130 ALBERT H HASTORF AND HADLEY CANTRIL, The game was rough and did get a bit out of hand members of two fraternities were asked to view the. in the third quarter Yet most of the roughing penalties film on December 7 at Princeton members of two. were called against Princeton while Dartmouth undergraduate clubs saw the film early in January. received more of the illegal use of the hands variety The answers to both questionnaires were carefully. coded and transferred to punch cards 8, On November 28 the Dartmouth said. Dick Kazmaier of Princeton admittedly is an RESULTS. unusually able football player Many Dartmouth men, traveled to Princeton not expecting to win only Table 1 shows the questions which received. hoping to see an All American in action Dick Kazmaier different replies from the two student popula. was hurt in the second period and played only a, token part in the remainder of the game For this tions on the first questionnaire. spectators were sorry Questions asking if the students had friends. But there were no such feelings for Dick Kazmaier s on the team if they had ever played football. health Medical authorities have confirmed that as a themselves if they felt they knew the rules of. relatively unprotected passing and running star in a. contact sport he is quite liable to injury Also his the game well etc showed no differences in. particular injuries a broken nose and slight concussion either school and no relation to answers given. were no more serious than is experienced almost any to other questions This is not surprising since. day in any football practice where there is no more the students in both schools come from es. serious stake than playing the following Saturday sentially the same type of educational. Up to the Princeton game Dartmouth players suffered. about 10 known nose fractures and face injuries not economic and ethnic background. to mention several slight concussions Summarizing the data of Tables 1 and 2. Did Princeton players feel so badly about losing we find a marked contrast between the two. their star They shouldn t have During the past student groups. undefeated campaign they stopped several individual. stars by a concentrated effort including such mam Nearly all Princeton students judged the. stays as Frank Hauff of Navy Glenn Adams of game as rough and dirty not one of them. Pennsylvania and Rocco Calvo of Cornell thought it clean and fair And almost nine. In other words the same brand of football con tenths of them thought the other side started. demned by the Prince that of stopping the big man the rough play By and large they felt that. is practiced quite successfully by the Tigers, the charges they understood were being made. Basically then there was disagreement as were true most of them felt the charges were. to what had happened during the game made in order to avoid similar situations in the. Hence we took the opportunity presented by future, the occasion to make a real life study of a When Princeton students looked at the. perceptual problem 1 movie of the game they saw the Dartmouth. PROCEDURE team make over twice as many infractions as. their own team made And they saw the Dart, Two steps were involved in gathering data The first. consisted of answers to a questionnaire designed to get mouth team make over twice as many infrac. reactions to the game and to learn something of the tions as were seen by Dartmouth students. climate of opinion in each institution This question When Princeton students judged these infrac. naire was administered a week after the game to both tions as flagrant or mild the ratio was. Dartmouth and Princeton undergraduates who were about two flagrant to one mild on the. taking introductory and intermediate psychology, courses Dartmouth team and about one flagrant to. The second step consisted of showing the same three mild on the Princeton team. motion picture of the game to a sample of under As for the Dartmouth students while the. graduates in each school and having them check on, another questionnaire as they watched the film any plurality of answers fell in the rough and. infraction of the rules they saw and whether these dirty category over one tenth thought the. infractions were mild or flagrant 8 At Dartmouth, omits a good deal of the total action on the field Also. We are not concerned here with the problem of of course in viewing only a film of a game the possi. guilt or responsibility for infractions and nothing here bilities of participation as spectator are greatly limited. implies any judgment as to who was to blame We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of. The film shown was kindly loaned for the purpose Virginia Zerega Office of Public Opinion Research. of the experiment by the Dartmouth College Athletic and J L McCandless Princeton University and E S. Council It should be pointed out that a movie of a Horton Dartmouth College in the gathering and. football game follows the ball is thus selective and collation of the data. THEY SAW A GAME A CASE STUDY 131, TABLE 1 TABLE 1 CONTINUED. DATA FROM FIRST QUESTIONNAIRE, DART PRINCE, DART PRINCE MOUTH TON. MOUTH TON STUDENTS STUDENTS, QUESTION N N, STUDENTS STUDENTS. QUESTION N N 163 161, 6 What is your understanding. 1 Did you happen to see the of the charges being made. actual game between Dart Dartmouth tried to get 71 47. mouth and Princeton in Kazmaier, Palmer Stadium this year Dartmouth intentionally 52 44. Yes 33 71 dirty, No 67 29 Dartmouth unnecessarily 8 35. 2 Have you seen a movie of the rough, game or seen it on television 7 Do you feel there is any. Yes movie 33 2 truth to these charges, Yes television 0 1 Yes 10 55. No neither 67 97 No 57 4, 3 Asked of those who an Partly 29 35. swered yes to either or Don t know 4 6, both of above questions 8 Why do you think the charges. From your observations of were made, what went on at the game do Injury to Princeton star 70 23. you believe the game was To prevent repetition 2 46. dean and fairly played or No answer 28 31, that it was unnecessarily. rough and dirty This answer was not included on the checklist butwas written. in by the percentage of students indicated, Clean and fair 6 0 Replies do not add to 100 since more than one charge could. Rough and dirty 24 69 be given, Rough and fair 25 2. No answer 45 29, 4 Asked of those who an TABLE 2, swered no on both of the DATA PROM SECOND QUESTIONNAIRE CHECKED WHILE. first questions From what SEEING FILM, you have heard and read. about the game do you feel it TOTAL NUMBER or IN, was clean and fairly played FRACTIONS CHECKED. or that it was unnecessarily AGAINST i, rough and dirty N. Clean and fair 7 0 GROUP, DARTMOUTH PRINCETON, Rough and dirty 18 24 TEAM TEAM. Rough and fair 14 1, Don t know 6 4 MEAN SD MEAN SD. No answer 55 71, Combined answers to ques Dartmouth students 48 4 3 2 7 4 4 2 8. tions 3 and 4 above Princeton students 49 9 8 5 7 4 2 3 5. Clean and fair 13 0, Rough and dirty 42 93 Significant at the 01 level. Rough and fair 39 3, Don t know 6 4, 5 From what you saw in the game was clean and fair and over a third. game or the movies or from introduced their own category of rough and. what you have read which fair to describe the action Although a third. team do you feel started the of the Dartmouth students felt that Dartmouth. rough play was to blame for starting the rough play the. Dartmouth started it 36 86, Princeton started i t 2 0 majority of Dartmouth students thought both. Both started it 53 11 sides were to blame By and large Dartmouth. Neither 6 1 men felt that the charges they understood. No answer 3 2, were being made were not true and most of. 132 ALBERT H HASTORF AND HADLEY CANTRIL, them thought the reason for the charges was experiential event unless and until some. Princeton s concern for its football star significance is given to it an occurrence. When Dartmouth students looked at the becomes an event only when the happening. movie of the game they saw both teams make has significance And a happening generally. about the same number of infractions And has significance only if it reactivates learned. they saw their own team make only half the significances already registered in what. number of infractions the Princeton students we have called a person s assumptive form i. saw them make The ratio of flagrant to world 1, mild infractions was about one to one when Hence the particular occurrences that. Dartmouth students judged the Dartmouth different people experienced in the football. team and about one flagrant to two mild game were a limited series of events from the. when Dartmouth students judged infractions total matrix of events potentially available to. made by the Princeton team them People experienced those occurrences. It should be noted that Dartmouth and that reactivated significances they brought to. Princeton students were thinking of different the occasion they failed to experience those. charges in judging their validity and in assign occurrences which did not reactivate past. ing reasons as to why the charges were made significances We do not need to introduce. It should also be noted that whether or not attention as an intervening third to. students were spectators of the game in the paraphrase James on memory to account for. stadium made little difference in their re the selectivity of the experiential process. sponses In this particular study one of the most, interesting examples of this phenomenon was a. INTERPRETATION THE NATURE OF A telegram sent to an officer of Dartmouth. SOCIAL EvENT4 College by a member of a Dartmouth alumni. It seems clear that the game actually was group in the Midwest He had viewed the. many different games and that each version of film which had been shipped to his alumni. the events that transpired was just as real group from Princeton after its use with. to a particular person as other versions were to Princeton students who saw as we noted. other people A consideration of the experiential an average of over nine infractions by Dart. mouth players during the game The alumnus, phenomena that constitute a football game. for the spectator may help us both to account who couldn t see the infractions he had heard. for the results obtained and illustrate some publicized wired. thing of the nature of any social event Preview of Princeton movies indicates considerable. Like any other complex social occurrence a cutting of important part please wire explanation and. football game consists of a whole host of possibly air mail missing part before showing scheduled. happenings Many different events are oc for January 25 we have splicing equipment. curring simultaneously Furthermore each, happening is a link in a chain of happenings The same sensory impingements ema. so that one follows another in sequence The nating from the football field transmitted. football game as well as other complex through the visual mechanism to the brain. social situations consists of a whole matrix of also obviously gave rise to different experiences. events In the game situation this matrix of in different people The significances assumed. events consists of the actions of all the players by different happenings for different people. together with the behavior of the referees and depend in large part on the purposes people. linesmen the action on the sidelines in the bring to the occasion and the assumptions. grandstands over the loud speaker etc they have of the purposes and probable be. Of crucial importance is the fact that an havior of other people involved This was. occurrence on the football field or in any amusingly pointed out by the New York. other social situation does not become an Herald Tribune s sports columnist Red Smitbr. in describing a prize fight between Chioj, The interpretation of the nature of a social event. sketched here is in part based on discussions with. Vejar and Carmine Fiore in his column of, Adelbert Ames Jr and is being elaborated in more December 21 1951 Among other things he. detail elsewhere wrote, THEY SAW A GAME A CASE STUDY 133. You see Steve Ellis is the proprietor of Chico Vejar. bring to the situation and which enable us, who is a highly desirable tract of Stamford Conn to share with others the significances of various. welterweight Steve is also a radio announcer Ordinarily. happenings These rules make possible a, there is no conflict between Ellis the Brain and Ellis. certain repeatability of events such as first, the Voice because Steve is an uncommonly substantial. lump of meat who can support both halves of a splitdowns touchdowns etc If a person is un. personality and give away weight on each end without. familiar with the rules of the game the be, missing it. This time though the two Ellises met head on havior he sees lacks repeatability and con. with a sickening rending crash Steve the Manager sistent significance and hence doesn t make. sat at ringside in the guise of Steve the Announcersense. broadcasting a dispassionate unbiased objective And only because there is the possibility of. report of Chico s adventures in the ring repetition is there the possibility that a. Clear as mountain water his words came through, winning big for Chico Winning Hell Steve was happening has a significance For example the. slaughtering poor Fiore balls used hi games are designed to give a high. CASE REPORTS THEY SAW A GAME A CASE STUDY Kazmaier was receiving All Ainerican mention and had just appeared as the cover man on Time magazine and was
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