Projected Climate Change Effects on Cisco, a Keystone Whitefish Species in Deep Wisconsin Lakes John Lyons WDNR Fish and Aquatic Research, Madison
Why Do Cisco Matter? Adult Gamefish (e.g., musky, walleye) Climate Change Indicator Fishery (spawning, winter) Zooplankton Juvenile Gamefish (e.g., musky, walleye) Water Clarity (algae conditions)
Where Do Cisco Live in Wisconsin? Deep ( 50 ft) Lakes! Examples: Lake Michigan Lake Geneva Okauchee Lake Lake Mendota Big Green Lake Chain of Lakes Long Lake (Chippewa Co.) Long Lake (Washburn Co.) Lake Owen Turtle‐Flambeau Flowage Lake Tomahawk Trout Lake Lake Superior Found in 175 Lakes
Cold Water Prefer: 40‐65 o F Stressful: 65‐75 o F Lethal: 75 o F Open Water Prefer: Mid‐Water Rarely: Near Bottom Avoid: Shallow Shores
Where Do Cisco Live in Lakes? Fall, Winter, and Spring Oxygen High – Ideal Cold – Ideal
Where Do Cisco Live in Lakes? Early Summer Oxygen High – Ideal Epilimnion Too Warm Oxygen High – Ideal Thermocline Cool ‐ OK Oxygen Med – OK Hypolimnion Cold ‐ Ideal
Where Do Cisco Live in Lakes? Late Summer Oxygen High – Ideal Epilimnion Too Warm Oxygen Med – OK Thermocline Cool ‐ OK Not Enough Oxygen Hypolimnion Cold ‐ Ideal
Where Do Cisco Live in Lakes? Late Summer – Hot Year Oxygen High – Ideal Epilimnion Too Warm Not Enough Oxygen Thermocline Cool ‐ OK Not Enough Oxygen Hypolimnion Cold ‐ Ideal SUMMER FISH KILL!
In What Types of Lakes Are Cisco Most Vulnerable? Relatively Small and Shallow Less Total Habitat; Oxygen on the Bottom Gone More Quickly Longer Growing Season (i.e., further south, milder climate) More Time to Use Up Oxygen on the Bottom More Productive (i.e., more nutrients available) More Decomposition; Oxygen on the Bottom Gone More Quickly
Future Climate Change – Some Relevant Predictions: Winters will be warmer and shorter, Spring will come earlier and Fall later, Summer will be longer and hotter . Longer Growing Season More Time to Use Up Oxygen on the Bottom Precipitation events will be more extreme, Runoff will be greater, More nutrients will reach lakes . More Productive Oxygen on the Bottom Gone More Quickly
Predicted Effects Climate Change on Cisco Occurrence Number of Lakes with Cisco by Mid Century 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 175 128 60 88 40 53 20 0 Originally Low Warming Medium Warming High Warming
Can We Prevent Disappearances? Maybe . Cisco Lake Vulnerability: Relatively Small and Shallow Longer Growing Season ? More Productive ?
Climate Change Adaptation: Reduce Nutrient Inputs Improve Watershed Land Use Protect Natural Shorelines
Climate Change Adaptation: Triage – Protect the Resilient, Don’t Fight the Inevitable, Focus on the Restorable Number of Lakes with Cisco by Mid Century 200 180 160 Restore! 140 120 Restore? 100 Don’t Fight 80 60 40 Protect 20 0 Originally Low Warming Medium Warming High Warming
Summary and Conclusions 1) Cisco a keystone species, found in 175 deep Wisconsin lakes 2) Cisco require cold water with oxygen; vulnerable to summerkills 3) Cisco threatened by climate warming; 30‐70% of lakes at risk 4) Some cisco lakes might be conserved if nutrient inputs reduced
Lake Michigan Lake Geneva OkaucheeLake Lake Mendota Big Green Lake Chain of Lakes Long Lake (Chippewa Co.) Long Lake (Washburn Co.) Lake Owen Turtle ‐Flambeau Flowage Lake Tomahawk Trout Lake Lake Superior Found in 175 Lakes
The lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is a species of whitefish found in large, cool-water lakes primarily in the northeastern United States, Great Lakes region, and much of Canada. Lake whitefish are part of the salmon family Salmonidae, bearing the distinctive adipose fin located on the back between the dorsal and caudal fins.
Canadian Rockies Explorer 11 days from 5,791 total price from Seattle ( 5,695 air & land inclusive plus 96 airline taxes and fees) Avg. High (ºF) Jul Aug Whitefish (MT) 8281 Jasper 73 73 Banff 72 72 Jasper Calgary Map Legend Whitefish Destination Motorcoach Entry/Departure Glacier National Park St. Mary Banff ALBERTA BRITISH COLUMBIA MONTANA .
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Understanding recent historical and projected trends in . precipitation and temperature in the Colorado River Basin, and estimating what the projected changes in these climate parameters may mean for groundwater resources in the region, is important for water managers and policymakers to sustainably manage water resources in the basin. Historical
2013 - 2014 Projected 2014 - 2015 Projected 2015 - 2016 Projected 2016 - 2017 Projected Total Expenditure for Maintenance, Repair and Renovation from 1.50-Mills and PECO Annually, prior to the adoption of the district school budget, each school board must prepare a tentative district facilities work program that includes a schedule of
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