OPPOSITE Aboriginal now known as the City of Melbourne Dispossession. people fishing and camping and all of the City of Yarra as well. on Merri Creek Tinted, as land extending north into central Wurundjeri dispossession of land took. lithograph by Charles place not just through displacement but. Troedel 1864 Victoria are the traditional lands of. the Kulin nation The City of Yarra area also through disconnection Land was. was looked after by the Wurundjeri sold bush was cleared for the creation. willam family group They belong to of roads and buildings and wetlands. the Wurundjeri balluk clan which is were drained Over time even the. part of the larger Wurundjeri tribe The course of the Yarra River was changed. Wurundjeri willam mainly spoke Woi The disruption of sacred sites might be. wurrung language but also spoke other termed desecration For the Wurundjeri. languages of their nation Each clan was who had a spiritual connection to the. governed by a ngurungaeta pronounced land these changes had a devastating. na run getta or head man impact on all aspects of their health and. All clan members knew their land in, great detail including the best times Prior to Melbourne s settlement. to visit each area according to weather European sealers and whalers had. and availability of food In winter the lived and worked along the Victorian. Wurundjeri willam regularly camped coastline for decades and the British. in the higher areas as the land near the had made attempts to establish. river flooded In spring and summer settlements further out on Port Phillip. they travelled more frequently moving Bay and Westernport Bay The arrival of. between nine and sixteen kilometres settlers during the 1830s was considered. a day hunting and gathering food illegal under British law but settlers. and visiting sacred sites According to came anyway unable to resist the lure. historian Penelope Edmonds Spring of prime pastoral land The settlement. and early summer were times of grew through the early thirties. movement and change for it was then and by the end of 1836 the British. that crops such as yam mirr n yong government conceded it couldn t stop. were ready for harvesting birds eggs it The settlement was officially named. plentiful and wildfowl and game more Melbourne by Governor Sir Richard. accessible As summer wore on the Bourke in March 1837 3 During the. 1 M F Christie Aborigines Aborigines visited fishing and eeling ceremony Bourke used William Buckley. in Colonial Victoria sites and camped for longer periods 1 an escaped convict who had lived with. Sydney Sydney Watha wurrung people for thirty two, University Press 1979 9 Land boundaries for each clan were. years to tell the Aboriginal people, 2 Gary Presland First clearly defined with strict protocols. present that he would be a friend as long, People The Eastern Kulin governing access to the land of other. of Melbourne Port Phillip as they were peaceable and obeyed the. clans While each clan or family,and Central Victoria law 4. group travelled on its own they still,Melbourne Museum. maintained relationships with others As the settler population increased. Victoria 2010 15, 3 A G L Shaw Foundation within their language group Marriage and the built environment developed. and Early History in played an important role in this as the European hold on the land was. Andrew Brown May and people would not marry within their strengthened The first land sales took. Shurlee Swain eds The own clan Instead partners were chosen place in Melbourne on 1 June 1837 The. Encyclopedia of Melbourne from different clans within the Kulin following year forty one allotments of. online edition www twenty five acres each were sold in the. nation 2 Visiting the land of other,emelbourne net au. clans was therefore an important and areas that would become Collingwood. 4 Penelope Edmonds, Urbanizing Frontiers necessary right and Fitzroy It was intended that they. Indigenous Peoples and would be paddocks 5 In the building. Ties were also cemented through, Settlers in 19th Century boom of 1850 the allotments were. gatherings and corroborees where, Pacific Rim Cities subdivided and forest was cleared for. Vancouver University of,clans within the Kulin nation would. firewood The European population, British Columbia Press meet with sometimes hundreds of. during this time rose from 600 people in,2010 82 people together Corroboree dances. 1841 to nearly 3000 people in 1850 and, 5 Bernard Barrett The Inner and storytelling performances were a. 3449 people in 1851 6, Suburbs The Evolution focus of these gatherings with different. of an Industrial Area clans often competing to outdo each Aboriginal people were pushed. Melbourne Melbourne, other These gatherings were also an further and further out and freedom. University Press 1971 14, 6 Barrett The Inner opportunity for a council of ngurungaeta of movement across the land became. Suburbs 20 Shaw to be formed to settle disputes or decide increasingly difficult The settlers. Foundation and Early on punishment for those responsible for created new land boundaries with fences. History serious crimes against Aboriginal law and often had guns to back them up. From Agora vol 48 no 4 2013 67, For the Wurundjeri finding food within The exact location of the meeting ABOVE LEFT The Signing. traditional clan boundaries became between Batman and the Kulin of Batman s Treaty at. Merri Creek 1835 by John, increasingly challenging The settlers ngurungaeta with whom he made the. Wesley Burtt SLV Pictures, hunted wildlife on an unprecedented treaty is unknown 10 According to Collection H92 196 Image. level for sport as well as for food historian Meyer Eidelson it is generally courtesy State Library of. reducing the amount that was available 7 believed to have occurred on the Merri Victoria. Creek near modern day Rushall Station 11, Introduced animals such as sheep and ABOVE RIGHT William. cattle trampled and killed vegetation Opinions around why Kulin ngurungaeta Thomas 1860. that had been a staple of the Aboriginal signed the treaty if in fact they did are. diet 8 This sometimes forced Aboriginal open to speculation One opinion is that. people onto the land of other clans a the clan heads may have made a very. breach of protocol that sometimes led informed decision to limit the number. to inter clan violence Devastation from of settlers in Port Phillip in an attempt. introduced diseases also influenced to at least curtail the destruction they. the willingness of Aboriginal people to had heard about happening elsewhere 12. return to former campsites as happened In attempting to understand Batman s. at the confluence of the Yarra River and intentions it s worth noting that the. Merri Creek after the influenza epidemic Port Phillip Association s principal aim. of 1847 9 was to depasture stock as profitably as, The Wurundjeri willam and other possible 13 The aim of the Association as. given to the British authorities however,Aboriginal people of the Yarra and. was to establish a nucleus for a free and,Melbourne area did not concede their. useful colony founded on the principle,land easily but as the settlement. of conciliation of philanthropy 7 Christie Aborigines in. grew and space to hunt and gather, morality and temperance calculated Colonial Victoria 42. diminished many of the dispossessed, to ensure the comfort and well being 8 Richard Broome. were eventually drawn to the Aboriginal Melbourne,of the natives 14 It is unlikely that these. settlement where food and alcohol was in Brown May and Swain. two aims could peacefully coexist, available As Melbourne developed into eds The Encyclopedia of. a town and then a city there continued Batman s treaty was deemed invalid Melbourne. to be a strong Aboriginal presence in It was also noted that if it was 9 Ian D Clark and Laura M. acknowledged that the Aborigines had Kostanski An Indigenous. and around the settlement, the right to dispose of their land as they History of Stonnington. A Report to the City,saw fit then the Crown s claim to all. Treaty of Stonnington 2006,Australian lands would be in doubt 15 83 4. On 6 June 1835 just under two years Ultimately Batman s treaty had no 10 Isabel Ellender and Peter. before Melbourne was officially legal significance in the European Christiansen People. recognised as a settlement John settlement of Melbourne and the taking of the Merri Merri The. Batman the leader of the Port Phillip Wurundjeri in Colonial. of Aboriginal land However it was an Days Melbourne Merri. Association presented Wurundjeri important first step in this process and Creek Management. Elders with a land use agreement also holds significant symbolism It is Committee 2001 19. This document now referred to as the symbolic of European relations with the 11 Meyer Eidelson The. Batman treaty was later given to the Kulin in that self interest and deceit Melbourne Dreaming A. were central to colonisation To this Guide to the Aboriginal. British government to claim that local Places of Melbourne. Aboriginal people had given Batman day Batman s treaty is the only land use. Canberra Aboriginal, access to their land in exchange for agreement that has sought to recognise Studies Press 1997 32. goods and rations Today the meaning European occupation of Australia and 12 Eidelson The Melbourne. and interpretation of this treaty is pre existing Aboriginal land rights Dreaming 65. contested Some argue it was pretence 13 Christie Aborigines in. for taking Aboriginal land in exchange The Protectorate Colonial Victoria 25 26. 14 Christie Aborigines in, for trinkets while others argue it was At an official level an important Colonial Victoria 26. significant in that it sought to recognise influence on policy makers and political 15 Christie Aborigines in. Aboriginal land rights leaders was Enlightenment thought Colonial Victoria 26. 68 From Agora vol 48 no 4 2013, and what was known as the Exeter Hall the Aboriginal people from the area. movement in Britain 16 and ensure they did not return There. This humanitarian influence well were also some who saw the injustice of. intentioned but imperialistic is evident dispossession although this was only. in such things as the establishment of because the Europeans had taken the. the Aboriginal Protectorate Protection land without allocating an area for the. was a key idea of the early settlement Aboriginal people to go 18. years and had a strong influence on The protectorate system was seen. government policy In many ways as a failure and unsupported by the. William Thomas was the epitome government or the public it was. of this idea of protection and the dismantled in December 1849 Thomas. contradictions it contained was named Guardian of the Aborigines. In his role as Assistant Protector on 1 January 1850 His instructions. Thomas had good intentions He were nearly identical to when he was. made efforts to learn the ways of the appointed Assistant Protector except. Wurundjeri learning both Woi wurrung Superintendent Charles La Trobe now. and Boon wurrung language But he was emphasised that Thomas was to keep. an Englishman and fervent Christian the blacks out of Melbourne 19 With. and his ultimate goal was to civilise Thomas the sole authority looking after. the local Aboriginal people by settling the welfare of the Aboriginal people. them in villages and converting them to as Penelope Edmonds has noted the. Christianity 1850s have been described as a period of. In 1837 prior to the protectorate s almost complete government neglect of. establishment a mission and school Aboriginal peoples 20. 16 James Boyce 1835 The, Founding of Melbourne had been set up on the south side of In 1858 a Select Committee of the. The Conquest of Melbourne the Yarra River at a meeting place and Legislative Council on the Aborigines. Collingwood Black Inc corroboree site that is now occupied by was formed by the Victorian. 2011 37 38 Melbourne s Royal Botanic Gardens 17 Government to enquire into the. 17 Edmonds Urbanizing state of the Aboriginal population at. Frontiers 87 Shaun The mission and school failed however. because the people of the Kulin nations this time The committee published a. Canning and Frances, Thiele Indigenous Cultural refused to give up cultural practices of report in 1859 that recommended the. Heritage and History within travelling and hunting at certain times establishment of government reserves. the Metropolitan Melbourne of the year for Aboriginal people The result of this. Investigation Area A was the creation of the Central Board. Report to the Victorian The Aboriginal Protectorate was for the Protection of Aborigines in 1860. Environmental Assessment established to replace the mission to establish a series of reserves onto. Council Melbourne Under orders from the Chief Protector which the Aboriginal people would be. Australian Cultural George Robinson William Thomas. Heritage Management more vigorously compelled to move. established a station at Narre Warren These reserves included Ebenezer Lake. in 1840 and based himself there from, 18 Report of the Select Tyers Framlingham Lake Condah. Committee of the Legislative 1841 However he was not successful in. Ramahyuck Coranderrk and Yelta, Council on The Aborigines convincing the Woi wurrung and Boon. Many of the Wurundjeri moved to, Together with the wurrung to move so far from Melbourne. Coranderrk which was created by a, Proceedings of Committee and by 1843 Thomas had moved to the. Minutes of Evidence and group of Kulin in 1863 and retroactively. popular camp site at the confluence of, Appendices Melbourne approved by the government 21. the Yarra River and the Merri Creek At,John Ferres Government. Printer 1859 iv,this time the Merri Creek School was. established for Aboriginal children with Disease,19 Report of the Select. Committee of the Legislative some success One of the biggest impacts on the. Council on the Aborigines 1 Aboriginal population in the City of. As the settlement grew the Wurundjeri, 20 Edmonds Urbanizing Yarra area was the introduction of. Frontiers 153,found themselves faced with a variety. 21 Canning and Thiele of requests and demands from the diseases previously unknown to the. Indigenous Cultural European settlers The protectors Wurundjeri It has been estimated. Heritage and History within wanted to keep Aboriginal people that disease accounted for up to sixty. the Metropolitan Melbourne out of the town to civilise them and per cent of the Aboriginal deaths. Investigation Area 14 eventually enable them to be part across the Port Phillip area 22 Even. 22 Presland First People 90 before Europeans began arriving in the. of society The merchants wanted,23 Don Garden Victoria. A History Melbourne, Aboriginal people to continue coming to Melbourne area up to a third of the. Thomas Nelson Australia the town so they could profit from them population of the eastern Australian. 1984 5 Edmonds The general public and colonial officers tribes had been killed by an epidemic of. Urbanizing Frontiers 27 simply wanted the protectors to remove smallpox that spread from Sydney 23. From Agora vol 48 no 4 2013 69, While the European population had a strong resistance to diseases and even. the common cold exposure was often fatal to Aboriginal populations. While the European population had Geoffrey Blainey argues they had no. a strong resistance to diseases such tradition of washing clothes they. as bronchitis measles scarlet fever often had no access to soap and to clean. chicken pox and even the common running water and they did not realise. cold exposure to these diseases was the danger of sleeping in a wet dress or. often fatal to Aboriginal populations damp blanket In putting on clothes they. Added to this were other diseases such were often putting on burial garments 29. as smallpox tuberculosis and venereal The other big lifestyle based cause of ill. disease such as syphilis that were health and disease that came with the. deadly for European and Aboriginal European population was alcohol. populations alike 24,As stated by Megan Goulding and Mary. Changes to diet also became a source,Menis by the 1850s alcoholism was. of ill health and disease Some changes,endemic across the Victorian Aboriginal. were caused by restricted access to,population and contributed greatly. traditional food from land being,to population decline 30 Issues with. fenced off native animals being shot for,alcohol were made worse by the fact. sport and the introduction of hoofed,that spirits were the primary form of. animals such as sheep which trampled,drink in this period William Thomas. and destroyed native plants that had,reported At the Merri Creek one. served as staple foodstuffs For some,morning at daybreak there were four. these changes led to starvation for,or five lying bedded in the mud drunk. others this led to the adoption of a, not dead cold comes on and as soon as 24 Christie Aborigines in. European style diet including refined, disease touches a black man s chest you Colonial Victoria 42. sugar flour and offal replacing what had,cannot save him 31 25 Christie Aborigines in. been a high protein diet 25 The impact,Colonial Victoria 43. of a diet based on these introduced In June 1847 an epidemic of influenza 26 Clark and Kostanski An. foodstuffs was made worse by the hit the large encampment at the Indigenous History of. provision of rations that consisted of the confluence of the Yarra River and Merri Stonnington 68 69. worst quality and cheapest grains and Creek particularly hard Those who 27 Geoffrey Blainey A. meats available survived the initial impact of disease Land Half Won South. had to live with the grief and devastation Melbourne Macmillan. Movement away from a nomadic Company 91 92, life also had a massive impact on within their community In the wake. 28 Blainey A Land Half, the Wurundjeri s health Constant of this what had once been a popular Won 91 92 Clark and. availability of European food led to and significant camping spot for the Kostanski An Indigenous. gatherings of more Aboriginal people Wurundjeri was no longer used to any History of Stonnington. which in turn facilitated spread of great extent 32 This then acted as yet 68 69. another force to drive the Wurundjeri 29 Blainey A Land Half Won. disease 26 One of the reasons for 91 92, travelling in small bands was to ensure from their land. 30 Megan Goulding and, there was adequate food available Declining birthrates was another issue Mary Menis Moreland. and to enable an area to regenerate The diseases mentioned above impacted Post Contact Aboriginal. once it had been exhausted Moving the young more than the elderly causing Heritage Study Prepared. for Moreland City Council, camp after they had exhausted supply a decline in the number of people of. North Carlton Goulding, also prevented issues with natural childbearing age Depression also may Heritage Consulting 62. waste mobility gave them a sewerage have had a role to play Both Billibellary 31 Goulding and Menis. system 27 By making permanent camps Elder of the Wurundjeri and Derrimut Moreland Post Contact. the Aboriginal people had a greater Elder of the Yalukit willam are Aboriginal Heritage Study. exposure to germs leading to a number repeatedly quoted as stating that there 62. of outbreaks of dysentery 28 Even the was no point having children as the 32 Clark and Kostanski An. Indigenous History of, adoption of European dress caused the Europeans had taken all the land 33 On. Stonnington 3 4 179, Aboriginal people harm preventing top of this the European introduction 33 Broome Aboriginal. their skin from absorbing the sunlight of syphilis caused sterility Similarly a Melbourne. that had previously aided in the decline in health from dietary and other 34 Blainey A Land Half Won. destruction of bacteria Furthermore changes also affected fertility 34 91 92. 70 From Agora vol 48 no 4 2013, Ultimately the introduction of Aboriginal people referring them to the. European diseases and lifestyle related protectorate as their responsibility. health problems had a devastating Official violence also came in the form. and ongoing impact on the Aboriginal of criminal executions with the first. people of Victoria executions in the district being two. Aboriginal men Tunnerminnerwait,Violence and Maulboyheenner These men were. Violence was a common issue in frontier among the group of Aboriginal men and. history across Australia and Victoria women who were brought over from. was no exception While many British Van Diemen s Land by Robinson but. colonists and officials were benign if broke away and engaged in a campaign. sanctimonious a large proportion of resistance against the Europeans. of colonists moved from a sense of Sexual violence against Aboriginal. superiority to a feeling of contempt women was common throughout the. Contempt combined with greed for Victorian frontier One of the first acts. the land fear and insecurity led to of the Port Phillip Association following. violence 35 the creation of Batman s treaty was, In the Yarra area of Melbourne assisting with the return of Aboriginal. reports of Wurundjeri willam violence women abducted from Victorian. against Europeans are limited despite coastline areas by sealers and whalers. intense provocation and a number William Thomas also recorded a number. of confrontations 36 In part this was of instances of rape in his reports. because the rapid increase of the Such instances would often occur at. European population in and around the Aboriginal camps on the borders of. Melbourne limited the ability of the the growing town of Melbourne These. local Aboriginal population to form a were seen by the European population. resistance It would be wrong however as a place of curiosity a place of. to state that there was no violence in the entertainment drunkenness gunfire. Melbourne region Relations between violence and interracial sex 39. the Wurundjeri and Europeans were, influenced by the guerrilla warfare that Not all violence was interracial There. was occurring in outlying areas Word were ongoing feuds between different. of this conflict accentuated fears in the clans within the Kulin and established. city area and influenced the attitudes of enmity between members of the Kulin. many colonialists and those outside such as the Gunai. Kurnai from the Gippsland area,While the official British policy towards. the Aboriginal population was one of These conflicts were exacerbated by. protection instances of institutional the sprawl of European settlement. violence still occurred particularly as pushing Aboriginal groups outside their. a result of police inaction There were traditional boundaries The introduction. many who did not like the Aboriginal of alcohol into Aboriginal society also. camps being close to the town and in fuelled domestic violence When asked. April 1840 when there was a gathering about murder among the Aboriginal. of six or seven hundred Kulin their people by the Select Committee of the. mia mias bark huts were burnt and Legislative Council on the Aborigines. the camp dismantled 37 Other acts of in 1859 William Thomas stated that the. violence harassment and indignities only murder that occurred within the. 35 Garden Victoria 53 4 frequently occurred on the streets of Wurundjeri while he was with them was. 36 Ellender and Melbourne Such acts included beatings brought about by intoxication. Christiansen People of the, and horse whippings often in response Between 1836 and 1844 an estimated. Merri Merri 22 3,37 Ellender and, to acts that the European population 40 European and 113 Aboriginal people. Christiansen People of the perceived as begging 38 Such acts of were officially recorded as killed in. Merri Merri 129 violence were perpetrated by Europeans conflicts in the Port Phillip area It is. 38 Ellender and of all classes Violence against the worth noting however that officials. Christiansen People of the Aboriginal people served only to routinely tried to obscure the high rate. Merri Merri 127 Christie increase the number of infractions. Aborigines in Colonial of Aboriginal deaths 40,against British law committed by them. Victoria 50 1,While the police were quick to enforce. 39 Edmonds Urbanizing Pollution, Frontiers 142 laws against Aboriginal people in the. 40 Edmonds Urbanizing town they often refused to take action One of the more pervasive aspects. Frontiers 123 in response to crimes committed against of European settlement was the. From Agora vol 48 no 4 2013 71, pollution of the air and water While the a cesspit frequently not water tight. Wurundjeri lifestyle had a low impact on so waste would filter through the. the environment the European lifestyle ground and overflow would go out. took a heavy toll A particular problem in the gutter Waste from those living. for the Wurundjeri was pollution around on the Fitzroy hill would travel down. the confluence of the Merri Creek and to the Collingwood flat meaning the. the Yarra River an important meeting cesspits there also gathered this waste. place for the Wurundjeri and visiting Barrett notes that Often the contents. Aboriginal people and also the base for augmented by rainwater overflowed. the Merri Creek School Native Police around and even under buildings 44 By. and Protectorate Station Noxious the late 1850s nightmen were employed. trades established along the river to collect sewage but many simply. particularly in Collingwood Abbotsford dumped it with most ending in the. and Richmond were some of the worst Yarra,offenders Historian Bernard Barrett. The Wurundjeri s experience of this,states that settlers were attracted to. pollution has not been recorded but it,these areas because of the free water. cannot be doubted that this would have,supply for washing skins and wool and. had an extremely negative impact Their,as a sewer and garbage dump 41 This. drinking water was fouled noxious,dumping ground was the drinking. smells polluted the air and the land was,water supply for both Europeans and. littered with the by products of life in,Aboriginal people. the settlement,The process for fellmongery and,woolwashing involved soaking animal. Establishment of municipal,hides in the river for days then in hot. government and the impact on,water soap and soda that was later. dumped back into the river along with,the Wurundjeri. pelts heads and legs of the animals In 1836 Governor Bourke received. Tanneries also soaked the animal hides authorisation from the Colonial. in the river then in lime water then Secretary in London to allow private. river water again Sometimes they also settlement in the Melbourne area. soaked the hides in a mix of water and stating it was for the protection of the 41 Barrett The Inner. fowl or pigeon dung which along with Aboriginal people and the establishment Suburbs 88. the hair that was scraped off was later of law William Lonsdale was appointed 42 Barrett The Inner. dumped into the river Soap and candle police magistrate of the Port Phillip Suburbs 89 90. 43 Barrett The Inner, making from boiled down animal fat District in September that year The Suburbs 88. also contributed to the air pollution first move towards establishment of a 44 Barrett The Inner. which could be smelt for miles around 42 local government however occurred at Suburbs 76. The result of an 1851 enquiry by the a public meeting three months earlier 45 Public meeting agrees. Melbourne City Council was to prohibit One of the decisions reached at this on temporary method of. meeting was that all subscribing parties government minutes of. any new fellmongers or tanners residents meeting June. However a second enquiry in 1854 pledge themselves to afford protection. 1836 cited in Pauline, showed that the number had increased for the Aborigines to the utmost of their Jones ed Beginnings of. and that combined they were handling power and further that they will not Permanent Government. 5000 sheepskins and 200 cattle hides teach them the use of firearms or allow Historical Records of. per week 43 their servants to do nor on any occasion Victoria Melbourne. allow the Aborigines to be in possession Victorian Government. The everyday lifestyle of settlers Printing Office 1981. of any firearms 45,living in suburbs such as Fitzroy and 36 8. Collingwood also had impacts on While there are few references to the 46 Edmonds The Intimate. the landscape There was no general Aboriginal people in official notices Urbanising Frontier. of motion by laws were created that Native Camps and Settler. garbage collection service so household,Colonialism s Violent. waste was simply thrown into yards directly affected Aboriginal people The. Array of Spaces around, and trampled underfoot Anything not Dog Act of 1844 for example ensured Early Melbourne in. eaten by household animals such as that the hoards of diseased dogs if Tracey Banivanua Mar. dogs chickens goats cows and pigs unregistered were routinely killed in and Penelope Edmonds. was then dumped in the laneways the streets Assistant Protector William eds Making Settler. streets swamps or drains Rubbish Thomas stated that the women in camps Colonial Space Perspectives. on Race Place and Identity, dumped in drains would flow downhill cried for their dogs 46 A week later this. New York Palgrave, to the flat and eventually to the Yarra Aboriginal group that included these Macmillan 2010 136. The other issue associated with drains women left the settlement on account 47 Edmonds The Intimate. was sewerage Most households used of their dogs being killed 47 Urbanising Frontier 136. 72 From Agora vol 48 no 4 2013, The bulk of items for consideration Wurundjeri today. by newly formed councils during this,Despite the impacts of colonisation. time are concerned with public works,the strong bonds between Wurundjeri. the development of streets drainage,families and clans could not be broken. buildings and locations for bathing,Today the Wurundjeri are active in. houses manure deposits and so forth,the community practising culture. This in itself is telling regarding the,performing ceremonies and passing on. post contact story of the Aboriginal,knowledge to the younger generation. people as it is the story of the land being, taken over and reshaped pushing out Please visit www. Aboriginal people While the European aboriginalhistoryofyarra com au for a. population was reshaping the landscape longer version of this article an interactive. and overlaying their ideas of order onto map of significant sites and a selection of. it the Aboriginal people continued to videos,occupy the land inscribing their own. ideas onto it It was a simultaneous,occupation of the land underpinned. by disparate understandings of what it,meant to occupy the land.
PP 4000 1295- 1395- 1500- 1615- 1500- 1615- 2155 2330 2500 2690 2500 2690 * alternator efficiency of 96% considered, excluding parasitic losses MTU application groups (page 6-9) only indicate which MTU diesel engine suits your demands best. For your type of vessel, you can also choose engines from
Through teaching and leading by example, nurture respect for and compliance to moral principles: honesty, fairness and equality, dignity, diversity and individual rights. Community Development: Through the Deacero Foundation, continue to bring social assistance to local communities in the areas of education, health, culture, science and ...
Untrained Forced Alignment of Transcriptions and Audio for Language Documentation Corpora using WebMAUS Jan Strunk, Florian Schiel, Frank Seifart University of Amsterdam, Bavarian Archive for Speech Signals (BAS), University of Amsterdam [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Abstract
6 Before Connecting The CD 1 Power Cord AC Voltage Selection: Please do not assume the AC Voltage Select switch has been set correctly. Please do not assume the 115V or 230V marking on its carton is correct. The CD 1 will be seriously damaged if its AC Voltage Select switch is set incorrectly.