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Kowalski fpref indd xii 1 20 2012 2 55 11 PM,Praise for Previous Edition. It provides an excellent overview of bullying research in general paying proper. attention to research from around the world and a good overview of the. cyberbullying research much of which the authors have been directly involved in. conducting,Research Papers in Education, Cyber Bullying provides the most current and essential information on the nature. and prevalence of this epidemic providing educators parents psychologists and. policy makers with critical prevention techniques and strategies for effectively. addressing electronic bullying,The Parent Report, Champions and critics of the cyberbullying laws agree that preventive education is. a more powerful deterrent to cyberbullying than discipline That notion is supported. by Patricia Agatston co author of Cyber Bullying Bullying in the Digital Age and. a counselor at Cobb County School District s Prevention Intervention Center in. Washington Post, A must read for anyone who has access to technology and it is particularly relevant. for any parent and educator who works with youth Cyber Bullying provides. eye opening and helpful suggestions for helping parents and educators monitor. and track students use of technology Provides a very useful roadmap for educators. and parents about this phenomenon,PsycCritiques, A very helpful guide to the cyber world for parents teachers school counselors.
and parent educators,NASAP Family Newsletter, Much needed addition Mandatory reading for parents of adolescents and. school personnel administrators and teachers Now is the time to read this book. Metapsychology, A useful introduction to the growing problem of electronic harassment among. children The chapters providing advice to parents and educators are quite helpful. American Journal of Psychology, This book provides an eloquent mix of research theories and findings together. with actual experiences in the important area of cyberbullying It is especially. strong in well developed and comprehensive chapters about what parents and. educators can do to reduce both the likelihood of cyberbullying happening and its. negative consequences,Peter K Smith Goldsmiths,University of London. Kowalski ffirs indd i 1 31 2012 4 19 00 PM,About the Authors.
Robin M Kowalski Ph D is Professor of Psychology at Clemson University. She is the author or coauthor of several books including Complaining. Teasing and Other Annoying Behaviors 2003 Social Anxiety 1997. Aversive Interpersonal Behaviors 1997 Behaving Badly 2001 and The. Social Psychology of Emotional and Behavioral Problems 2000. Susan P Limber Ph D is the Dan Olweus Professor at the Institute on. Family and Neighborhood Life and Professor of Psychology at Clemson. University She has published numerous articles on the topic of bullying In. 2004 she received the American Psychological Association s Early Career. Award for Psychology in the Public Interest, Patricia W Agatston Ph D is a Licensed Professional Counselor and. Prevention Specialist with the Cobb County School District s Prevention. Intervention Center in Marietta Georgia She was a participant in the. CDC s Expert Panel on Electronic Media and Youth Violence and has. presented nationally and internationally on cyberbullying. Kowalski ffirs indd ii 1 31 2012 4 19 00 PM,Cyberbu llyi n g. Bul lyi n g i n th e D ig it a l Ag e,Seco nd Edi ti on. R o bin M Kowa l ski p h d,S u s an P L im b e r p h d. P atric ia W Ag a t st o n p h d,A John Wiley Sons Ltd Publication.
Kowalski ffirs indd iii 1 31 2012 4 19 00 PM,This second edition first published 2012. 2012 Robin M Kowalski Susan P Limber Patricia W Agatston. Edition History Blackwell Publishing Ltd 1e 2008, Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley Sons in February 2007 Blackwell s publishing. program has been merged with Wiley s global Scientific Technical and Medical business to form. Wiley Blackwell,Registered Office, John Wiley Sons Ltd The Atrium Southern Gate Chichester West Sussex. PO19 8SQ UK,Editorial Offices,350 Main Street Malden MA 02148 5020 USA. 9600 Garsington Road Oxford OX4 2DQ UK, The Atrium Southern Gate Chichester West Sussex PO19 8SQ UK.
For details of our global editorial offices for customer services and for information about how. to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at. www wiley com wiley blackwell, The right of Robin M Kowalski Susan P Limber and Patricia W Agatston to be identified as. the authors of this has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright Designs and Patents. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system. or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording. or otherwise except as permitted by the UK Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 without. the prior permission of the publisher, Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats Some content that appears. in print may not be available in electronic books, Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as. trademarks All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names service. marks trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners The publisher is not. associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book This publication is designed. to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered It is. sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required the services of a competent. professional should be sought, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Kowalski Robin M, Cyberbullying bullying in the digital age Robin M Kowalski Susan P Limber.
Patricia W Agatston 2nd ed,Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978 1 4443 3480 7 hardback ISBN 978 1 4443 3481 4 paperback. 1 Cyberbullying 2 Bullying I Limber Sue II Agatston Patricia W III Title. HV6773 K69 2012,302 34 3 dc23,2011046026, A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Set in 10 5 13pt Minion by SPi Publisher Services Pondicherry India. Kowalski ffirs indd iv 1 31 2012 4 19 00 PM,Foreword vi. John Halligan,Preface ix,1 Introduction 1, 2 Children s Experiences with Traditional Forms of Bullying 18. 3 What Is Cyberbullying 56,4 Current Research on Cyberbullying 89.
5 What Parents Can Do 118,6 What Educators Can Do 155. 7 Laws and Policies 187,8 Conclusion 223,References 233. Author Index 262,Subject Index 271,Kowalski ftoc indd v 1 20 2012 2 55 06 PM. October 7 2003 will always be the day that divides my life Before that day. my son Ryan was alive A sweet gentle and lanky 13 year old fumbling his. way through early adolescence and trying to establish his place in the often. confusing and difficult social world of middle school After that day my son. would be gone forever A death by suicide Some would call it bullycide or. even cyberbullycide I just call it a huge hole in my heart that will never heal. Ryan s young teen life included swimming camping skateboarding. biking snowboarding playing computer games and instant messaging A. typical array of healthy and normal teen activities or so it seemed. My son loved being online staying connected with his friends after the. school day and throughout the summer But during the summer of 2003. significantly more time was spent online mainly instant messaging I was. concerned and felt compelled to remind him of our internet safety rules. No IMing chatting with strangers, No giving any personal information name address phone to strangers. No sending pictures to strangers,No secret passwords.
Our last rule was a safety one I told my two older children that they had to. use the password I gave them for any accounts they signed up I promised I. would not read personal messages or spy on them but God forbid you. don t follow the first few rules and you just disappear one day I will want. instant access to all of your activities online Never in a million years did I. imagine this rule would someday end up becoming the key to unlocking. the mystery of why my son took his own life, A few days after his funeral I logged on to his AOL IM account because. that was the one place he spent most of his time during the last few months. Kowalski fbetw indd vi 1 20 2012 2 57 13 PM,Foreword vii. I logged on to see if there were any clues to his final action It was in that safe. world of being somewhat anonymous that several of his classmates told me. of the bullying and cyberbullying that took place during the months lead. ing up to his suicide One boy had bullied Ryan since 5th grade and briefly. befriended him after Ryan stood up to him in an after school brawl My son. the comedian shared an embarrassing and humorous moment with his. new friend The friend twisted this information into a rumor that Ryan. had something done to him and therefore Ryan must be gay The rumor. and taunting continued beyond that school day well into the night and. throughout the summer of 2003 My son approached a pretty popular. girl from his school online and worked on establishing a relationship with. her I m sure as a surefire way to squash the gay rumor. When the 8th grade school year started up again Ryan approached his. new girlfriend in person I m sure he was never prepared to handle what. happened next In front of her friends she told him he was just a loser and. that she did not want anything to do with him She said she had been only. joking online He found out that she and her friends thought it would be. funny to make him think she liked him and to get him to say a lot of per. sonal embarrassing things She copied and pasted their private IM. exchanges into ones with her friends They all had a good laugh at Ryan s. Now certainly my son was not the first boy in history to be bullied and. have his heart crushed by a pretty girl s rejection But when I discovered a. folder filled with IM exchanges and further interviewed his classmates I. realized that technology was being utilized as a weapon far more effective. and far reaching than the simple tools we had as kids. It s one thing to be bullied and humiliated in front of a few kids It s one. thing to feel rejection and have your heart crushed by a girl But it must be. a totally different experience compared to a generation ago to have these. hurts and humiliation witnessed by a far larger online adolescent audience. I believe my son would have survived these incidents of bullying and. humiliation if they had taken place before the advent of computers and the. internet But I believe there are few of us who would have had the resiliency. and stamina to sustain such a nuclear level attack on our feelings and repu. tation as a young teen in the midst of rapid physical and emotional changes. and raging hormones I believe bullying through technology has the effect. of accelerating and amplifying the hurt to levels that will probably result in. a rise in teen suicide rates Recent statistics indicate that indeed teen sui. cide is on the rise again after many years of declining rates. Kowalski fbetw indd vii 1 20 2012 2 57 13 PM,viii Foreword. My son was an early casualty and his death an early warning to our soci. ety that we d better pay close attention to how our children use technology. We need to study this new societal problem with a sense of urgency and. great diligence We must also be swift and deliberate in our law making and. social policy development when it comes to protecting our youth from the. misuse of technology against them and amongst them. This book will prove to be an invaluable resource It will level set the. reader about what bullying is and its harmful effects Then it will explore. the increasing ways technology is utilized to extend bullying behavior well. into cyberspace It brings us up to speed on the latest research findings and. maps out very concrete preventative and responsive actions for both par. ents and educators,John Halligan Ryan s Dad,www RyanPatrickHalligan org. Kowalski fbetw indd viii 1 20 2012 2 57 13 PM, We originally decided to write about cyberbullying after working together.
on various bullying prevention efforts and collaborating on research on. cyberbullying One day we came face to face with an extreme example of. cyberbullying that occurred in a suburban school district Patti Agatston. can still remember calling Sue Limber and saying You need to look at this. Web site targeting a student The mother has asked me to help her find out. who did it and get it removed and I cannot believe what I am seeing From. that initial conversation we began carving out the steps necessary to inter. vene in an actual severe cyberbullying episode with much help from the. Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use s online documents authored. by Nancy Willard After that trial by fire experience we met and discussed. how useful it would be to personally interview students and parents via. focus groups and individual interviews to better understand their experi. ences and perspectives We noted that the paper and pencil surveys were. insufficient to capture the emotional impact of this new form of bullying. on parents and children A broader idea emerged writing a book describing. our findings that would include actual interviews from students and par. ents The first edition of this book appeared in 2008 In just the few years. since that time the percentage of teens involved with technology has con. tinued to increase and the venues by which children and adults can. engage in cyberbullying have also expanded For example sexting has. become a mode of cyberbullying others that carries with it a host of legal. complications for those involved, One purpose of this book is to educate parents educators and commu. nity organizations about the growing problem of cyberbullying But. another is to empower the adults in the community to prevent this new. form of bullying from becoming a regular experience for youth navigating. the internet and other technological tools Many adults and educators have. Kowalski fpref indd ix 1 20 2012 2 55 11 PM, found themselves in our position learning about cyberbullying at the. moment when intervention is necessary We hope that this book will help. adults gain the knowledge and tools necessary to be true resources to young. people in preventing and addressing cyberbullying episodes rather than. being viewed as hindrances which unfortunately is frequently a perception. of young people as we will discuss, Robin Kowalski and Sue Limber psychologists and faculty members at. Clemson University in South Carolina have been researching cyberbully. ing through a variety of methods for several years and some of their inno. vative research is published in this book including new research focusing. on cyberbullying among children with ADHD and or Asperger Syndrome. In addition Patti Agatston a psychologist and counselor collaborated with. Robin and Sue to develop individual and group questionnaires to use while. interviewing parents and students regarding cyberbullying Patti teamed up. with her colleague Michael Carpenter to conduct focus groups during the. spring and fall of 2006 Michael Carpenter was one of the first nationally. certified trainers for the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program and one of. the founders of the Prevention Intervention Center the Cobb County. Georgia School District s nationally recognized student assistance program. where Patti Agatston also works Patti conducted the female focus groups. on cyberbullying while Michael led the male focus groups In addition. Patti conducted a variety of individual interviews with parents and students. from various middle and high schools in the district who were willing to be. interviewed regarding their experiences with cyberbullying The reader will. have an opportunity to hear first hand from some of the parents and stu. dents who were interviewed for this book, We will share some suggestions and recommendations as a result of the. research and interviews that we and others have conducted We hope that. the reader will find it more meaningful to know that these recommenda. tions are being made based on research that has involved parents and youth. in actual dialogue in addition to survey methods We also realize that new. technologies with new potentials for bullying will emerge that require con. tinued dialogue with parents and youth to understand the experiences they. are having The challenge is to incorporate these new technologies in a way. that enhances rather than detracts from our daily life. There are many people who contributed to the writing of this book and. the conducting of the research to whom we offer our heartfelt gratitude. First we want to thank a number of principals of the Cobb County School. District who made it possible to conduct focus groups and individual. Kowalski fpref indd x 1 20 2012 2 55 11 PM,Preface xi.
interviews including Linda Clark William D Griggers Susan Gunderman. Denise Magee Janet Peeler Geraldine Ray Ivia Redmond Grant Rivera. and James Snell Special thanks are given to the following school counselors. for going above and beyond the call of duty to facilitate our work Yvonne. Young Colleen Brown and Susan Strickland as well as health teacher Eric. Homansky Thanks also go to the staff of the Prevention Intervention. Center Jeff Inman Jeff Dess Luisa Resendiz Joyce Hutchings Janice. Mosher and Michael Carpenter who provided encouragement support. and a place to lock up sensitive data Weijun Wang and Natura Agani at. Clemson University provided invaluable assistance with research on cyber. bullying policies Many students at Clemson University invested consider. able time and energy collecting inputting and analyzing data Lindsey. Sporrer Erin Hunter Richard Reams Karissa Chorbajian Kristy Kelso. Natalie Irby Angela Gorney Amy Scheck Ryan Cook Melissa Redfearn. Jessica Allen Kelly Simpson Ann Mac Calloway Melinda Keith Stephanie. Kerr Laura Singer Jana Spearman Lance Tripp Jessica Farris Kelly. Finnegan Laura Vernon Rebecca Fulmer Alison Richman Liz Johnson. Stephanie Freeman Sarah Louderback Micah Lattanner and Gary. Giumetti We are grateful for their help, We would also like to thank Nicole Benevenia at Wiley Blackwell for her. support of this project and for her encouragement throughout the process. We are indebted to her and the staff at Wiley Blackwell for their support. Thanks to the many work colleagues friends and relatives who sup. ported us by offering encouragement suggestions and by reading and. responding to our work including Andrew Agatston Robert Agatston. Teresa Hubbard Rachel Galli Frank and Kathy Walton and Randolph and. Frances Kowalski, Finally we thank our children Austin Jack Mary Noah and Jordan. who inspire us to believe that all children have the right to feel safe from. bullying in both the real and the virtual worlds,Kowalski fpref indd xi 1 20 2012 2 55 11 PM. Kowalski fpref indd xii 1 20 2012 2 55 11 PM,Introduction. What makes cyber bullying so dangerous is that anyone can practice. it without having to confront the victim You don t have to be strong or. fast simply equipped with a cell phone or computer and a willingness to. Bullying creates memories that often last a lifetime Simply hearing the. name of a person who bullied them even years or decades after the bullying. occurred may be enough to send chills up the backs of many people When. most adults think of bullying they conjure up the image of a big thug who. terrorized kids on the playground at school Usually a male he was some. one to be feared As horrible as encounters with this bully1 may have been. though the end of the school day often brought a reprieve as the victim left. school and went home, Cyberbullying however is a bit different In spite of recent media atten.
tion devoted to the topic many people are still not familiar with the term. But for those who are and who have experienced it the memories like. those of traditional bullying may also last a lifetime Cyberbullying also. known as electronic bullying or online social cruelty is defined as bullying. through e mail instant messaging IM in a chat room on a Web site on. an online gaming site or through digital messages or images sent to a cel. lular phone Although sharing certain features in common with traditional. bullying see Chapter 3 for a more detailed discussion of this cyberbully. ing represents a somewhat unique phenomenon that has been receiving. Cyberbullying Bullying in the Digital Age Second Edition Robin M Kowalski. Susan P Limber and Patricia W Agatston, 2012 Robin M Kowalski Susan P Limber and Patricia W Agatston. Published 2012 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd,Kowalski c01 indd 1 1 20 2012 3 02 30 PM.

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