HospitalitySaving energy without compromising comfortenter
HospitalityContents264Energy management andpeople solutionsEnergy consumption inhospitality businesses5Next steps28Go online to get more29Opportunities for energy saving7Heating and domestic hot water7Ventilation and air conditioning11Lighting13Building fabric19Catering21Leisure and fitness facilities24Preface3Introduction2
HospitalityPrefaceReducing energy use makes perfect business sense; it saves money,enhances corporate reputation and helps everyone in the fight againstclimate change.The Carbon Trust provides simple, effective advice to help businessestake action to reduce carbon emissions, and the simplest way to do thisis to use energy more efficiently.This overview introduces the main energy saving opportunities for thehospitality sector and demonstrates how simple actions save energy, cutcosts and increase profit margins.3
HospitalityIntroductionSaving energy is one of the simplest ways to increase profits.Within the hospitality sector, energy costs may only bea small percentage of turnover, but reducing them candirectly increase revenue without the need to increasesales. Money saved on energy goes straight to thebottom line which makes businesses morecompetitive – and with rising energy prices, this ismore important than ever. Purchasing energy sourcesthat are recognised as 100% renewable will helpachieve long term cost savings, alongside ensuringthat the company’s carbon footprint is being reduced.The implementation of simple energy efficiencymeasures can further increase levels of staff andcustomer comfort as well as improving generalmorale.Fact:Energy used in catering accounts for between 4and 6% of operating profits. Saving energy candirectly increase revenue and profitabilitywithout the need to increase sales.In addition to financial and customer service benefits,there are of course, social and environmentaladvantages to reducing energy consumption, such asmitigating climate change. Increasing awarenessabout these issues has seen customers and guestsbecoming more discerning about the environmentalcredentials of the businesses they deal with. Beingenergy efficient can enhance business reputation andhelp to attract more customers.Controlling energy use often makes conditions morecomfortable for guests and customers – andcomfortable customers will be encouraged to return.Who is this publication for?Managers and staff in most hospitality organisationsincluding pubs, restaurants, hotels and guesthouses can benefit from the advice in thispublication. Focusing on low and no-cost measureswith quick paybacks, this overview demonstratesthe best energy saving opportunities for hospitalitybusinesses and will help managers to: Assess the potential for energy savings andhighlight areas where businesses can improve. Raise awareness of energy conservation amongststaff and motivate them to reduce waste.4
Hospitality5Energy consumption in hospitality businessesAnnual energy costs for this sector are in excess of 1.3 billion, resulting in carbon emissions of more than8 million tonnes per yearHospitality businesses are expanding rapidly with anumber of leading brands experiencing significantgrowth. This means that the relative energyconsumption of the sector could increasedramatically unless a proactive approachis taken to improve energy efficiency.Did you know? A range of modern controls exist to switchenergy consuming services down or off. Controls can be implemented to saveenergy in a number of cases e.g. when anindividual vacates a room, storeroom, officeand back of house areas.The hospitality sector is diverse, comprising hotels,guest houses, pubs, bars, restaurants and othercatering establishments. Despite the diversity, thereare several common areas where energy is wasted.The pie charts on the next page show where hotelsand pubs use the most energy and where the biggestsavings can be made: which are in heating, lighting,hot water, and catering.In each of the areas identified in the pie charts, thereare three main opportunities to save energy:Switching offAll energy consuming equipment should be switchedoff when not required. This can be done by staff, or byusing automatic switches or building control systems.MaintenanceA number of energy efficiency measures can becarried out as part of routine maintenance.RefurbishmentThe hospitality industry renews and refurbishespremises on a regular basis. Most professionalestablishments refurbish every 7–10 years and thisprovides a significant opportunity for energy savings.Some hospitality businesses have seen energy costsreduce by as much as 40% when energy efficiencyopportunities are maximised during refurbishment.Within the hospitality sector, an establishment cantypically achieve a 10% or more reduction in energyuse by implementing some simple efficiencymeasures. With additional investment in energyefficiency, Carbon Trust surveys indicate thatpotential carbon savings of 6% are achievable frommeasures with a payback period of less than oneyear, rising to 12-13% for measures with paybackperiods of 1-2 years.
HospitalityFigure 1 Indicative breakdown of energy use within theaverage hotelFigure 2 Indicative breakdown of energy use within theaverage pub6
HospitalityOpportunities for energy savingBusinesses should focus on implementing a variety of both short and long term energy saving strategies.Whilst low cost ‘Quick Wins’ can deliver immediate efficiency improvements and reduce costs by up to10%, longer term solutions can deliver greater cost savings of up to 20-25%.Heating and domestic hot waterHeating can account for more than 40% of energy usein non-domestic buildings which means that there arebig opportunities to make savings.Most managers recognise the importance of keepingcustomers and guests comfortable, but many do notrealise that it is possible to improve the efficiencyand minimise the cost of heating and hot water.HeatingCosts can be reduced by maintaining appropriatetemperatures and ensuring that heating equipmentand controls are operated and managed correctly. Infact, it is possible to save up to 20% on heating coststhrough the implementation of some simple energysaving measures.Table 1 Recommended temperatures for specificareas in hospitality businessesRoom TypeTemperature (ºC)*Bars, lounges20-22Guest bathrooms26-27Guest bedrooms19-21 Restaurants &dining rooms22-24Corridors19-21Kitchens16-18Appropriate internal temperaturesA good starting point is to know the recommendedtemperatures for specific areas in hospitalitybusinesses and use that as a guide.*Source: Adapted from Environmental Design CIBSEGuide A, 2006.Maintain boilers and pipeworkHave boilers serviced regularly by a reputable firm.Gas-fired boilers should be serviced once a year; oilboilers twice a year. A regularly serviced boiler couldpotentially save 5% on annual heating costs, andensure the continued smooth operation of the boilerand heating system.Boilers, hot water tanks, pipes and valves should beinsulated to prevent heat escaping. Payback canusually be expected within a few months ofinstallation, with additional savings in subsequentyears.See the Carbon Trust’s technology overview ofHeating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)(CTV046v3) for more detailed information on HVACopportunities.7
HospitalityControlling systemsCase StudyWhat other hospitality businesses are doingA luxury hotel in the West Midlands wasidentified to have two inefficient gas waterheaters that were only operating at 60%efficiency. With the help of the Carbon Trust, twonew water heaters were identified with animproved performance efficiency of over 90%.Alongside further improvements to existingboiler systems across the hotel, it is expectedthat these changes will help contribute towardsan annual saving of 5,500.Often, simple adjustments to the location and settingof controls can reduce costs without affecting staffand customer comfort. Some signs of poor controlinclude: Heating being on in unoccupied areas, becausetimers are not set correctly. Heating being on too high or not high enough,because the thermostat is located where sunlight,radiators or other heat sources affect the reading.Ensure controls match building and room occupancy.Check that the system is operating only during hourswhen staff and customers need heating, ventilationand cooling. Requirements will vary throughout theday. Use programmable time switches to helpautomate this process so that nobody forgets – andensure time settings are reviewed every month or soto check that they are correct. Many systems functioninefficiently because someone made a short-termadjustment and then forgot about it.ThermostatsThe location of thermostats is very important. Checkthey are not influenced by draughts, sunlight or internal heat sources like radiators or fireplaces. Discourage staff from using thermostats as on/off switches8heating process; the space simply overheats, makingcustomers uncomfortable.Thermostats should be regularly checked to ensurethat they are working correctly. Some businesses useseparate room thermometers to double check thatthermostats are turning the heating on when required.Heating should only be on if the temperature dropsbelow the recommended minimum (see the table onpage 7). If heating is on above these temperatures,check thermostats and adjust accordingly. If they arealready set correctly and the heating is still on, ask aqualified heating technician to check or replace them.Thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs)A TRV is a simple control valve with an air temperaturesensor, used to control the heat output from a radiatorby adjusting water flow. Correctly fitted and operatedTRVs can provide efficient, localised control. In a largeroom with several radiators and a variety of activitiesand heat gains, control of individual radiators canprovide the correct level of localised heating. Forexample, in crowded pubs, restaurants and commonareas of hotels, TRVs will reduce the amount of heatoutput from radiators as the space fills with people –and their own body heat. It is therefore important tocheck settings regularly and adjust appropriately toprovide optimum comfort conditions. Tamper-proofTRVs will prevent customers from altering the setting.
HospitalityUpgrade controlsZoningHeating systems with old, inefficient time controls canbe problematic. Upgrades are well worthimplementing as they can pay for themselves quicklythrough energy and cost savings.Some areas in larger buildings such as hotels requiredifferent levels of heating. A solution is to create‘zones’ in the building where separate time andtemperature controls are installed. Zoned areas willprovide closer, more efficient heating control whichcan improve comfort conditions and save on costs.Zoning should be considered when there are:Heating systems can adjust themselves in line with thechangeable UK weather. A compensator is a form ofcontrol for heating systems that automatically regulatesthe heating temperature based on the outsideconditions. An optimum start controller learns howquickly the building reaches the desired temperatureand brings the heating on at the optimum time prior tobuilding occupancy, again depending on the weather.Night setback controls can also be used to effectivelyreduce or ‘set back’ space temperatures duringspecific time periods. For example, hotels can makesavings by allowing temperatures in common areassuch as corridors, lounges and stairwells to fall to16ºC between midnight and 5am when most guestswill be in their rooms.These types of controls can save hundreds orthousands of pounds and often result in a morecomfortable environment for customers and guests.They could pay back their investment in just a coupleof years. Consult a qualified heating technician todiscuss the range of options available.More information is available in the Carbon Trust’stechnology guide on Heating, ventilation and airconditioning (HVAC) (CTV046v3). Different occupancy patterns. Different temperature requirements. A number of floors (particularly where top floors arepoorly insulated).Smart control systems also represent a cost effectiveway to reduce energy bills across larger buildings.Depending on the occupancy levels of the building,smart controls work to automatically regulatetemperatures based on those areas identified as‘occupied’, whilst turning down heating in vacant areas.Heat PumpsBuildings with consistently high heat demandsthroughout the year – such as hotels with swimmingpools – may benefit from the installation of air to waterheat pumps, which offer a cost effective methodthrough which hot water is produced for both heatingand domestic water use.Hot waterZoning Tips:–– Hotels with zoned areas could turn heatingdown or even off on unoccupied floors.–– Restaurants could zone their building to takeinto account the different temperaturerequirements of the main restaurant, kitchenand storage areas.–– Pubs could zone the main lounge areas andfunction rooms separately.9Provision of hot water is essential for hospitalitybusinesses but it can lead to considerable energycosts. Water is a metered and controllable resourceand it is possible to save on both water and energycosts by implementing some inexpensive efficiencymeasures.Excessive heating of hot water is wasteful and couldscald staff or guests. The optimum temperature forstored hot water is 60ºC which is adequate to killLegionella bacteria and is sufficiently warm for staffand guests to use.
HospitalitySave water – save energyPubs and restaurantsWasting heated water is throwing money down thedrain. All hospitality busineses could benefit from theinstallation of water conserving devices such as:Businesses with set working hours can benefit fromthe installation of a seven-day electronic time switchto permit different settings for each day. This willenable unnecessary usage to be cut dramatically andyield significant energy and cost savings. Tap controls – these switch taps off after a certaintime and are useful in communal areas such as toiletsand leisure facilities in hotels. Spray taps and water efficient showerheads– these reduce the volume of water coming out of a tapor shower and can reduce consumption withoutdiminishing the service to the customer, provided thewater pressure is adequate. Urinal flush controls – these help to reduceunnecessary flushing in toilets, saving on cold water.Before investing in these technologies, a trial isrecommended to ensure that savings are achievablewhilst maintaining the customer experience.Sub-sector hintsHotels and guest houses - bedroomsAvoid overheating guest bedrooms as this can causediscomfort and affect the quality of guests’ rest andrelaxation. 18-21ºC is a good temperature for acomfortable night’s sleep so ensure your controls areset accordingly. Advanced controls now allowtemperatures to be reduced at night, whilst allowingguests to temporarily override the set-points to theirindividual preferences.Timers can be adjusted in pubs and restaurants sothat buildings reach optimum temperature just aspeople arrive and begin to cool down as people leave.This can be achieved by gradually altering settingsover a number of days and checking the response ofthe building and its occupants. If a building is occupiedfor different periods over the week, install seven-daytimers to allow systems to operate only when thebuilding is likely to be occupied.MythEnergy conservation in hotels canundermine quality, reduce guest comfortand deter customers from returning.RealityProperly implemented energy managementprogrammes often improve guest comfort, forexample, by ensuring that room and watertemperatures are appropriate. They can alsoenhance quality of service through theidentification of potential faults before theybecome major problems. This can increasethe incentive for customers to return.HotelsIn hotels, staff and guests should be encouraged toreport any areas that are too hot, cold or draughty.Investigating problem areas can help to identifymaintenance issues. If these issues are promptlyresolved, people are less likely to waste energy byopening windows when heating or cooling is on orrequest portable electric heaters or fans to make thespace more comfortable. This improves the customerexperience whilst saving energy and money.Green Business FundInvesting in energy efficient equipment makessound business and environmental sense,especially with the help of the Green BusinessFund, which provides a combination of advice, andtraining. To find out more 10
HospitalityDid you know?Surveys consistently illustrate that customers aremore inclined to choose a hotel that activelyminimises its environmental impact, and some areeven prepared to pay a premium to ensure this.Ventilation and air conditioningFor all hospitality businesses, the provision of freshair at a comfortable temperature is critical to guestcomfort and satisfaction.As well as creating a comfortable atmosphere,supplying regular volumes of fresh, uncontaminatedair is a legal requirement under some building andhealth and safety regulations. In specific areas of abuilding, such as kitchens, adequate ventilation isessential to deal with the unpleasant side effects ofodours and smoke inhalation.For further information, visit the Health and SafetyExecutive website at www.hse. gov.uk or the Ministryof Housing, Communities & Local Government atwww.communities.gov.uk.Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning isincreasingly specified for new hospitality businessesor retrofitted to older buildings during refurbishment.This is partly due to an increase in heat-gains fromlighting, staff and equipment, and also because ofhigher expectations amongst customers and guests.It takes energy to heat or cool the air inside a building.If that air escapes through inefficient ventilationsystems, or through opened windows and gaps in thebuilding fabric, energy is wasted. It also means thatmore air must be brought in and heated or cooled tomaintain optimum comfort conditions. Therefore,reducing unnecessary air loss will save on energyconsumption and costs. See the building fabric section(page 19) for more tips and advice. Furtheropportunities regarding ventilation can be found in thecatering section of this guide (pages 21-23).Check that operating times for ventilation and coolingsystems are consistent with the occupancy patterns ofthe building, unless ventilation is being used toprovide cooling overnight.Is air conditioning really necessary?Full air conditioning is not usually necessary in themajority of UK buildings and should only beconsidered where careful control of humidity isrequired, such as in hotels with large swimmingpools. Cheaper cooling options based on comfortcooling and adequate ventilation are available andshould be investigated before the decision to installfull air conditioning is made.Natural ventilation and free coolingAs simple as it sounds, natural ventilation and coolingrelies on natural airflow between openings on oppositesides of a room or building – or rising warm air beingreplaced with cooler air sucked in through windows orvents. It may be possible to use windows and doors toprovide good levels of natural ventilation, allowingmechanical ventilation to be switched off or turned downto save money. This method can save on ventilationcosts in pubs and restaurants and also be employed inhotel hallways, corridors, meeting rooms and commonareas. When opening vents, doors and windows, alwaysconsider security implications and fire regulations.Match ventilation to demandVentilation requirements may vary at different timesand in different parts of a building throughout the day.11See the Carbon Trust’s technology overview onHeating, ventilation and air conditioning (CT V046)for more information.
HospitalityDid you know?The true definition of an ‘air conditioning system’is one whic
Hospitality 5 Energy consumption in hospitality businesses Annual energy costs for this sector are in excess of 1.3 billion, resulting in carbon emissions of more than 8 million tonnes per year Hospitality businesses are expanding rapidly with a number of leading brands experiencing significant growth. This means that the relative energy