IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

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International Journal of Economics, Commerce and ManagementUnited KingdomVol. III, Issue 11, November 2015http://ijecm.co.uk/ISSN 2348 0386IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCETHE CASE OF SOME SELECTED MICRO FINANCE COMPANIES IN GHANAMasud IbrahimUniversity of Education WinnebaDepartment of Management Studies Education, Kumasi, [email protected] Adu BrobbeyUniversity of Education WinnebaDepartment of Management Studies Education, Kumasi, GhanaAbstractThe study sought to examine the impact of employee motivation on organizational performancein the financial sector in Ghana. Data for the study was obtained from staff of four sampledfinancial institutions in Ghana. A sample size of 80 respondents was used for the study. Thissample was selected through the simple random sampling technique. Findings from the studysuggest that leadership opportunities, recognition and employee appraisal, meeting employeeexpectations and socialization are the key factors that motivate employees. The findings furtherrevealed that managerial standards, motivation, commitment, employee evaluations, positivework environment, technology, lack of incentives, comfort level and poor management arefactors that affect employees’ performance. Further, the study shows the impact of motivationon organizational performance as improving employees’ level of efficiency, helping employeesto meet their personal goals, employee satisfaction, and helping employees bond with theorganization.Keywords: Motivation, Employee Performance, Financial Institutions, Micro Finance, GhanaLicensed under Creative CommonPage 1218

International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United KingdomINTRODUCTIONMicrofinance encompasses the provision of financial services and the management of smallamounts of money through a range of products and a system of intermediary functions that aretargeted at low income clients. It includes loans, savings, insurance, transfer services and otherfinancial products and services (Asiama & Osei, 2007). In other words, microfinance is theprovision of financial services to low-income clients or solidarity lending groups includingconsumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and related servicesMicrofinance is also the supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor.According to Simanowitz and Brody (2004, p.1), micro-credit is a key strategy inreaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and in building global financial systemsthat meet the needs of the most poor people. Littlefield, Murduch and Hashemi (2003) statedthat “micro-credit” is a critical contextual factor with strong impact on the achievements of theMDGs. Micro-credit is unique among development interventions: it can deliver social benefits onan ongoing, permanent basis and on a large scale.Employees are the bedrock of every business. To be successful as a business requiresthe commitment and sacrifice of employees. Employees are particularly important participant inthe formulation of the image that customers get in relation to the service outcome. Because ofthe importance of this interaction with the customer, employees have to communicate effectivelythe quality standards of their organisation to new starters. To successfully market or sell thecompany’s services or products, the company must first and foremost target employees.Employees are therefore the first customers of every organization. Once the company is able toidentify employees’ needs, then they will be motivated to work effectively to achieve the goals ofthe organization.Motivation is one of the most important concepts of psychology and very vital formanagers who direct the growth of their subordinates towards worthwhile goals (Adnan, 2005).Managers according to Kesten (1987) rank motivation of employees as the most seriousproblem that confronts them in the instruction of subordinates. This transfer of control is bestsupported by an organizational environment that is "organized to encourage and support acontinued, increasingly matured and comprehensive acceptance of responsibilities for one'sown performance" (Kesten, 1987). Motives according to Horge (2004) are key to humanbehaviour, they play an important role in employee performance and other activities and assuch managers should know what motivation is and how employees are motivated towardsperformance. In spite of all apparent attendant problems of motivation and productivity,organisations seek means of ensuring continuous productivity, which would be geared towardsthe accomplishment of organisational goals.Licensed under Creative CommonPage 1219

Masud & VeronicaIn most organisations employees do at times go on strike over increment in salaries and otherconditions of service. These actions and other comments made by employees are reportedfrequently in the dailies and are commented upon by watchers of development in variousorganizations and institutions (George, 2005). Money is seen as a great motivator ofemployees. However, there is a general notion that if management can identify other things thatcan motivate the workforce apart from money, perhaps there will be a dramatic reduction in thedemand by workers for pay rise and less time will be spent on the annual ritual ofmanagement/workers union negotiation meetings (Badu, 2010).The general problems mostly inherent in organizations and institutions are low salariesand wages, irregular promotional structures, lack of recognition of workers achievements andother poor conditions of service. Employees are the first customers of an organization andtherefore must be satisfied first before they too can satisfy their customers appropriately. Moststudies on motivation have been done with large or big organizations and paying less attentionto the small ones. As such, this study seeks to bridge this gap by studying motivation on smallorganizations like the micro finance companies. This study therefore sought to find out theimpact of motivation on the performance of employees in some selected micro financecompanies in Ghana.Objectives1. To find out the ways through which employees are motivated in the organisation.2. To assess the motivational needs of bank employees3. To examine the impact of motivation on employees’ performanceREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREDefinition of MotivationSeth (2003) indicated that, motivation is an internal process that makes a person move toward agoal. He added that, motivation, like intelligence, can’t be directly observed. Rockson (2005)also defined motivation as the inner drive that energizes an individual to do something. Headded that, motivation elicits, controls, and sustains a goal-directed behaviour. Bright (2000)defined motivation in the context of a business and indicated that, motivation can be said to beabout “the will to work”. It can come from the enjoyment of the work itself and/or from the desireto achieve certain goals e.g. earn more money or achieve promotion. It can also come from thesense of satisfaction that we gain from completing something, or achieving a successfuloutcome after a difficult project or problem solved. Buchanan (2010) opined that, motivation is adecision-making process, through which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and setsLicensed under Creative CommonPage 1220

International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdomin motion the behaviour appropriate to them. Buchanan (2010) also defined motives as learnedinfluences on human behaviour that lead us to pursue particular goals because they are valued.Motivation can therefore be thought of as the degree to which an individual wants and choosesto engage in certain behaviours.Theories of MotivationMotivation is a complex phenomenon. Several theories attempt to explain how motivationworks. In management circles, probably the most popular explanations of motivation are basedon the needs of the individual (Bright, 2000). The basic needs model, referred to as contenttheory of motivation, highlights the specific factors that motivate an individual. Although thesefactors are found within an individual, things outside the individual can affect him or her as well.In short, all people have needs that they want satisfied (Bright, 2000). Some are primary needs,such as those for food, sleep, and water—needs that deal with the physical aspects ofbehaviour and are considered unlearned. These needs are biological in nature and relativelystable. Their influences on behaviour are usually obvious and hence easy to identify (Bright,2000). Secondary needs, on the other hand, are psychological, which means that they arelearned primarily through experience. These needs vary significantly by culture and by individual(Bright, 2000).Secondary needs consist of internal states, such as the desire for power, achievement,and love. Identifying and interpreting these needs is more difficult because they aredemonstrated in a variety of ways (Bright, 2000). Secondary needs are responsible for most ofthe behaviour that a supervisor is concerned with and for the rewards a person seeks in anorganization (Bright, 2000). Several theorists, including Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg,David McClelland, and Clayton Alderfer, have provided theories to help explain needs as asource of motivation.Types of MotivationBooth (2004) indicated that, motivation is the force that compels us to action. It drives us to workhard and pushes us to succeed. Booth (2004) added that, motivation influences our behaviourand our ability to accomplish goals. Curvin (2004) opined that, motivation is directly proportionalto productivity. He added that, unless employees are highly disciplined they won’t be productiveif they were not motivated. Curvin (2004) continued that, there are many different forms ofmotivation and each one influences behaviour in its own unique way. He explained further that,no single type of motivation works for everyone and that, people’s personalities vary and soLicensed under Creative CommonPage 1221

Masud & Veronicaaccordingly does the type of motivation, that is most effective at inspiring their conduct. Thefollowing are some of the types of motivation:AchievementThis is the motivation of a person to attain goals (Bouma, 2003). The longing for achievement isinherent in every man, but not all persons look to achievement as their motivation. They aremotivated by a goal. In order to attain that goal, they are willing to go as far as possible (Bouma,2003). The complexity of the goal is determined by a person's perception. To us, the terms"simple" and "complex" are purely relative. What one person thinks is an easy goal toaccomplish may seem to be impossible to another person. However, if your motivation isachievement, you will find that your goals will grow increasingly complex as time goes by(Bouma, 2003).SocializationCarr (2005) indicated that, some people consider socialization to be their main motivation foractions. This is especially evident in the situation of peer pressure. Some people are willing todo anything to be treated as an equal within a group structure. The idea of being acceptedamong a group of people is their motivation for doing certain things (Carr, 2005).Incentive MotivationThis motivation involves rewards (Carsely, 2000). People who believe that they will receiverewards for doing something are motivated to do everything they can to reach a certain goal(Carsely, 2000). While achievement motivation is focused on the goal itself, incentive motivationis driven by the fact that the goal will give people benefits. Incentive motivation is used incompanies through bonuses and other types of compensation for additional work (Carsely,2000).Leadership OpportunitiesRiel (2010) indicated that, if organizations cannot offer raises to top-performing employees, theycan still give them compensation in the form of leadership opportunities. He added that,promoting best employees to positions of higher authority can inspire them to continue theirexcellent work. Riel (2010) stated again that, this could help retain great employees bypresenting them with new challenges. Those who get bored in their current positions might soonlook elsewhere for more dynamic work opportunities (Riel, 2010).Licensed under Creative CommonPage 1222

International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United KingdomRecognitionBabbie (2004) highlighted that, recognition of a job well-done is a great way to inspireemployees. Recognition costs managers nothing and, to employees that feel under-appreciated,can mean everything. Babbie (2004) added that, praise doesn't need to be lavish or excessive,but one should keep track of employee achievement and publicly recognize it.Properly assigned tasksBabbie (2004) commented that, if the human resources department did a poor job in assigningthe right person to the right place then employees may lose motivation. He added that, after allsomeone who is over qualified for a job or who feels that he deserves better than his currentposition will not be motivated to work.Employee AppraisalsSmith (2010) on his part indicated that, employee appraisal is very important, it anchors thereward the employee gets to his good performance and so it motivates him or her to do his orher best. Smith (2010) added that, appraisal should be done according to the employee's needsand not according to the company policy.Meeting Employees ExpectationsBaker (2005) stated that, if the employee did something good and expected something in returnand then got less than what he expected he may lose motivation. Baker (2005) added that,organizations should make sure to assess the expectations of their employees in order to satisfythem.Ivy (2001) on her part summarized that, appreciation or recognition for a job well done,being in the know about company matters, an understanding attitude from the management, jobsecurity, good wages, interesting work, career advancement opportunities, loyalty frommanagement, good working conditions and tactful discipline were factors that motivatedemployees in organizations.Factors that affect Employees’ Performance in OrganizationsArnold (2005) indicated that, an effective employee is a combination of a good skill set and aproductive work environment. To him, many factors affect employee performance thatmanagers need to be aware of and should work to improve at all times. To get the maximumperformance from employees, Arnold (2005) opined that, one needs to provide them with thetools they need to succeed. Anderson (2004) added that, employees don't perform in a vacuum.Licensed under Creative CommonPage 1223

Masud & VeronicaTo Anderson (2004), there are a variety of factors, personal, company-based and external thataffects employees’ performance. Identifying these factors can help improve recruitment,retention and organizational results. Clark (2010) stated that, companies rely on employees toproduce and deliver high-quality products and services. Clark (2010) also added that,employees are impacted by a variety of forces both internal and external as they attempt toperform their job duties. Employers who are aware of these forces, and who are prepared toleverage or counteract them, can increase productivity and loyalty. Carrol (2001) indicated that,it is logical to assume that well-compensated employees would naturally be the most productive.However, numerous studies have proven that while money is a motivating factor, it is not theonly factor that impacts employee productivity in a negative or positive way. Among some of thefactors that affect employees’ performance in organisations are:Managerial StandardsAccording to Krissoff (2004), managerial standards can be a factor in motivating or demotivating employees. Krissoff (2004) added that, managerial standards should be in line withthe job duties outlined in the job description outlined by human resources and that, managersshould keep their expectations in line with the duties assigned to the employee. Krissoff (2004)stated additionally that, by expecting more from an employee than they were hired for, or thantheir background has prepared them for, can diminish employee performance.MotivationMiller (2007) opined that, to get the best performance from employees, there needs to be somesort of motivation beyond the weekly paycheck. Miller (2007) added that, motivation can comein the form of financial incentives, the opportunity to get involved in company projects, a careerpath that leads to management and direct involvement from management into the daily tasks.Effective motivation according to Miller (2007) can create a productive work force, but a lack ofmotivating factors can leave employees searching for reasons to give their maximum effort.CommitmentPannell (2005) highlighted that, employees that feel as though the company has made acommitment to employee success tend to perform better. Pannell (2005) added that,commitment means offering a competitive rate of pay and benefits package, offering assistancein paying for employee's higher education costs, developing a regular training schedule thatkeeps employees updated on company changes and given pertinent information for employeesto do their jobs and upgrading equipment to make sure that employees have the most efficientLicensed under Creative CommonPage 1224

International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdomtechnology available to do their work. Pannell (2005) concluded that, commitment shown by thecompany is returned in the form of commitment from employees.Employee EvaluationsStevens (2009) indicated that, an effective employee evaluation is an interactive process wherethe manager gives his input on the employee's performance, and the employee gets the chanceto point out what she has learned throughout the year. Stevens (2009) furthered that, managerscreate a plan along with the employee for the coming year on how the employee can developand improve their performance. Stevens (2009) concluded that, comprehensive employeeevaluations are important to the ongoing performance of employees.Positive EnvironmentRichards (2003) indicated that, a critical internal force that influences employee behavior is theactions of colleagues. According to Richards (2003) creating an atmosphere of sharing andhelping was at the top of the list during a roundtable brainstorming session at the Metro AtlantaChamber of Commerce when clients were asked to identify the primary forces that improveeffective customer service. Richards (2003) furthered that, companies that can effectively buildan internal culture that is based on mutual respect, teamwork and support will notice increasedproductivity and a sharper focus on service to customers.TechnologyLeigh (2004) highlighted that, technology is a significant factor that can have both positive anddisruptive influences on employee behavior. While technology can often help streamlineprocesses and make work easier for employees, learning how to use new technology whileremaining productive can be stressful (Leigh, 2004). Factor in the rapid advent of technology, ingeneral, and employers seem to be faced with an almost ongoing need for new training,process improvement and documentation (Leigh, 2004).Locus of ControlMazin (2007) indicated that, employees are influenced by both internal and external forces, butthe impact of these forces depends a great deal on their own levels of internal and externallocus of control. According to Mazin (2007), those who have an external locus of control arelooking for people to tell them what to do. These are the employees who need a great deal ofdirection and expect managers to give clear and detailed feedback at all times. Those with aninternal locus of control to Mazin (2007) feel empowered to make decisions and act on theirLicensed under Creative CommonPage 1225

Masud & Veronicaown; they feel in

revealed that managerial standards, motivation, commitment, employee evaluations, positive work environment, technology, lack of incentives, comfort level and poor management are factors that affect employees’ performance. Further, the study shows the impact of motivation on organi

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