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This report was prepared by the American Probation and Parole
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APPA GRANTS AT WORK FOR, COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS, This report was prepared by the American Probation and Parole. Association in partnership with the National Center for State Courts. and The Pew Charitable Trusts, Table of Contents, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i. Introduction 1, Research and Rationale 3, Swiftness and Certainty 4. Proportionality 5, Incentives and Rewards 7, Review of Empirical Evidence 7. Lessons Learned 10, Consider Legal and Constitutional Issues 11.
Apply Proper Ratio of Incentives to Sanctions 14, Collaborate with Key Stakeholders 17. Develop Structured Response Grids Using Key Principles 18. Evaluate Program Fidelity and Outcomes 19, Moving Forward 22. References 24, Appendix A Summit Materials 27, Appendix B Response Grid Template 28. Appendix C Data Collection Elements 29, i Effective Responses to Offender Behavior Lessons Learned for Probation and Parole Supervision. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, The completion of this publication was made possible through collaborations among several people and.
organizations First and foremost the representatives from 14 states who participated in a summit to share their. experiences on this topic deserve gratitude During the convening these representatives worked together to. address issues and develop action plans for their respective jurisdictions Some of their participation however. also took place prior to the convening In fact 10 of the states worked with the project team to provide detailed. profiles of their administrative response systems Even since the summit many of the states willingly shared the. progress made in the implementation of practices and policies The insights gained helped to identify the lessons. learned as described in this report, Next many experts and leaders in the field gave formal presentations at the summit on this topic and. they deserved to be formally acknowledged as well Scott Taylor Director Multnomah County Department. of Community Justice and Past President American Probation and Parole Association and Bernard Warner. Secretary Washington State Department of Corrections provided insight on what has worked for their. respective agencies in successfully implementing effective responses in probation and parole supervision Drs. Brett Garland Associate Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice Missouri State University and Eric Wodahl. Associate Professor of Criminal Justice University of Wyoming gave an overview of the theoretical rationale. and empirical evidence supporting the use of sanctions and incentives in community supervision Lastly Eileen. Kinney Evaluation Unit Manager Colorado Division of Probation Services and Becky Ney Principal Center for. Effective Public Policy discussed the importance of key performance measures in order to properly assess the. effectiveness of the responses used in supervision Such expertise was invaluable to the development of this. Of course this report would not have been conceivable without the support from the Public Safety. Performance Project of The Pew Charitable Trusts Particular thanks are owed to Richard Jerome Manager. Lindsey Carlson Senior Associate and Adam Gelb Director Each was involved throughout every aspect of the. project and specifically contributed to the development of this report. Effective Responses to Offender Behavior Lessons Learned for Probation and Parole Supervision ii. The development of this report was led by the American Probation and Parole Association s Nathan. Lowe Research Associate and Mary Ann Mowatt Research Associate in partnership with the National. Center for State Courts Matthew Kleiman Ph D Principal Court Research Consultant Fred L Cheesman. II Ph D Principal Court Research Consultant Cynthia G Lee Court Research Associate and Kathryn. Holt Court Research Analyst Support and guidance was also sought from Carl Wicklund Executive. Director American Probation and Parole Association and Judge Roger Warren President Emeritus. National Center for State Courts John R Higgins Graphic Designer APPA designed and formatted this. report for publication, About the Organizations, American Probation and Parole Association APPA. APPA is an international association composed of individuals actively involved. with probation parole and community based corrections in both adult. and juvenile sectors Over the years APPA has grown to become a strong. unified voice for thousands of probation and parole practitioners as well as. educators volunteers and concerned citizens with an interest in criminal and. juvenile justice APPA provides a wide range of services to its constituency. including training technical assistance and research on the most pressing. issues facing the community corrections field, National Center for State Courts NCSC. NCSC headquartered in Williamsburg Virginia is an independent nonprofit. court improvement organization All of NCSC s services research. information services education consulting are designed to help courts. plan make decisions and implement improvements that save time and. money while ensuring judicial administration that supports fair and impartial. decision making, Public Safety Performance Project PSPP The Pew Charitable Trusts. The PSPP works with states to advance data driven fiscally sound policies and practices in the criminal and. juvenile justice systems that protect public safety hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs. 1 Effective Responses to Offender Behavior Lessons Learned for Probation and Parole Supervision. We cannot assume that what is punishing for one is equally. punishing for another nor can we assume that what is rewarding. for one is equally rewarding for another, Dr Eric Wodahl University of Wyoming.
Introduction, Using effective strategies to keep probationers and parolees crime and drug free and curb their. revocation rates is among the most important issues facing our community corrections supervision. system From the early 1980s through 2005 there was a sharp decline in the percentage of adult. probationers from 79 to 59 and parolees from 60 to 45 who successfully completed. supervision Bureau of Justice Statistics 1984 Glaze Bonczar 2006 While there has been a period. of stabilization in more recent years probation and parole agencies continue to seek alternatives to. business as usual in community supervision This is mainly due to the fact that high revocation rates. have had a detrimental impact on the criminal justice system including extensive prison growth see. Pew Center on the States 2008 and significant increases in costs for both corrections and the judiciary. see Kyckelhahn 2012 The community corrections field has a responsibility to implement a more. effective supervision process that enhances compliance and accountability among probationers and. parolees thereby improving public safety in a cost effective way. Given these challenges community corrections agencies are increasingly taking a more. comprehensive approach in responding to certain violations and reinforcing compliance among. probationers and parolees Decades of learning in the field and a growing research base has led to. a consensus among many corrections professionals about what needs to be done to achieve better. results and increase public safety These strategies include but are not limited to assessing criminal. risk and need factors focusing resources on higher risk offenders tailoring conditions of supervision. to the risk and needs most likely to result in new criminal behavior and balancing surveillance. requirements and treatment needs Solomon 2007, Effective Responses to Offender Behavior Lessons Learned for Probation and Parole Supervision 2. Based on solid research two key strategies that many agencies have begun to implement are the. use of swift certain and proportionate sanctions to respond to violations and the use of incentives to. promote and reinforce compliance among probationers and parolees These responses can be imposed. by the courts or they may be executed administratively meaning that the authority to issue sanctions. and reward compliance is given to the supervision agency without returning to the court or releasing. authority e g parole board This administrative response authority can be established by statute. or can be delegated by the court An administrative response strategy can strengthen community. supervision services by providing agencies greater autonomy in responding to behaviors in more. effective and cost efficient ways and thereby avoiding a reliance on the courts or releasing authorities. to handle all violations particularly those that include minor behavioral infractions. In December 2012 The Pew Charitable Trusts Public Safety Performance Project Pew the. American Probation and Parole Association APPA and the National Center for State Courts NCSC. jointly sponsored a convening of representatives from 14 states to address the use of effective. administrative responses in probation and parole supervision The conference was designed to assist. the states by highlighting effective procedures and common performance measures in responses that. involve both sanctions and incentives In addition it provided an excellent opportunity for individuals. to interact with representatives from the legislative executive and judicial branches in their respective. states around this timely public safety issue and to share their experiences and observations with. other policymakers practitioners and national experts. Several documents were developed for the summit including legal and research memos. and individual profiles of the states that summarized their policies and practices around effective. administrative responses see Appendix A This report highlights key lessons learned around planning. and implementation of sanctions and incentives with particular attention to ways in which states and. local jurisdictions can improve effective responses in probation and parole supervision This report. first provides an overview of the research and rationale supporting swift and certain sanctions and. responses shown to be effective in community supervision Second the report provides key lessons. learned based on the feedback received by attendees at the conference Last the report summarizes. practical implications about the use of the effective administrative response approach in community. supervision including directions for future research. 3 Effective Responses to Offender Behavior Lessons Learned for Probation and Parole Supervision. Research and Rationale, In considering responses to both negative and positive behavior among individuals under. supervision it is useful for policymakers and community supervision agencies to examine the. theoretical framework underlying effective techniques to enhance supervision compliance among. probationers and parolees There has been significant research supporting swift and certain sanctions. for violations and providing incentives and rewards for compliance in community supervision. Wodahl and associates 2011 refer to the comprehensive practices used to effectively address. violations and reward positive behaviors among individuals under community supervision as. behavioral strategies Such strategies are based on the scientific theory that behaviors are learned. and reinforced by psychological and environmental factors In particular operant learning theory. Skinner 1966 posits that while learning behavior individuals will continue certain behaviors that are. pleasurable to them and discontinue behaviors that have negative effects on them and stimuli within. one s environment can manipulate this learning process resulting in both intended and unintended. consequences Further the stimuli can be in the form of reinforcements both positive and negative. and punishments all of which shape an individual s behavior Social learning theory Bandura 1977. also provides insight into better understanding the components of this learning process It maintains. that individuals learn through observations and modeling during interactions with others within the. social environment This is particularly relevant to the interactions between probationers and parolees. and their corresponding supervision officers, This theoretical framework leads to several key principles and components in identifying effective. strategies in promoting compliance among individuals under community supervision These principles. are rooted in the classical work on deterrence in criminology particularly specific deterrence where. the purpose is to deter an individual from engaging in future unwanted behaviors such as crime Thus. while the principles themselves are not new to the justice system the ways in which they have been. applied to practice have evolved over the years for a review see Paternoster 2010. Supervising parole and probation officers are most able to determine. the best response to offender behavior When they use sanctions and. interventions appropriately this will generally lead to fewer offenders. facing revocation of supervision, Scott Taylor Director of Multnomah County Department of Justice and President Emeritus of APPA.
Effective Responses to Offender Behavior Lessons Learned for Probation and Parole Supervision 4. Swiftness and Certainty, The first principle is swiftness which means that responses by justice system agents to problematic. behaviors among probationers and parolees must be prompt see Paternoster. i Effective Responses to Offender Behavior Lessons Learned for Probation and Parole Supervision ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The completion of this publication was made possible through collaborations among several people and organizations First and foremost the representatives from 14 states who participated in a summit to share their

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