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DOT HS 809 852March 2005Motorcycle RiderEducation and LicensingMotorcycle RiderEducation and LicensingA Review of Programs and PracticesA Review of Programs and Practices

Motorcycle RiderEducation and LicensingA Review of Programs and PracticesJustin D. BaerAndrea L. CookStéphane BaldiAMERICAN INSTITUTESFOR RESEARCH

AcknowledgmentsMotorcycle Rider Education and Licensing: A Review of Programs and Practices was written by ateam of research analysts from the American Institutes for Research. At the American Institutes forResearch, overall direction was provided by Stéphane Baldi, project director. Design and layout ofthe report was executed by Heather Block.The authors wish to thank all those who contributed to the production of this report. Steve Garets,director of Team Oregon Motorcycle Safety Program, and Karen Kadar, formerly project director ofthe Minnesota Motorcycle Safety Center, served as expert consultants to the project and providedvaluable input at critical stages of its development. In addition, Ronald E. Shepard, Chairman of theNational Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators, facilitated communication betweenthe AIR team and State motorcycle safety administrators throughout the country and provided useful clarifications on data issues.Finally, the report could not have been possible without the assistance received from the motorcycleprogram administrators and licensing officials who took the time to answer many requests for information and follow-up questions about rider education and licensing practices in their States.i

ii Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

ContentsAcknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iI.Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1II. Methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3III. A Comparison of Rider Education and Licensing Practices Across theUnited States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5IV. State Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Appendix A: Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227Appendix B: Years in Which Data Were Collected, by Data Type and State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231iii

iv Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

I. IntroductionRider education and motorcycle operator licensing have been acknowledged as two effective means toaddress the problem of highway crashes involving motorcycles.1 Rider education involves a formal, structured course that increases familiarity with the motorcycle as well as its on-road operation. Motorcycleoperator licensing requires the operator to demonstrate knowledge of the rules of the road, riding skills,and the ability to safely operate a motorcycle.In 2003, there were 47 State-legislated rider education programs in the United States (only Alaska, Arkansas,the District of Columbia, and Mississippi do not have State-sponsored rider training programs). Each Statesponsored rider education program is administered differently. In some instances, the State administersthe program through a Government entity. In other cases, the State contracts the program to a privateprovider which delivers the rider training. The curriculum most commonly used for beginning riders is theMotorcycle Safety Foundation’s (MSF) Motorcycle RiderCourse: Riding and Street Skills, although manyStates are in the process of transitioning to the Basic RiderCourse, a new curriculum developed by MSF.2In addition, MSF offers the Experienced RiderCourse for advanced skills training. These courses combineon-motorcycle and classroom instruction and are conducted exclusively off-street.In addition, all 50 States and the District of Columbia require a license to operate a motorcycle on the highway. This license may be an endorsement on an existing driver license, or it may be a “motorcycle only”license. Typically, motorcycle operator licensing involves a vision test, a knowledge assessment of the rulesof the road, and an evaluation of the skills needed to safely operate a motorcycle. Licensing also providesa means for State authorities to monitor safe driving performance through a driver records system.In most cases, rider education and motorcycle operator licensing are handled by separate agencies. Insome States, rider education and licensing have been integrated, but the degree of coordination variesfrom jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In some States, licensing authorities have granted licensing status uponthe successful completion of a State-approved rider education course. In addition, State rider educationprograms vary depending on the size of the operating budget, the number of students trained, thelength of the riding season, and the availability of resources, thus making each State program unique.The great variation in rider education and licensing programs across States, in terms of both scope andmodes of administration, combined with a lack of a centralized database on State practices has made itdifficult for States and programs to exchange information and to benefit from one another’s operationor training experiences. The purpose of this report is to fill this information gap by providing detailedinformation on current motorcyclist education and licensing programs in each State. The data containedin this report should be valuable to motorcycle safety practitioners, government officials, policy makers,and the general public as they review the practices of other States to inform their own.The report is organized into six sections. Following this introduction, a methodology section discussesthe procedures employed by the American Institutes for Research to collect the data for this study. Next,a comparative section presents trends in rider education and motorcycle operator licensing across the50 States and the District of Columbia. The following section presents comprehensive State-by-State dataon all aspects of rider education and licensing. The report concludes with two appendices: a glossary ofkey terms and a table indicating the years from which the data were collected.1Billheimer, J. Evaluation of California Motorcyclist Safety Program. In Transportation Research Record No. 1640, TRB. NationalResearch Council. Washington, DC, 1998, pp. 100–109.2At the end of 2003, all but three States with legislated motorcycle rider education programs (Hawaii, Idaho, and Oregon) hadadopted the Basic RiderCourse.1

2 Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

II. MethodologyThe data presented in this report were collected through multiple sources, including publisheddocuments, the Internet, postal and e-mail correspondence, and telephone interviews. Unless otherwise noted, all data reflect rider education programs and licensing practices in calendar year 2001,the most recent year for which published data were consistently available.1 Contact information forState program coordinators applies to the coordinators in place as of November 15, 2003.The goal of the data collection was to compile comprehensive and accurate information aboutmotorcycle rider education and licensing in three main areas of interest: program administration,rider education, and operator licensing. Program administration refers to the organizational features of the rider education and operatorlicensing program and covers ultimate and day-to-day program responsibility, legislative provisions, relationships among various programs, and collection of rider training and licensing data. Rider education refers to all training aspects of the program and covers training delivery, operations and participant characteristics, program funding and expenditures, curriculum, Instructorselection, training and evaluation, profile of Instructors, quality-control procedures, and programevaluation. Operator licensing refers to the features in place to obtain a motorcycle operator’s license andcovers testing and training responsibilities, knowledge and skills tests used, incentives, operatorand vehicle characteristics, motorcyclist licensing system, and public information and education.To gather data, project staff began by searching the Internet and assembling a list of State motorcycle rider education and licensing Web sites. The Web sites were carefully reviewed, and relevantdata were classified into thematic areas (e.g., source of funding; Instructor selection, training, and evaluation; and quality control procedures) organized withinStates that Reviewed andthe three main areas of program administration, rider education, and operatorReturned Profileslicensing. The Internet searches yielded detailed contact information for the Stateprograms as well as data about the structure and relationship among variousAlabama Montanaadministering agencies within a State.NebraskaArizonaFollowing the Internet search, project staff examined published documentscontaining information about State motorcycle program administration, ridertraining, and licensing procedures. This effort focused primarily on a review ofmaterials from the Motorcycle Safety Foundation and the National Associationof State Motorcycle Safety Administrators (SMSA) and from annual reports fromState motorcycle rider education programs. The MSF’s Cycle Safety InformationSheet provided data about State licensing procedures and funding for motorcycle safety programs. Information about program administration and rider training courses was compiled from the SMSA’s State Motorcycle Program Survey andState-issued annual reports.After reviewing published documents, project staff incorporated the data intodraft-status State profiles that were sent to State program coordinators forreview. These draft State profiles were organized similarly to those presented insection four of this report. Coordinators were asked to fill in missing portions ofthe profile and to resolve contradictions in the data. To ensure a high neMarylandMassachusettsMinnesotaMissouriNevadaNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaSouth isconsin1Appendix B identifies the States and variables that were collected from other years, when necessary.3

rate from the States, the profiles were mailed three times and included a letter from the NationalHighway Traffic Safety Administration explaining the significance of the study. At the close of datacollection from the States on June 25, 2003, 38 of 47 profiles had been returned, an 81-percentresponse rate.Though many of the program coordinators provided information not found in published documents or on the Internet, some critical pieces of data were still missing from the profiles. To gatherthis information, project staff contacted coordinators and licensing agencies by telephone ande-mail and reviewed State Web sites again. If discrepancies still remained between sources, thesource that consistently provided data for the field of interest throughout other profiles was used. Inthe majority of cases, consultation with a representative of the State motorcycle education program or the State agency responsible for licensing resolved the data discrepancies. Despite allthese efforts, however, there remain some instances where discrepancies could not be resolved ordata could not be provided. “N/A” in the State profiles indicates that data on a specific field were notavailable (i.e., missing).4 Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

III. A Comparison of Rider Education and LicensingPractices Across the United StatesThis section presents a comparison of the key features of motorcycle rider education programs andlicensing practices across the United States. Drawing on the information presented in the profiles,the analyses are organized into three broad categories: Program Administration Rider Education Operator LicensingThe comparison reveals trends in theadministration of rider education programs, the training of students, andthe requirements for licensing. By summarizing the practices, policies, andprocedures used in the 50 States andthe District of Columbia, this sectionoffers a close look at the similaritiesand differences in the organization ofmotorcycle rider education and licensing across the country.Training Opportunities in States Without Rider Education LegislationAlthough Alaska, Arkansas, and Mississippi lack State-legislated motorcycle ridereducation,1 motorcyclists in these States are not completely without rider training options. All three States have groups that provide MSF RiderCourse trainingas well as non-MSF course options, including ABATE, Harley-Davidson Rider’sEdge providers, and other private organizations.Alaska’s ABATE chapter (Alaska Bikers Advocating Training and Education)provides rider education in the Anchorage area. ABATE offers the MSF BasicRiderCourse (BRC) and Experienced RiderCourse (ERC). Successful completionof either course yields a Course Completion Card, which grants the rider anautomatic motorcycle endorsement upon presentation to the Departmentof Motor Vehicles. In conjunction with the ERC, Alaska’s ABATE also offers theSkillsCourse to provide an additional 3.5 hours of riding instruction. HarleyDavidson provides Rider’s Edge courses at its dealership in Soldotna (150 milessouthwest of Anchorage), which also awards an MSF Course Completion Cardafter riders pass a knowledge test and a riding skills evaluation.Like Alaska, Arkansas has an ABATE (Arkansas Bikers Aiming Towards Education)chapter that provides BRC and ERC courses. Private providers, such as ArkansasCycle Touring and Training (ACTT) and the Western Arkansas Motorcycle SafetyProgram, also offer MSF RiderCourses to motorcyclists in the area. The WesternArkansas Motorcycle Safety Program offers the traditional BRC courses and provides three options for ERC training: Skills Practice RiderCourse, License WaiverRiderCourse, and Skills Plus RiderCourse. In addition to the MSF courses, ACTToffers a non-MSF 8-hour Advanced Rider Course (ARC), which includes 4 to 5hours of street riding instruction and 4 hours of range instruction.In Mississippi, MSF training is available through private providers, includingthe Mississippi Gold Wing Road Rider’s Association. This group sponsors theMississippi Motorcycle Academy and has 11 MSF-Certified Instructors who provide training in locations throughout the State.1 Washington, DC, is the only jurisdiction in the United States that does not offer rider educationopportunities.5

Program AdministrationEFFECTIVE DATE OF ORIGINAL LAWThe first law that dedicated funds to an administrative agency to support motorcyclerider safety and education was passed in Rhode Island in 1979. Other States soonfollowed, with legislation peaking in 1982 with the passage of laws in eight States.Among the first five States approving legislation, two, Arizona and North Dakota,currently hire contractors to provide all rider education in their States. Oklahoma wasthe most recent State to create an administrative agency, in 1999. Currently, Alaska,Arkansas, Mississippi, and the District of Columbia are the only jurisdictions that havenot passed legislation supporting a motorcycle rider education program.Motorcycle Rider Education Legislation by Year of MD DEWVCOCAKSDCVAMOKYNCTNAZHINJPAIANENVOKNMMACT –1994FL1995–1999No legislated ridereducation program6 Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

A Comparison of Rider Education and Licensing Practices Across the United StatesRELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIOUS PROGRAMSThe ultimate and day-to-day administration of motorcycle rider safety programs wasdivided between separate agencies in all but seven States. Only Alabama, Kansas,Massachusetts, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Washington, and West Virginia combined bothoperations under a single agency. In 21 of the 47 States with rider education programs, day-to-day administration was managed by an agency with specific responsibilities for motorcycle rider education and safety. In the remaining States, day-to-dayadministration was overseen by an agency with broader responsibilities, such ashighway safety or driver licensing.Day-to-Day ResponsibilityAmong the twenty-one States where day-to-day administration was managed bya motorcycle rider education and safety office, most of these offices were housedwithin the State department of transportation or motor vehicles (10 States) or withina law enforcement/public safety agency (6 States). In the States where day-to-dayoperations were handled by an agency with broader administrative duties beyondmotorcycles, responsibility most frequently rested with the State department oftransportation or motor vehicles (13 States). Three States, California, North Dakota,and South Dakota, used private contractors to monitor the day-to-day operations oftheir motorcycle rider training programs.Department of Transportation/Department of Motor VehiclesDepartment of EducationLaw enforcement27.7%6.4%10.6%Other State agency4.3%Private contractor6.4%Rider education/safetyprogram44.7%(Note: Percentages based on 47 States that responded.)Ultimate and Day-to-Day Program INMD CT RIALGASingle administrative agencyDifferent administrativeagenciesLAFLNo legislated ridereducation program7

COLLECTION OF RIDER TRAINING AND LICENSING DATARider education and licensing data available electronicallyAvailability of Electronic DataIncreasingly, States are moving toward making their rider education and licensingdata available in an electronic format. Nine States provide at least some licensing orrider education data electronically, though the data are not comprehensive. ElevenStates maintain electronic records of rider training data but not licensing data.Only two States (Hawaii and Oregon) compiled both extensive rider training andlicensing data.No data available33.3%Some data available25.0%Licensing data only5.6%Rider education data onlyAll data available30.6%5.6%(Note: Percentages based on 36 States that responded.)Availability of Electronic DataWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYILUTOHINMD DEWVCOCAKSDCVAMOKYNCTNAZHINJPAIANENVOKNMMACT RISCARMSALGAAvailableTXLAUnavailableFLN/ANo legislated ridereducation program8 Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

A Comparison of Rider Education and Licensing Practices Across the United StatesLink among rider education, licensing, and crash dataLink Among Crash Data and RiderTraining and Licensing DataSeven States (Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Maryland, New Mexico, New York, and Oregon)could link both their licensing data and their rider education data to crash statisticsfor their State. The only other State that could link any information to crash data wasCalifornia, which could connect only licensing data with crash statistics.No link77.1%Crash data linked to licensingdata only2.9%Crash data linked to bothlicensing and rider educationdata20.0%(Note: Percentages based on 35 States that responded.)Links from Crash DataWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYILUTOHINMD CT RIALGALinked to licensing and ridertraining dataLinked to licensing dataLANoneFLN/ANo legislated ridereducation program9

Rider EducationTRAINING DELIVERYMonths of instructionMonths of InstructionMost States offered rider training at least nine months out of the year, with 15 Statesholding classes all year round. Rider courses were least frequently available in NorthDakota, which limits instruction to 5 months.Less than 6 months2.3%Between 6 and 8 months37.2%Between 9 and 11 months25.6%All year round34.9%(Note: Percentages based on 43 States that responded.)Number of instruction sitesSeventeen States offered at least 1 training site per 10,000 licensed operators. NorthDakota led all States, providing nearly 4 sites per 10,000 riders. On the other extremewere populous States such as New York, Massachusetts, and New Jersey, all of whichprovided far fewer than 1 training site per 10,000 operators.With the notable exception of New York, which had only 31 sites, States with largerpopulations generally had more training sites. Of greater interest is the ratio ofinstruction sites to the number of licensed operators in a State.10 Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

A Comparison of Rider Education and Licensing Practices Across the United StatesNumber of Motorcycle Rider Education Training SitesWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYILUTOHINMD DEWVCOCAKSDCVAMOKY 10NCTNOKAZMSTX10–19SCARNMHINJPAIANENVMACT RIAL20–29GA30–4950 LAN/AFLNo legislated ridereducation programMotorcycle Rider Education Training Sites per 10,000 Licensed OperatorsWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYILUTOHINMD CT RIAL 1.01.0–1.9GA2.0 LAN/AFLNo legislated ridereducation program11

OPERATIONS AND PARTICIPANT CHARACTERISTICSTotal riders trainedIn 2001, 215,232 riders enrolled in a rider education and safety course in the 40States that reported data. Of these riders, the majority (94 percent) were noviceswho took either the Motorcycle RiderCourse: Riding and Street Skills (MRC:RSS) orthe BRC. The remaining 6 percent (13,830) were experienced riders who enrolled ineither the Intermediate RiderCourse (IRC) or the ERC. Among novice riders, thosein four States (California, Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas) accounted for more thanone-third of all training. Maine, which requires riders seeking permits to completea course on motorcycle safety, trained the fewest number of novice riders (526) inMSF-sponsored courses. The majority of new riders in Maine (4,481) elected to takethe Maine Motorcycle Safety Education Course (MMSEC), which requires only 8 hoursof classroom instruction.Training for experienced riders was spread more evenly across the States, with noState except California (9 percent) responsible for more than 6 percent of all studentstrained nationally. Hawaii trained the fewest number of experienced riders (12), andTexas trained the most (1,529).The State profiles section that follows presents State-by-State enrollment data bygender and type of course. Enrollment data disaggregated by age categories couldnot be included in the report because few States collected such detailed informationfrom their students.Riders trained per siteThough the average number of novice students trained per site across all Stateswas 235, the average varied dramatically depending on the State. North Dakota, forinstance, trained only 39 novice riders per instruction site, whereas Massachusettsaveraged 861 students per site. The average number of experienced students trainedat sites also differed noticeably. The average across all States was 18 riders, withHawaii training only around 2 experienced students and Massachusetts, again, offering instruction to more than 65 students per site.12 Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

A Comparison of Rider Education and Licensing Practices Across the United StatesNovice Students Trained Per SiteWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYOHINILUTMD DEWVCOCAKSDCVAMOKYOKMSTX100–199SCARNMHI 100NCTNAZNJPAIANENVMACT RIAL200–299GA300–399LA400 N/AFLNo legislated ridereducation programExperienced Students Trained Per SiteWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYILUTOHINMD DEWVCOCAKSDCVAMOKYNCTNAZHINJPAIANENVOKNM 10SCARMSTXMACT RIALGA10–1920–29LA30 FLN/ANo legislated ridereducation program13

PROGRAM FUNDING AND EXPENDITURESCost to educate ridersThe average cost to States to educate riders (excluding student contributionsthrough tuition) was 106.98 per student. Vermont led all States by spending 256.58per student. Only three other States (Idaho, Illinois, and Ohio) incurred costs of over 200.00 per rider. California, Florida, and Massachusetts spent considerably less thanother States, averaging less than 35.00 per student.States that incurred low costs to train riders often shifted the educational costsdirectly to students. California, Florida, and Massachusetts, for example, all had average novice tuition fees at or above 185.00, far surpassing the national average of 106.16. In contrast, Illinois and Ohio, which spent over 200.00 per student, chargedzero and 25.00 for novice courses, respectively. Illinois, New Jersey, and Pennsylvaniawere the only three States to provide rider training free of charge.Average Cost to State to Educate Novice and Experienced StudentsWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYILUTOHINMD CT RIAL 0.00– 49.99 50.00– 99.99 100.00– 149.99GA 150.00– 199.99LA 200.00 FLN/ANo legislated ridereducation program14 Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

A Comparison of Rider Education and Licensing Practices Across the United StatesAverage Adult Tuition for Novice Motorcycle Rider Education CoursesWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYOHINILUTMD DEWVCOCAKSNCMSTX 50.00– 99.99SCARNM 1.00– 49.99KYTNHI 0.00DCVAMOOKAZNJPAIANENVMACT RIAL 100.00– 149.99GA 150.00– 199.99 200.00 LAN/AFLNo legislated ridereducation programAverage Adult Tuition for Experienced Motorcycle Rider Education CoursesWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYILUTOHINMD DEWVCOCAKSDCVAMOKYHIOKNMSCARMSTXAL 0.00 1.00– 49.99NCTNAZNJPAIANENVMACT RIGA 50.00– 99.99 100.00– 149.99 150.00– 199.99 200.00 LAN/AFLNo legislated ridereducation program15

Federal FundingFunding From Federal GovernmentFourteen States reported that they received federal Section 402 funds in 2001. Ofthese, half received 29,999 or less. Only three States, Connecticut, North Carolina,and Wisconsin, were awarded 100,000 or more.None65.8% 1– 29,99917.1% 30,000– 49,9992.4% 50,000– 99,9997.3% 100,000 7.3%(Note: Percentages based on 41 States that responded.)States that Received Section 402 Federal FundsWAAKMTMENDORVTMNIDNHNYWISDMIWYILUTOHINMD CT RIALNone 1– 29,999 30,000– 49,999GA 50,000– 99,999LA 100,000 FLN/ANo legislated ridereducation program16 Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

A Comparison of Rider Education and Licensing Practices Across the United StatesCURRICULUMApproved curriculaStates moved quickly to approve the new Basic RiderCourse (BRC) introduced by theMotorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF) in 2001. By the end of the year, 27 States hadapproved the BRC for instruction. The MRC:RSS curriculum, taught in 39 States, wasstill used most frequently. A total of 22 States offered both novice curricula, reflecting the gradual implementation of the BRC curriculum. Students taking experiencedcourses most frequently completed ERC classes, which were offered in 39 States.Approved Motorcycle Rider Education sNew HampshireyesyesyesyesCaliforniayesnoyesnoNew JerseyyesnoyesyesColoradonoyesnonoNew MexicoyesyesyesnoConnecticutyesyesyesnoNew YorkyesyesyesnoDelewareyesyesyesnoNorth CarolinayesyesyesnoFloridayesnoyesnoNorth syesnoIndianayesnoyesnoRhode Island————IowayesyesyesnoSouth Carolina————Kansas————South syesnoWest ayesnonono— data not available* MRC:RSS—Motorcycle RiderCourse: Riding and Street Skills; BRC—Basic RiderCourse; ERC—Experienced RiderCourse; IRC—Intermediate RiderCourse17

Curricula approvalIn the majority of States, responsibility for the approval of rider education curricula wasassigned to the State departments of motor vehicles or transportation. In four States(Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, and Louisiana), the State department of education approvedthe curricula. Among the four States where another State agency approved the curricula (Maine, Montana, North Carolina, and South Carolina), three States requiredapproval by an agency associated with the State’s higher education system (Mainerequired review by the Secretary of State). In two States (Alabama and Connecticut)final approval rested with the State rider education and safety program.Curricula ApprovalDepartment of Transportation/Department of Motor VehiclesDepartment of EducationLaw enforcement54.8%9.5%21.4%Other State agency9.5%Rider education/safetyprogram4.8%(Note: Percentages based on 42 States that responded.)18 Motorcycle Rider Education and Licensing

A Comparison of Rider Education and Licensing Practices Across the United StatesINSTRUCTOR SELECTION, TRAINING, AND EVALUATIONMost States required State certification of rider training Instructors as well as a probationary period or teaching internship. The majority of States also mandated updatesfor their Instructors at least once a year. In three States (California, Idaho, and Oregon)updates were required multiple times each year. With the exception of Hawaii andConnecticut, all States that supplied data reported that they offered reciprocity forInstructors trained in other States.Frequency of Updates for Instr

State motorcycle rider education programs. The MSF's Cycle Safety Information Sheet provided data about State licensing procedures and funding for motor-cycle safety programs. Information about program administration and rider train-ing courses was compiled from the SMSA's State Motorcycle Program Survey and State-issued annual reports.

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