the same difficulties had a complete classification of the possible pragmatic or illocutionary roles that can. as the implicit form Frege s discussion of the so called assertive force be played by speech acts This task should just be done by a taxonomy of speech. behauptende Kraft shows that giving an explicit form is not sufficient for acts Hence under the assumptio. Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy Volume 79 Managing Editors GENNARO CHIERCHIA University of Milan PAULINE JACOBSON Brown University FRANCIS J PELLETIER University of Alberta Editorial Board JOHAN VAN BENTHEM University of Amsterdam GREGORY N CARLSON University of Rochester DAVID DOWTY Ohio State University Columbus GERALD GAZDAR University of Sussex Brighton IRENE HElM M l T

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