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THE AMERICAN SHAKESPEARE CENTERSTUDY GUIDERomeo and Juliet

2012 American Shakespeare Center. All rights reserved.The following materials were compiled by the Education and Research Department of the AmericanShakespeare Center, 2012.Created by: Cass Morris, Academic Resources Manager; Sarah Enloe, Director of Education and Research;Ralph Cohen, ASC Executive Founding Director and Director of Mission; Jim Warren, ASC ArtisticDirector; Jay McClure, Associate Artistic Director; ASC Actors and Interns.Unless otherwise noted, all selections from Romeo and Juliet in this study guideuse the stage directions as found in the 1623 Folio.All line counts come from the Norton Shakespeare, edited by Stephen Greenblatt et al, 1997,with the following exception: the Norton divides Act Five into eight scenes; this Study Guideretains the Folio’s five scenes and their divisions.The American Shakespeare Center is partially supported by a grant from the Virginia Commission for theArts and the National Endowment for the Arts.2

Dear Fellow Educator,I have a confession: for almost 10 years, I lived a lie. Though I was teaching Shakespeare, taking somejoy in pointing out his dirty jokes to my students and showing them how to fight using air broadswords;though I directed Shakespeare productions; though I acted in many of his plays in college andprofessionally; though I attended a three-week institute on teaching Shakespeare, during all of that time,I knew that I was just going through the motions. Shakespeare, and our educational system’s obsessionwith him, was still a bit of a mystery to me. The problem, I’ve since discovered, was that in trying tofind the theme and the character arc, which I thought was buried in the meter and the footnotes, I wasignoring some simple facts, or, rather, I was unaware of them. Until, that is, my first week as a Master’sstudent studying Shakespeare and Performance, when I finally discovered that I loved the plays. I lovedwhat Shakespeare was doing with all of that stuff. I knew why he wrote them that way. Professor RalphAlan Cohen opened my eyes to all that iambic pentameter could tell an actor, to what those crazy wordarrangements could be clues to in a performance, to the staging information contained in the thees andthous; he addressed all of the terrors I had (not so) bravely faced and fought with over the years. In thisguide, we want to take you on that journey, too. We want to bring you and your students fromobligatory appreciation to complete enamorment with the situations, characters, and joy Shakespearecreated across 38 plays.In the Education Department at the American Shakespeare Center, we have the joy of working side-byside with some of the best Shakespearean actors on stage today; we are home to a masters programwhich welcomes the brightest scholars in the field to conferences and as lecturers; and we dwell and playin the world’s only re-creation of Shakespeare’s indoor theatre, the Blackfriars Playhouse. Theseadvantages teach us, daily, the myriad of ways we can make discoveries about characters and stagingthrough a close consideration of clues Shakespeare provides actors in the text and in the playhouse. Inthis guide, we have taken the exercises that our actors, directors, and dramaturgs use to get a play on itsfeet, and formatted them for use in your classroom. These activities open a door for inquiry that wedesigned to guide you and your students on the path to “reading the stage” that I was lucky enough toexperience as a graduate student.We are delighted that you have added the American Shakespeare Center’s Study Guide on Romeo andJuliet to your classroom toolbox. We hope that the lessons and activities that you find in this book willpropel you and your students towards a consideration of Shakespeare’s stagecraft as a means toembracing his wordcraft. We expect that you and your students will find new insights by breaking downthe long columns of text into playable chunks, chunks that illuminate moments and provide opportunityfor the shaping of characters. Shakespeare left many choices to his company of actors for the realizationof their characters on stage, so when we see or read his plays, we can find multiple “right” answers for asingle moment. We believe that an investigation focused on those choices will both engage yourstudents and create in them a hunger to investigate further.We look forward to seeing you at our Teacher Seminars, our Students Matinees, and all of the otherenrichment opportunities ASC offers.Sincerely,Sarah EnloeDirector of EducationAmerican Shakespeare Center3

TABLE OF CONTENTS7111314151718Inside This GuideShakespeare TimelineShakespeare's Staging ConditionsStuff That HappensWho's WhoCharacter ConnectionsDiscovery Space ng Students on Their FeetLine AssignmentsFirst 100 LinesChoicesVerse and ProseHandout #1 – Scansion Guidelines and FlowchartParaphrasingWordleR.O.A.D.S. to RhetoricHandout #2 – R.O.A.D.S. GuidelinesThe Elizabethan ClassroomClassroom DiagramAsides and Audience ContactTeacher's Guide – Asides DiagramHandout #3 – Audience ContactClassroom Exploration of Romeo and Juliet86ShakesFear Classroom Ploy: Commentary and Casting89Metrical Exploration: The Conversational Sonnet91Handout #4A: Early Modern Sonnets92Handout #4B: Prologues93Handout #4C: 1.5 of Romeo and Juliet94Teacher’s Guide100Staging Challenges: Stage Combat102Handout #5A: On Tybalt103Handout #5B: Dramaturgy106Handout #6: Mercutio vs. Tybalt108Teacher’s Guide112Rhetoric: Emotional Highs and Lows115Handout #7: Rhetorical Vocabulary116Handouts #8A-E: Romeo’s Rhetoric124Teacher’s Guide4

5Staging Challenges: Parts and CuesHandouts #9A-I: Cue ScriptsTeacher’s GuideTextual Variants: Quarto and FolioHandouts #10A-D: Variants in Romeo and JulietTeacher’s GuidePerspectives: Comedy and TragedyHandout #11: Comic and Tragic WorldviewsProduction ChoicesHandout #12 – Doubling ChartHandout #13 – Costume GuideHandout #14 – Script PreparationHandout #15 – Line Count WorksheetFilm in the ClassroomSOL GuidelinesCore Curriculum StandardsBibliography5

Secondary Table of ContentsFor those teachers who prefer to work through a play strictly chronologically, we provide this secondarytable of contents. Proceed as usual through the Basics, then:Classroom Exploration of Romeo and 22137125140ShakesFear Ploy: Commentary & CastingTextual Variants: Quarto and FolioHandouts #10A: Variants in 1.1Teacher’s Guide, Variants in 1.1Rhetoric: Emotional Highs and LowsHandout #7: Rhetorical VocabularyHandouts #8A: Romeo’s Rhetoric,1.1Teacher’s Guide, Romeo’s Rhetoric,1.1Metrics: The Conversational SonnetHandout #4A: Early Modern SonnetsHandout #4B: ProloguesHandout #4C: 1.5 of Romeo and JulietTeacher’s Guide – MetricsRhetoric: Emotional Highs and LowsHandouts #8B: Romeo’s Rhetoric, 2.2Teacher’s Guide, Romeo’s Rhetoric, 2.2Staging Challenges: Stage CombatHandout #5A: On Tybalt – 2.4Handout #5B: DramaturgyHandout #6: Mercutio vs. Tybalt – 3.1Teacher’s Guide – Stage CombatTextual Variants: Quarto and FolioHandouts #10B: Variants in 3.1Teacher’s Guide, Variants in 3.1Handouts #10C: Variants in 3.2Teacher’s Guide, Variants in 3.2Rhetoric: Emotional Highs and LowsHandouts #8C: Romeo’s Rhetoric, 3.3Teacher’s Guide, Romeo’s Rhetoric, 3.3Staging Challenges: Parts and Cues: 3.5Handouts #9A-I: Cue ScriptsTeacher’s Guide – Parts and CuesRhetoric: Emotional Highs and LowsHandouts #8D: Romeo’s Rhetoric, 5.1Teacher’s Guide, Romeo’s Rhetoric, 5.1Handouts #8E: Romeo’s Rhetoric, 5.3Teacher’s Guide, Romeo’s Rhetoric, 5.3153166180184186187188193194196Textual Variants: Quarto and FolioHandouts #10D: Variants in 5.3Teacher’s Guide, Variants in 5.3Perspectives: Comedy and TragedyHandout #11: Comic & Tragic WorldviewsProduction ChoicesHandout #12 – Doubling ChartHandout #13 – Costume GuideHandout #14 – Script PreparationHandout #15 – Line Count Worksheet6

INSIDE THIS GUIDEThe American Shakespeare Center’s Blackfriars Playhouse provides rich fodder for teachers and students ofShakespeare’s plays. Our Study Guides draw on the experiences of our artistic staff, students in our Master’sPrograms, and top minds in the field of Shakespeare to give teachers concrete methods for studying theplays. Each guide includes a number of resources, activities, and assignments we created specifically for theteachers and offers a broad range of materials for you to choose from as you plan your classes.Shakespeare’s WorldShakespeare Timeline gives students a brief history of Shakespeare’s life, as well as other significantmoments in early modern history, and connects these facts to the production of his plays.Shakespeare’s Staging Conditions (and how well he used them): Shakespeare wrote his plays with aunique stage environment in mind. This section outlines those practices that the ASC engages to createplays at the Blackfriars Playhouse and on the road.Playgoer’s Guide reveals what to expect when attending a play at the Blackfriars Playhouse.The PlayStuff That Happens in the Play sets the stage for the play’s twists and turns.Who’s Who uses quotations from the play to describe each character, illustrating the informationShakespeare provides within his text.Character Connections charts the relationships among the characters, delineating family ties, marriages,oaths of fealty, and alliances.Discovery Space Questions is a pre-show tool for teachers, meant to draw each student’s attention to theentirety of the play in performance.The BasicsGetting Students on Their Feet gives you suggestions for encouraging your students to participate inscenes. Shakespeare wrote plays, not novels, and as such, students must explore them actively, not justby looking at a page. These activities will help your students gain comfort with speaking Shakespeare'swords aloud and acting out scenes on their feet.7

Line Assignments provides teachers with a method for breaking the play into short segments, making eachstudent responsible for an individual section of text, which they can take with them through the rest ofthe Basics activities.Choices helps you and your students conceptualize the different ways an actor might deliver a line, bothvocally and physically.Verse and Prose introduces your students to metrical structure and its importance in the playing of theplays, as well as to the patterns and rhythms of Shakespeare's prose language.Paraphrasing helps your students defeat the fear of unfamiliar words and odd syntax. Creating a word-forword paraphrase will help them see how similar Shakespeare's language actually is to the English wespeak today.R.O.A.D.S. to Rhetoric gives you a basic breakdown of five types of rhetorical devices: Repetition,Omission, Addition, Direction, and Substitution. The activities in R.O.A.D.S. will help your studentssee and analyze the patterns Shakespeare weaves for his characters and the clues that those patterns giveto actors.The Elizabethan Classroom sets the foundation for employing Shakespeare’s Staging Conditions yourclassroom, including consideration of entrances, exits, and embedded stage directions.Asides and the Audience introduces your students to the concepts of audience contact and will help themlook for opportunities where actors may engage the audience, in several different ways.ActivitiesMetrical Explorations focuses on a particular manipulation of metrics within the play. This activityexpands upon the ideas introduced in Verse and Prose, demonstrating the vital importance of metrics toone moment or idea in the play.Rhetoric and Figures of Speech focuses on the use of a specific rhetorical device, one that is of particularimportance to the linguistic construction of this play. This activity expands upon the ideas introduced inR.O.A.D.S. to Rhetoric, going deep and narrow into one device or concept.Perspectives examines the impact of culture and society on the text of the play, helping students connectthe dots between the world of the play, Shakespeare's world, and our modern world. Any study ofartistic or literary works opens students up to avenues of thought and discussion on the major topics,themes, and concerns central to the work. This section of the study guide encourages those discussionsand provides you with the basis on which to guide conversations, journal responses, and writtenevaluations. We also know that students may ask teachers, “Why are we doing this? What doesShakespeare have to do with me?” Hopefully, your students will find through these activities that they8

can connect strongly to the issues at stake in Shakespeare’s plays. The Perspectives section also presentsthe chance for cross-curriculum studies. You may wish to coordinate with other teachers in your schoolto cover the same topics at the same time.ShakesFear Classroom Ploy contains an excerpt from ASC Co-founder Dr. Ralph Alan Cohen’s bookShakesFear and How to Cure It.Staging Challenges focuses on a difficult staging moment or on a pattern of scene requirements within theplay. These elements pose challenges to actors, but also illuminate the intricacies of Shakespeare'sstagecraft. Your students will explore the directions he gives to actors within his texts while also findingthe "infinite variety" of opportunities that those directions open up.Textual Variants explores the differences among editions of Shakespeare’s text and looks at the effectthese differences have on performance. Whether the difference is between two early modern printingsof the play or between modern editorial variations, differences in stage directions, the wording of lines,or the assignment of speech markers can make a vast difference to the play – yet few people realize thatthese variations exist. These activities will give your students a sense of agency and ownership over thetext.Production Choices explores the decisions in casting, doubling, and cutting a script that go into preparinga play for the stage. Your students can use these guidelines to produce one-hour versions of Romeo andJuliet in the classroom, dividing the acts, roles, and responsibilities up between small groups.Film in the Classroom makes suggestions for how to expose your students to film versions ofShakespeare’s plays.Teacher's Guides: Throughout this text, we have provided you with sections of text for staging activities.In the Teacher's Guide, boxes along the side of the page will help you think like a director. As yourstudents perform, stop them periodically to make suggestions, to ask them questions, or to point out asignificant moment. Each marker is related to staging conditions required by the scene such as:embedded stage directions, setting the scene, or playing darkness.Please direct any questions about the contents of this guide to Cass Morris, Academic ResourcesManager, at cass@americanshakespearecenter.com, 540.885.5588 x10.9

In 1596, three years before the Lord Chamberlain’s Men constructed the Globe, James Burbage purchased the Blackfriars Theatrefor 600 and converted it into a space suitable for his purposes by building a stage, a frons scenae, and a three tiered gallery. In1608, the company, now the King’s Men, took possession of the theatre from the children’s companies who had been playingthere and began performing the works of the greatest writers of the day – including William Shakespeare.Situated in the heart of the Shenandoah Valley in historic Staunton, Virginia, the 300-seat Blackfriars Playhouse -- the world’s onlyre-creation of Shakespeare’s original indoor theatre -- opened its doors in September 2001 and has already delighted tens ofthousands of enthusiastic audience members from around the world. The product of years of research, this unique, historicallyaccurate performance space provides the perfect backdrop for the ASC’s staging practices.10

SHAKESPEARE TIMELINE1558Elizabeth I ascends to the throne and becomes the Queen of England. Shakespearelived most of his life during the reign of a strong woman and many of his playsfeature strong, powerful women. Note the strong and powerful women inShakespeare’s plays.April 23rd, 1564According to baptismal records, William Shakespeare is born in Stratford-uponAvon, Warwickshire, England. Growing up in the English countryside, Shakespeareencountered farmers, peasants, merchants, and minor officials. How many ofShakespeare’s plays feature a country character or are set in the country?1576James Burbage builds The Theatre, London’s first open-air playhouse. The open-airplayhouse’s daytime performances made the audience visible to the performers.Look for moments in the play in which Shakespeare is clearly writing with a visibleaudience in mind.1582Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway. Many scholars say that the marriages inShakespeare’s plays reveal his feelings about marriage. How would you sayShakespeare felt about marriage?1583Shakespeare’s daughter, Susanna, is born.1585Shakespeare’s twin children, Judith and Hamnet, are born. Consider the childcharacters in plays like The Winter’s Tale and Macbeth. What might Shakespeare’sfeelings toward youth might have been?By 1590Shakespeare lives in London while his family remains in Stratford.1592First recorded production of a Shakespeare play, 1 Henry VI at the Rose Theatre.London theatres close due to plague outbreak. Did you know that almost all ofShakespeare’s plays contain plot material borrowed from earlier sources? 1 Henry VIcomes from the Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland by Raphael Holinshed.1594William Shakespeare becomes a prominent member of The Lord Chamberlain’sMen. Did you know that Players (actors) could be arrested as “vagrants” unless theywere under the patronship of the nobility?1595First recorded performances of Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Canyou find the scene in A Midsummer Night’s Dream that makes fun of Romeo and Juliet?1596Shakespeare’s son, Hamnet, dies at age 11. Did you know that Hamlet may havebeen a response to his death?James Burbage purchases the Blackfriars Playhouse, which had been used previouslyas a playhouse, but only as a hall with benches set out. Tickets at the new playhousewould cost up to 10 times(!) as much as at the outdoor playhouses.1598First recorded performance of Much Ado about Nothing. Much Ado about Nothing isalmost all prose; why might Shakespeare have made this choice?11

1599The Lord’s Chamberlain’s Men tear down The Theatre and use its boards toconstruct the Globe Theatre. Shakespeare wrote most of his 38 extant playsspecifically for the Globe.1600First recorded performance of Hamlet.1603Queen Elizabeth dies and King James VI of Scotland becomes King James I ofEngland.Shakespeare’s company receives royal patronage, becoming The King’s Men. Whatin Shakespeare’s plays might reflect the change from a virginal female monarch to aking with an established family?1605First recorded performance of Macbeth. Did you know that King James had a hugeinterest in witches, and that he even wrote a book about them?1609The King’s Men begin performing in the Blackfriars Playhouse. Between 1596 and1609, the Burbages leased the playhouse to boys’ companies for performances. Canyou find a reference to them in Hamlet?1611First recorded performance of The Tempest. Some scholars say that The Tempest isShakespeare’s autobiographical play. Can you deduce which character ShakespeareMay have modeled on himself?Shakespeare retires to Stratford-upon-Avon, ending his tenure as a resident writerand actor with the company he helped form.1613The Globe Theatre burns down during a performance of Henry VIII when thecompany used a real cannon in order to create a sound effect, setting the thatchedroof on fire.1614The King’s Men rebuild The Globe, with a few improvements, including a tile roof.April 23rd, 1616William Shakespeare dies on his

124 Teacher’s Guide, Romeo’s Rhetoric,1.1 89 Metrics: The Conversational Sonnet 91 Handout #4A: Early Modern Sonnets 92 Handout #4B: Prologues 93 Handout #4C: 1.5 of Romeo and Juliet 94 Teacher’s Guide – Metrics 112 Rhetoric: Emotional Highs and Lows 118 Handouts #8B: Romeo’s Rhetoric, 2.2

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