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THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE FISHERIES FOR BOTTOMFISH IN AMERICAN SAMOA 1961 1987. tuna longlining and general 1977 Wass 1980a Dependence development marine resource. tuna fishing development on imported protein and the identification and resource as. local sale of inexpensive frozen sessment, pole and line tuna fishing fish from the canneries further. discouraged the start of a do OMR bottomfish surveys from. sport fishing and charter mestic fishing industry 1967 to 1970 on the 10 m fibre. fishing industry develop glass vessel Tautai A e indi. ment and In 1961 alone approximately cated potential for a small scale. 100 short tons of frozen fish bottomfishery based in Pago. aquarium fish trade mostly wahoo caught inciden Pago Ralston 1978. tally by the foreign longline fleet, This article examines the devel based on the Pago Pago canner A total of 125 bottomfish survey. opment of the American Samoa ies was sold locally at cost or trips was made and the catch. commercial artisanal fishery as slight profit for US 0 12 lb results from 104 bottomfishing. it relates to the exploitation of Marr 1961 1 lb 0 454 kg trips between September 1967. bottomfish taken by hook and This inexpensive source of fish and March 1969 produced. line remains a serious constraint on 14 411 kg of bottomfish for an. domestic fisheries development average of 138 6 kg trip at a. FIRST GENERATION FISHERY DEVEL to this day mean rate of 3 5 kg line hour. OPMENT Survey effort concentrated on, The Marr report recommended shallow shelf areas around. Initial status the establishment of a govern Tutuila Island to a depth of 55. ment agency at the departmen m resulting in a catch domi. At the time of Marr s visit to tal level to guide and assist fish nated by shallow water emper. American Samoa there were no eries development with priority ors and snappers. local commercial fishing vessels given to the introduction of a. or sport fishing craft in the en suitable small craft for near shore It was reported that 23 3 per. tire Territory The concept of fisheries The vessel Marr recom cent of the catch was Lethrinus. fishing to produce a marketable mended would be outboard miniatus 19 2 per cent Lutjanus. product for monetary gain is driven easily built and main gibbus and that there was a. incompatible with traditional tained 4 9 7 0 m long and capa large percentage of L bohar. Samoan cultural values ble of utilising troll hand line which were not included in. trap gillnet surround net night Ralston s analysis as they are. In a somewhat paradoxical lighting and longlining gear often ciguatoxic in Samoa and. sense the erosion of other tra are not marketed, ditional values and the accept At the same time he cautioned. ance of a cash economy based that training and appropriate The remainder of the catch was. on government jobs and tuna technology were essential and composed of Lutjanus kasmira. cannery employment resulted that Samoan fishermen must be Cephalopholis spp Ephinephelus. in a steadily decreasing level of willing to resume and pursue a spp and the dogtooth tuna. traditional subsistence fishing rigorous seafaring life for the Gymnosarda unicolor. fisheries development to suc, Cultural deterioration also led ceed The best fishing areas for these.
to the loss of a rich heritage of species were on the relatively. oceanic seafaring among the Bottomfish surveys Tautai A e broad shelf areas around. Samoan people Marr estimated Tutuila near Aunu u Island. that there were only about 10 The Office of Marine Resources Cape Taputapu and Cape. traditional outrigger canoes OMR was created by execu Matatula Figure 1 Catch rates. paopao regularly fishing tive order of the Governor of in these areas ranged from 4 1. around the main island of American Samoa during the to 4 9 kg line hour There were. Tutuila 1960s to deal with all fisheries some indications that catch. related matters which included rates fell during the period of. Most fishing and seafood gath addressing the recommenda the surveys although it is not. ering activities in Samoa con tions of the Marr report certain if the cause was fishing. centrate on shallow reef flat pressure or seasonal variation. areas between the outer fring The major objectives of the of in catchability. ing reef and the shoreline Hill fice at this time were fisheries. SPC Fisheries Newsletter 76 January March 96, THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE FISHERIES FOR BOTTOMFISH IN AMERICAN SAMOA 1961 1987. Cape Matatula, Pago Pago Harbor Aunu u, Cape Tutuila. Taputapu 14 20 S, Figure 1 Shallow water bottomfish grounds surveyed by the Tautai A e. However it is likely that the units Six other dories were Fishing captains were asked to. drop in catch rate was a real equipped with I O jet drives in report catches to the OMR on. consequence of the vessel fish an attempt to avoid problems of standardised trip report forms. ing down virgin stocks of propeller damage on shallow that contained information on. bottomfish coral reefs during beach land area fished fishing method. ings Pedro pers comm number of fishermen number, Dory Project of hooks weight of catch total. The jet drives were soon aban and number and weight of pre. In February 1972 the OMR doned later dories were dominant species Wass 1973. Small Boat Project funded by equipped with 70 hp diesel en According to OMR records 70. the American Samoa Office of gines with I O propeller units per cent of the dories engaged. Economic Opportunity OEO Hume Eginton 1976 A few in some bottomfishing activi. launched the first small scale dories were equipped with true ties. commercial fishing vessel for inboard shaft and cutlass. American Samoa Wass 1973 drives but the I O units were Almost all of the bottomfishing. The OMR developed a boat preferred Yamasaki pers was conducted at night and. building facility that eventually comm The flat bottoms of some most of the fishing trips lasted. produced 23 vessels over a of the dories were removed and for only a single night Dories. three year period Wass 1975 replaced with modified V hulls averaged three to four fisher. in response to complaints con men per trip Most of the. The vessels were patterned af cerning the rough handling bottomfishing was conducted. ter the Oregon Dory popular in Pedro pers comm in relatively shallow waters. the US Pacific north west de between 55 and 146 m Fishing. signed for beach launching and Completed dories were made effort concentrated on the shal. used in the salmon troll and available to local residents inter low shelf areas around Tutuila. shallow water groundfish fish ested in commercial fishing on Island that had already been. eries The Small Boat Project is the understanding that the cost surveyed by the Tautai A e No. commonly referred to as the of materials and construction mechanical means of line re. Dory Project due to the choice costs would be paid back to the trieval was employed meaning. of vessel design The plywood government The repayment that all bottomfishing and troll. hulls were 7 3 m long with a and a low rate of interest would ing was conducted with simple. 2 4 m beam and small cuddy be generated from fish sales and handlines kept in baskets or. cabin forward The early dories re enter an OEO revolving loose in the bottom of the do. were supplied with petrol fund Very little of the money ries. driven engines and inboard was ever repaid, outboard I O propeller drive.
SPC Fisheries Newsletter 76 January March 96, THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE FISHERIES FOR BOTTOMFISH IN AMERICAN SAMOA 1961 1987. The shallow fishing grounds 30, and handlines produced a pre 28. dictable catch of shallow to 26, mid depth snappers emperors 24. and groupers In 1974 1975 22, Dory Project vessel landings by 20. Number of dories, Fishing Tutuila, Fishing Tutuila.
weight included Lutjanus 18, kasmira 30 9 Lethrinus spp 16 Fishing Manu a. 22 8 Lutjanus gibbus 16 2 Inactive, and Pristipomoides spp 9 5 Sold to W Samoa. The remaining 9 5 per cent of, 8 Lost at sea, the catch was a mixture of other. snappers groupers and jacks, Wass 1975 2, A wide range of mechanical. problems beset several dory, owners and many of the dories.
were out of service for extended Fiscal year, periods of time while engines or. drive units were changed or re Figure 2 OMR Dory Project vessels 1972 1980. placed After the first few years, the lack of routine maintenance VISTA fisheries development men to use new gear and fish. took a heavy toll on many of the project ing techniques The project con. dories Some eventually became centrated on surveying bottom. unserviceable and some were In the early 1970s a group of fish grounds and providing. out of service due to reposses around 20 Americans with fish training in outer reef slope. sion for failure to pay the ves eries training or expertise came bottomfishing using electric and. sel loans to American Samoa as volun manually operated reels Hume. teer fisheries advisers to the Eginton 1976, However a few very dedicated OMR with the Volunteers in. and conscientious fishermen Service to America VISTA A variety of vessels was used. maintained their craft in a rough programme Yamasaki pers during the visit including two. but serviceable condition into comm Pago Pago built Oregon dories. the 1980s Mead 1978 Figure 2 The significant aspect of this. charts the progress of Dory A diversity of backgrounds and visit was the use of hand and. Project boat building efforts It skills was represented in the electric reels for bottomfishing. shows the number of vessels group who ranged from univer in Samoa this was possibly the. fishing every year in Tutuila and sity students to commercial fish first time Samoan fishermen. Manu a and the number that ermen from the US mainland had been trained and given the. were inactive lost at sea or sold and Hawaii Several of the vol opportunity to use anything. to Western Samoa unteers were attached to various other than handlines for bot. aspects of the Dory Project or the tom fishing operations. The number of inactive vessels OMR boat building facility. for 1978 1980 was not known at SPC Deep Sea Fisheries De. the time of preparation of this ar SPC Outer Reef Artisanal Fish velopment Project American. ticle Vessels that were inactive eries Project ORAFP West Samoa 1978. generally had mechanical prob ern Samoa 1975, lems or were changing engine Three years later the SPC Deep. types A five member team from the Sea Fisheries Development. South Pacific Commission DSFD Project sent its master. ORAFP visited Western Samoa fisherman Paul Mead to Ameri. for seven months in 1975 to can Samoa He remained in. survey and assess bottomfish American Samoa from 28 March. resources assess the feasibility to 2 July 1978 with the objec. of commercial fisheries devel tives of introducing new fishing. opment and train local fisher gear and methods to improve. SPC Fisheries Newsletter 76 January March 96, THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE FISHERIES FOR BOTTOMFISH IN AMERICAN SAMOA 1961 1987.
bottomfishing efficiency and handreels each filled with adopted by the American Sa. encouraging the exploitation of 500 m of 113 kg monofilament moan dory fleet It opened up. unexploited outer reef slopes line entirely new fishing grounds. deeper than 120 m The dory and brought the deep water. project had begun six years Ground tackle consisted of 350 high value snappers under ex. prior to Mead s visit and four 730 m of polypropylene line ploitation The FAO designed. dories were still in operation and a short section of 10 mm handreels were also quickly. around Tutuila Island during chain attached to a simple adopted for trolling operations. this period 12 mm steel grapnel hook an significantly increasing dory. chor Mead 1978 A portable CPUE, When Mead first came to the depth sounder was also used to. Territory local bottomfishing assist in the location of suitable This project was the first to. concentrated on the shallow anchoring and fishing areas document the harvest in Ameri. water snapper emperor grouper can Samoa of commercial quan. complex Bottomfishing was Instead of fishing on the shal tities of high value bottomfish. conducted at night using hand low shelf areas around Tutuila such as Etelis coruscans. lines with no mechanical means Mead concentrated on deeper E carbunculus Aphareus rutilans. of retrieving the line areas by anchoring on the edge and Pristipomoides spp. of the outer reef slope and play, Mead used two privately ing out anchor line to reach the Lethrinids made up a large part. owned dories for his bottom desired depth of the catch by number but the. fishing surveys and equipped eteline snappers represented. them with FAO designed The use of this technique with over 50 per cent of the catch by. Western Samoan type wooden wooden hand reels was soon weight To be continued. Copyright South Pacific Commission 1996, The South Pacific Commission authorises the reproduction. of this material whole or in part in any form, provided appropriate acknowledgement is given. Original text English, South Pacific Commission B P D5 98848 Noumea Cedex New Caledonia.
Telephone 687 262000 Telex 3139NM SOPACOM Fax 687 263818. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE FISHERIES FOR BOTTOMFISH IN AMERICAN SAMOA 1961 1987 However it is likely that the drop in catch rate was a real consequence of the vessel fish ing down virgin stocks of bottomfish Dory Project In February 1972 the OMR Small Boat Project funded by the American Samoa Office of Economic Opportunity OEO

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