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MCQs inOral Pathology(With Explanatory Answers)Sundeep S BhagwathMDS (Oral Pathology)Professor (Oral Pathology) and HeadDepartment of Basic SciencesCollege of DentistryUniversity of Ha’ilKingdom of Saudi ArabiaForewordDr (Col) NK AhujaThe Health Sciences PublisherNew Delhi London Philadelphia Panama

JaypeeBrothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.HeadquartersJaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.4838/24, Ansari Road, DaryaganjNew Delhi 110 002, IndiaPhone: 91-11-43574357Fax: 91-11-43574314E-mail: [email protected] OfficesJ.P. Medical Ltd.83, Victoria Street, LondonSW1H 0HW (UK)Phone: 44-20 3170 8910Fax: 44(0) 20 3008 6180E-mail: [email protected] Medical Publishers Inc.City of Knowledge, Bld. 237, ClaytonPanama City, PanamaPhone: 1 507-301-0496Fax: 1 507-301-0499E-mail: [email protected] Medical Inc.325, Chestnut StreetSuite 412Philadelphia, PA 19106, USAPhone: 1 267-519-9789E-mail: [email protected] Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.17/1-B, Babar Road, Block-B, ShaymaliMohammadpur, Dhaka-1207BangladeshMobile: 08801912003485E-mail: [email protected] Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.Bhotahity, Kathmandu, NepalPhone: 977-9741283608E-mail: [email protected]: www.jaypeebrothers.comWebsite: 2016, Jaypee Brothers Medical PublishersThe views and opinions expressed in this book are solely those of the original contributor(s)/author(s)and do not necessarily represent those of editor(s) of the book.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any formor by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo copying, recording or otherwise, without the priorpermission in writing of the publishers.All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarksor registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any productor vendor mentioned in this book.Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate,authoritative information about the subject matter in question. However, readers are advised tocheck the most current information available on procedures included and check information from themanufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, formula, methodand duration of administration, adverse effects and contra indications. It is the responsibility of thepractitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions. Neither the publisher nor the author(s)/editor(s)assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to useof material in this book.This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professionalmedical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medicalprofessional should be sought.Every effort has been made where necessary to contact holders of copyright to obtain permission toreproduce copyright material. If any has been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleasedto make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.Inquiries for bulk sales may be solicited at: [email protected] in Oral Pathology (With Explanatory Answers)First Edition: 2016ISBN: 978-93-85891-50-2Printed at

For Downloading Dental Books!Join us on telegram tryLibraryDedicated toMy wife, Vani, for being such a wonderfulsource of strength and my two lovelydaughters, Damini and Dhhriti, for theiroverwhelming love and affections

ForewordMultiple choice questions (MCQs) tests are the preferred formatfor accurate and comprehensive assessment of students’ ability tothink objectively and critically. Apart from postgraduate entranceexaminations, they have also become an integral part of undergraduateexaminations with most universities amalgamating them alongwith other longer forms of assessment. Hence, it is imperative thatundergraduate students acquire the skills to solve the MCQs, whichwill be beneficial to them not only for success in undergraduateexaminations but also for the postgraduate entrance exami nations lateron. It gives me great pleasure to state that Dr Sundeep S Bhagwath hastaken great interest and pains to bring out this resource for the benefitof students. I have no hesitation in recommending this book for thestudents as it covers all the topics in the subject of oral pathology andalso has explanatory answers to aid the students in better understandingof the topics. I hope that students find this resource beneficial and wishthe author all the success in this and all other such endeavors.Dr (Col) NK AhujaProfessor EmeritusSwami Vivekanand Subharti University, MeerutDirector GeneralKalka Group of InstitutionsMeerut, Uttar Pradesh, India

PrefaceI felt that there is a need for a book on multiple choice questions (MCQs)for the undergraduate dental students. MCQs have become the formatof choice for most of the competitive entrance examinations worldwide.MCQs are also an integral part of undergraduate examinations inmedical subjects. The reason they are favored is, due to the fact that,they are easy to evaluate and accurately assess the objective thinkingof the candidates. This book is designed to cater to the needs ofundergraduate dental students undergoing a study in the subjectof oral and maxillofacial patho logy. It includes all the pertinent areascovered under this subject and attempts to inculcate in the studentsan endeavor to explore the horizons of this subject. The questions havebeen framed keeping in mind particularly the undergraduate dentalstudents as not many such resources are available to them. I hope thatthe students make full use of this resource. In case of any factual errors,the mistake is entirely from my side and I shall be more than glad toentertain queries and criticisms at [email protected] S Bhagwath

AcknowledgmentsNo endeavor can be successful without active cooperation, support andencouragement from colleagues, friends, family and the benevolenceof the Almighty. This book would not have seen the light of the daywithout constant encouragement and moral support of my wife, Vani,who has always been there whenever I needed her and my two angels,Damini and Dhhriti, who sorely missed their father’s presence duringthe preparation of this manuscript.To my guide and mentor, Dr GS Kumar, I owe my professionalstanding. To him, I render my special thanks.I am deeply indebted to my parents for inculcating sound valuesand for being such pillars of strength.My sincere thanks to M/s Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P)Ltd, New Delhi, India, for giving me this opportunity and publishingthe book.

Contents1. Developmental Anomalies ofOrofacial Structures Including Teeth12. Dental Caries93. Diseases of Pulp and Periapical Tissues174. Diseases of Periodontium255. Infections: Bacterial, Viral and Mycotic336. Spread of Oral Infections407. Benign and Malignant NonodontogenicTumors of Oral Cavity488. Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors669. Diseases of Salivary Glands8510. Diseases of Osseous Structures9411. Diseases of Skin10212. Hematological Diseases11013. Diseases of Nerves and Muscles11814. Disorders of Metabolism12515. Healing of Oral Wounds13316. Physical and Chemical Injuries of Teeth14117. Regressive Changes of Oral Cavity150

1DevelopmentalAnomalies of OrofacialStructures Including Teeth1. Which amongst the following is not a cause of acquiredmicrognathia?(a) Infection of mastoid(b) Trauma to TMJ(c) Infection of the middle ear(d) Infection of inner ear2. Which amongst the following is not a clinical feature ofmicrognathia?(a) Steep mandibular angle(b) Severe retrusion of chin(c) Prominent chin button(d) Deficient chin button3. Indicate the incorrect statement regarding macrognathia(a) It is commonly associated with Paget’s disease(b) Patients tend to have a short ramus(c) Excessive condylar growth predisposes to macrognathia(d) Patients have a prominent chin button4. Facial hemiatrophy is not associated with which of the followingconditions?(a) Bell’s palsy(b) Trigeminal neuralgia(c) Jacksonian epilepsy(d) Delayed eruption of teeth5. Cleft of the primary palate occurs(a) Anterior to incisive foramen(b) Posterior to incisive foramen(c) Between lateral incisor and canine(d) Between canine and 1st premolar

2 MCQs in Oral Pathology6. Minimal form of clefting of palate is seen in(a) Soft palate(b) Uvula(c) Hard palate and soft palate(d) Posterior to incisive foramen7. Increased risk of development of squamous cell carcinomais associated with which of the following developmentalconditions?(a) Cheilitis granulomatosa(b) Heck’s disease(c) Cheilitis glandularis(d) Fibromatosis gingivae8. If a patient has multiple intestinal polyps, cutaneous melanocyticmacules, rectal prolapse and gynecomastia, he/she is probablysuffering from(a) Gardner syndrome(b) Goltz-Gorlin syndrome(c) Peutz-Jeghers syndrome(d) Grinspan syndrome9. Fordyce’s granules is heterotopic collection of in oralcavity(a) Sweat glands(b) Salivary glands(c) Hair follicles(d) Sebaceous glands10. Heck’s disease is caused by virus(a) Herpes simplex(b) Human papilloma(c) Varicella zoster(d) Epstein-Barr11. A well-circumscribed, soft, sessile, bilateral, nodular mass whichis located lingual to mandibular canines between mucogingivaljunction and free gingiva could most likely be(a) Peripheral giant cell granuloma(b) Pyogenic granuloma(c) Retrocuspid papilla(d) Peripheral ossifying fibroma

Developmental Anomalies of Orofacial Structures Including Teeth 312. Which amongst the following is not a cause of macroglossia?(a) Hemangioma(b) Lymphangioma(c) Down’s syndrome(d) Leukemia13. Which one of the following is a synonym of fissured tongue?(a) Lingua nigra(b) Scrotal tongue(c) Geographic tongue(d) Lingual varix14. Median rhomboid glossitis occurs(a) Anterior to circumvallate papillae(b) Posterior to circumvallate papillae(c) Tip of tongue(d) Lateral border of tongue15. Histopathological features of benign migratory glossitis closelyresemble that of(a) Lichen planus(b) Psoriasis(c) Systemic lupus erythematosus(d) Erythema multiforme16. Amongst the following causes, the least probable cause of hairytongue is(a) Smoking(b) Poor oral hygiene(c) Epstein-Barr virus(d) Radiation therapy17. A nodular mass near base of tongue with presenting complaintsof dyspnea and dysphagia and without a demon strable mainthyroid gland could most probably be(a) Reactive lymphoid aggregate(b) Lymphoid hamartoma(c) Lingual thyroid nodule(d) Lymphoepithelial cyst18. Stafne cyst/Stafne defect is an aberrant collection of glandtissue within a deep depression in the mandible(a) Sweat glands(b) Sebaceous glands(c) Mucous glands(d) Salivary glands

4 MCQs in Oral Pathology19. Apart from maxillary lateral incisor, which other tooth iscommonly affected by microdontia?(a) Mandibular premolars(b) Maxillary canines(c) Mandibular central incisors(d) Third molars20. Fusion of teeth involves a confluence of(a) Enamel only(b) Enamel and dentin(c) Dentin only(d) Cementum only21. In association with which syndrome does talon cusp usuallyoccur?(a) Rubinstein-Taybi(b) Down(c) Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia(d) Gardner22. With which variation in coronal morphology is dens evaginatusassociated?(a) Peg-shaped laterals(b) Shovel-shaped incisors(c) Dilaceration(d) Distomolar23. Dilated odontome is a synonym of(a) Dens invaginatus(b) Talon cusp(c) Dens evaginatus(d) Macrodontia24. The base of invagination of crown/root in dens invaginatescontains(a) Dystrophic dentin(b) Dystrophic enamel(c) Necrotic pulp tissue(d) Dystrophic cementum25. Which bone disorder should be considered for differentialdiagnosis in case of a finding of generalized hypercementosis?(a) Paget’s disease(b) Fibrous dysplasia(c) Osteopetrosis(d) Osteogenesis imperfecta26. If a patient shows signs of kinky hair, osteosclerosis at base ofskull, brittle nails along with hypomaturation—hypoplasticamelogenesis imperfecta, he/she is most probably sufferingfrom

Developmental Anomalies of Orofacial Structures Including Teeth 5(a)(b)(c)(d)Rubinstein-Taybi syndromeKlinefelter syndromeCranioectodermal syndromeTricho-dento-osseous syndrome27. The appearance of normal thickness enamel with extremely thindentin and abnormally large pulp chamber is indicative of(a)(b)(c)(d)Amelogenesis imperfectaDentinogenesis imperfecta Type IDentinogenesis Type IIIDentin dysplasia Type II28. Loss of organization of radicular dentin with subsequentshortening of root length is a feature of(a)(b)(c)(d)Dentin dysplasia Type IDentin dysplasia Type IIDentinogenesis imperfecta Type IIDentinogenesis imperfecta Type III29. Which amongst the following diseases is capable of producingdevelopmental alterations in teeth?(a) Tetanus(c) Diphtheria(b) Chickenpox(d) Syphilis30. Lack of development of six or more teeth is denoted by the term(a) Oligodontia(c) Anodontia(b) Hypodontia(d) Partial anodontiaANSWERS1. (d) Acquired micrognathia is of postnatal origin and resultsusually from disturbance in the area of the temporomandibular joint like infection of mastoid, middle ear orjoint itself.2. (c) Micrognathia is characterized by severe retrusion of chin,steep mandibular angle and a deficient chin button.3. (b) Macrognathia may be associated with other diseases likePaget’s disease, fibrous dysplasia, acromegaly, etc. andshows features like increased ramus height and length of

6 MCQs in Oral Pathology4. (a)5. (a)6. (b)7. (c)8. (c)9. (d)10. (b)11. (c)12. (d)mandibular body, decreased maxillary length, prominentchin button increased gonial angle, etc.Progressive hemifacial atrophy is an uncommon,degenerative condition characterized by atrophic changesaffecting one side of the face. Possible causes include trophicmalfunction of the cervical lymphatic nervous system,trauma and viral or Borrelia infection.A complete cleft palate includes cleft of hard palate, softpalate and uvula. Cleft anterior to the incisive foramen iscalled cleft of primary palate, while cleft posterior to incisiveforamen is defined as cleft of secondary palate.Clefting occurs in a wide range of severity. Clefting of uvulais the minimal form of cleft.It is an unusual clinical presentation of cheilitis that developsin response to various sources of chronic irritation. Thereis progressive enlargement and eversion of lower lip thatsignificantly exposes it to actinic damage which may be apotential predisposing factor to development of squamouscell carcinoma.It is an autosomal dominant, inherited disorder charac terized by multiple intestinal polyps and concomitantmucocutaneous melanocytic macules.Occurrence of sebaceous glands in oral cavity may resultfrom inclusion in oral cavity, of ectoderm having some ofthe potentialities of skin.It is caused by human papillomavirus HPV-13 and probablyHPV-32. It is different from other HPV lesions in that itproduces extreme acanthosis and hyperplasia of stratumspinosum with minimal surface projection or connectivetissue proliferation.Retrocuspid papilla is a developmental lesion micro scopically similar to giant cell fibroma. It occurs on thegingiva lingual to the mandibular cuspid, is frequentlybilateral and typically appears as a small, pink papule thatmeasures less than 5 mm in diameter.It is an uncommon condition characterized by enlarge ment of the tongue. The enlargement may be caused bya wide variety of conditions including both congenitalmalformations and acquired diseases. The most frequentcauses are vascular malformations and muscularhypertrophy.

Developmental Anomalies of Orofacial Structures Including Teeth 713. (b) Scrotal/fissured tongue is a common condition characterizedby presence of numerous grooves on dorsal surface oftongue. Cause is uncertain but may be heredity. Aging andlocal environmental factors may also play some role.14. (a) Clinically median rhomboid glossitis appears as a welldemarcated erythematous zone that affects the midline,posterior dorsal tongue and often is asymptomatic.15. (b) Hyperparakeratosis, spongiosis, acanthosis, elongation ofepithelial rete ridges and collections of neutrophils (Munroabscesses) are also seen in psoriasis.16. (c) Epstein-Barr virus is responsible for causing hairyleukoplakia which occurs on the lateral surfaces of tongueand is associated with HIV or other immuno suppressiveconditions.17. (c) Lingual thyroids may range from small, asymptomaticnodular lesions to large masses that can block the airway.The most common clinical symptoms are dysphagia,dysphonia, and dyspnea. Diagnosis is best established bythyroid scan using technetium 99m.18. (d) Stafne defect presents as an asymptomatic radiolucencybelow the mandibular canal in the posterior mandible,between the molar teeth and the angle of the mandible.19. (d) Isolated microdontia within an otherwise normal dentitionis not uncommon. The maxillary lateral incisor is affectedmost frequently, followed by third molars.20. (b) Fusion is defined as a single-enlarged tooth or joined (i.e.double) tooth in which the tooth count reveals a missingtooth when the anomalous tooth is counted as one.21. (a) A talon cusp (dens evaginatus of anterior tooth) is a welldelineated additional cusp that is located on the surface ofan anterior tooth and extends at least half the distance fromthe cementoenamel junction to the incisal edge.22. (b) Dens evaginatus is a cusp-like elevation of enamel locatedin the central groove or lingual ridge of the buccal cuspof permanent premolar or molar teeth. Frequently, densevaginatus is seen in association with another variation ofcoronal anatomy, shovel-shaped incisors. Affected incisorsdemonstrate prominent lateral margins, creating a hollowedlingual surface that resembles the scoop of a shovel.

8 MCQs in Oral Pathology23. (a) Dens invaginatus is a deep surface invagination of the crownor root that is lined by enamel. Two forms—coronal andradicular are recognized.24. (b) Coronal dens invaginatus has been classified into threemajor types. Type I exhibits an invagination that is limitedto the crown. The invagination in Type II extends below thecementoenamel junction and ends in a blind sac that mayor may not communicate with adjacent dental pulp. Largeinvaginations may become dilated and contain dystrophicenamel in the base of the dilatation. Type III extends throughthe root and perforates in the apical or lateral radicular areawithout any immediate communication with the pulp.25. (a) Paget’s disease of bone is characterized by abnormaland anarchic resorption and deposition of bone andon radiographic examination, the teeth very commonlydemonstrate extensive hypercementosis.26. (d) It is an autosomal dominant disorder in which hypo maturation as well as hypoplastic patterns of amelo genesisimperfecta are seen.27. (c) Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary develop mentaldisturbance of the dentin in the absence of any systemicdisorder. Type III dentinogenesis imperfecta, also calledBrandywine isolate is characterized by isolated opalescentteeth. The appearance of normal thickness enamel inassociation with extremely thin dentin and dramaticallyenlarged pulps is called shell teeth.28. (a) This autosomal dominant disorder is also called rootlessteeth because of the loss of organization of the root dentinwhich often leads to a shortened root length.29. (d) Congenital syphilis alters the formation of both the anteriorteeth (Hutchinson’s incisors) and the posterior teeth(Mulberry molars).30. (a) It is an autosomal dominant disorder with incompletepenetrance. Congenitally absent teeth are one of the mostcommon dental developmental anomalies with third molarsand maxillary lateral incisors being the most commonlydevelopmentally missing teeth.

2Dental Caries1. All of the below given factors are responsible for causing dentalcaries except(a) Dental plaque(b) Diet(c) Microorganisms(d) Temperature2. According to miller, which of these acids was held responsible forproducing the lesions of dental caries, according to Miller?(a) Lactic acid(b) Ascorbic acid(c) Picric acid(d) Citric acid3. Which of these factors has not been assigned an essential role inMiller’s chemicoparasitic theory of dental caries?(a) Carbohydrates(b) Microorganisms(c) Heredity(d) Acids4. From the properties given below identify which one does rendercarbohydrates cariogenic?(a) Rapid clearance from oral cavity(b) Stickiness of carbohydrates(c) Frequent ingestion of carbohydrates(d) Simple carbohydrates5. Identify which amongst the below given bacteria does not causedental caries.(a) S. mutans(b) L. acidophilus(c) A. naeslundii(d) S. aureus6. Dental plaque contains all of the following, except(a) Microorganisms(b) Mucin

10 MCQs in Oral Pathology(c) Exudate(d) Desquamated epithelial cells7. Which inorganic constituent is present in highest concentrationin dental plaque?(a) Phosphorus(b) Calcium(c) Iron(d) Fluorine8. Which product of the streptococci is responsible for adherenceof the dental plaque to the smooth surfaces of teeth?(a) Glucan(b) Glycoprotein(c) Glycosaminoglycan(d) Proteoglycan9. Which is the principal buffering ion present in saliva?(a) Bismuth(b) Bicarbonate(c) Phosphorus(d) Fluoride10. Which amongst the following factors does not contribute towardsgreater caries resistance of the surface enamel of a tooth?(a) Fluoride content(b) Slower dissolution in acids(c) Lesser water content(d) Lesser mineral content11. The tooth that is most susceptible to dental caries is(a) Mandibular 1st molars (b) Mandibular 2nd molars(c) Maxillary canines(d) Maxillary 2nd premolars12. State which amongst the below given factors is not an antibatcerialfactor present in saliva.(a) Lysozyme(b) Lysosome(c) Lactoferrin(d) SIGA13. The factor that is least associated with increased incidence ofdental caries is(a) Carbohydrate rich diet (b) Malposed tooth(c) Smoking(d) Quantity of saliva14. Undermining of enamel occurs due to(a) Lateral spread of caries midway between enamel and dentin(b) Lateral spread of caries at the dentinoenamel junction(c) Lateral spread of caries midway between dentin and pulp(d) Spread of caries along dentinal tubules

Dental Caries1115. The least likely location for occurrence of smooth surface cariesis:(a) Labial surface of maxillary incisors(b) Proximal surfaces of all teeth(c) Gingival 1/3rd of buccal surfaces of teeth(d) Gingival 1/3rd of lingual surfaces of teeth16. Which theory of dental caries proposes that organic elements inteeth are the initial pathway of invasion of microorganisms?(a) Sucrose chelation(b) Proteolytic(c) Autoimmune(d) Chemicoparasitic17. A caries increment of or more new carious lesions over oneyear is considered characteristic of rampant caries(a) 8(b) 5(c) 10(d) 1518. Acute dental caries occurs most frequently in children and youngadults because(a) Dentinal tubules are scleroses in the teeth of young people(b) The apex of root of teeth are not formed completely(c) Dentinal tubules are narrower in diameter(d) Dentinal tubules are larger, open and show no sclerosis19. Nursing bottle caries is a type of caries(a) Acute(b) Recurrent(c) Rampant(d) Arrested20. Absence of caries in teeth helps to distinguish nursingbottle caries from rampant caries(a) Maxillary canines(b) Mandibular incisors(c) Maxillary incisors(d) Mandibular canines21. Which type of caries is most likely to show considerable surfacedestruction, shallow cavity, little undermining of enamel andlittle or no pain?(a) Chronic(b) Acute(c) Rampant(d) Recurrent

12 MCQs in Oral Pathology22. The first change to occur in caries of enamel is(a) Loss of rod enamel(b) Loss of inter rod enamel(c) Loss of rod sheath(d) Increased prominence of enamel rods23. Which surface of a tooth has maximum susceptibility foroccurrence of dental caries?(a) Occlusal(b) Lingual(c) Mesial(d) Distal24. In enamel caries, the advancing front of the lesion is called(a) Body of lesion(b) Dark zone(c) Surface zone(d) Translucent zone25. Of all the zones in enamel caries which zone is not alwayspresent?(a) Translucent(b) Dark(c) Body(d) Surface26. What is the earliest histological evidence of dentinal caries?(a) Transparent dentin(b) Fatty degeneration of odontoblastic processes(c) Lateral spread of caries along dentino-enamel junction(d) Miller’s liquefaction foci27. The most accepted theory on mechanism of action of ingestedfluoride is(a) Absorption of fluoride ions on hydroxyapatite crystallites(b) Prevention of carbohydrate degradation(c) Inhibition of microorganisms(d) Incorporation of fluoride in crystal structure of enamel28. What is the percentage of fluoride in acidulated phosphatefluoride (APF) gels?(a) 2.34 percent(b) 1.23 percent(c) 3.45 percent(d) 1.24 percent29. The most commonly employed fluoride in dentifrices is(a) Sodium monofluorophosphate(b) Stannous fluoride

Dental Caries13(c) Acidulated phosphate fluoride(d) Sodium fluoride30. The mechanism of cariostatic action of chlorhexidine is(a) Absorption into enamel crystals(b) Absorption into enamel crystals and salivary mucins(c) Inhibition of microorganisms(d) Inhibition of carbohydrate degradationANSWERS1. (d) Initiation and progression of dental caries is dependentupon following factors: substrate (carbohydrate), bacteria,acid and dental plaque.2. (a) WD Miller, in his experiment, incubated a mixture ofmeat, bread and sugar with saliva at body temperature. Itproduced enough lactic acid within 48 hours to decalcifysound dentin.3. (c) Miller assigned essential roles to carbohydrate substrate,acids and microorganisms in causing dental caries. Factorslike heredity did not find mention in his theory. In fact one ofthe objections to Miller’s hypothesis is the inability to explainsite and racial predilection.4. (a) Carbohydrates that are cleared rapidly from oral cavityare considered less cariogenic as they remain for a lesserduration inside the oral cavity to be fermented by cario genicbacteria.5. (d) While other three bacteria have been implicated in causationof dental caries, evidence for involvement of S. aureus incausing dental caries is lacking.6. (c) Dental plaque is a soft, nonmineralized biofilm composedof bacteria, salivary proteins, lipids, carbohydrates andinorganic ions mainly, calcium and phosphate.7. (b) Dry weight of plaque is composed ofBacterial and salivary proteins—50 percentCarbohydrates and lipids—25 percentInorganic ions, mainly Ca and PO4– —10 percent8. (a) Highly acidogenic strains of streptococci like S. mutanshave the ability to metabolize dietary sucrose and

14 MCQs in Oral Pathology9. (b)10. (d)11. (a)12. (b)13. (c)14. (b)15. (a)16. (b)17. (c)18. (d)synthesize glucan by cell surface and extracellular enzymeglucosyltransferase.Although bicarbonate is the principal buffering ion presentin saliva, another ion, phosphate is also associated withthis function. They aid in maintaining a high pH of saliva,because at pH below 5.5, enamel begins to dissolve.Surface enamel is more heavily mineralized comparedto subsurface enamel. Because of the increased mineralcontent, surface enamel is able to resist demineralizationbetter.Permanent mandibular first molars are the most susceptibleteeth to dental caries for primarily for two reasons—they arethe first permanent teeth to erupt and their occlusal surfaceshave more and deeper pits and fissures.Saliva contains many antibacterial substances likelactoferrin, lysozymes, carbonic anhydrase, bistatin, sIgA,etc.Carbohydrate rich diet, malposed teeth and insufficient orno saliva are amongst the principal contributory factors ofdental caries, while smoking has a much lesser role to playin causing caries.When the caries process reaches dentinoenamel junctionthere is rapid lateral spread of dental caries which causes theundermining of enamel due to the presence of unsupportedenamel rods above the DEJ.The labial surfaces of maxillary incisors being self-cleansingareas, they are the least likely location for occurrence ofdental caries.Gottlieb, Diamond and Appelbaum postulated that theorganic elements like enamel lamellae, rod sheath, etc. arethe initial pathway of invasion by cariogenic organisms.Rampant dental caries is characterized by sudden, rapiddestruction of teeth affecting even relatively caries-freesurfaces like proximal and cervical surfaces of mandibularteeth.Dentin of children and young adults is characterized bylarger, more open dentinal tubules with no sclerosis. Alsothere is very little secondary dentin formation due to therapid spread of acute caries.

Dental Caries1519. (c) Nursing bottle caries is a form of rampant caries clinicallyseen as widespread caries of the 4 maxillary incisorsfollowed by 1st molars and then canines. Usually it iscaused by use of sweetened pacifiers and nursing bottlecontaining sweetened milk or milk formula and also dueto continuation of breastfeeding beyond one year of age.20. (b) Nursing bottle caries is usually caused by pooling of milk orother carbohydrates in mouth. Mandibular incisors escapethis process as the pooled milk/carbohydrate is cleared awayby saliva.21. (a) In comparison with acute caries there is lesser surfacedestruction with a shallower cavity and little or noundermining of enamel in chronic caries. Also due to slowprogress of caries, there is sufficient time for formation oftertiary dentin which provides some protection of pulp,thereby leading to lesser or no pain.22. (b) When enamel begins to demineralize the earliest electronmicroscopic changes are loss of inter rod enamel andaccentuation of striae of Retzius.23. (a) Occlusal surface is the most susceptible surface foroccurr

Pathology (With Explanatory Answers) 0 Sundeep S liliug ath ft Dr (t'di NR Ahuja r. M. 'p. Sundeep S Bhagwath MDS (Oral Pathology) Professor (Oral Pathology) and Head Department of Basic Sciences College of Dentistry University of Ha’il K

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Subspecialty: Hepatobiliary Pathology, Gastrointestinal Pathology Assistant Professor of Pathology Dr. Kiyoko Oshima is the Director of Clinical Hepatic Pathology and Assistant Professor in the Department of Pathology at the Johns Hopkins Hospital University School of Medicine. She joined the Hopkins faculty in 2017.

Chicago Pathology Society CLINICAL INTERESTS: Neuropathology, Cytopathology, Autopsy, Surgical Pathology Saman SeyedAhmadian, MD is an Assistant Professor - Clinical for Ohio State’s Department of Pathology. Insert photo here THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY

learning strategies, but creating MCQs requires both in-depth content knowledge and sophisticated analytical thinking. Therefore, we piloted an MCQ-writing task in which students developed MCQs for their peers to answer. Methods: Students in a fourth-year anatomic pathology course (N 106) were required to write MCQs using the PeerWise platform.

BREAST PATHOLOGY MCQS 1) :The most important factor in breast enlargement during pregnancy is A. stromal edema B. secretion of chorionic gonadotropin C. glandular hyperplasia D. proliferation of stroma E. increased secretion of oxytocin

PATHOLOGY MCQs The Pancreas A patient with cystic fibrosis is characteristically: A. more than 45 years of age B. subject to recurring pulmonary infections C. obese D. subject to spontaneous fractures E. diabetic Which of the followin

oral and maxillofacial pathology. It also seeks to familiarize you with the technical nomenclature used in pathology, which is essential to understanding dental procedures. It also stresses the cause and effect of oral infection. Subcourse Components: This subcour

Anatomic Pathology (AP) and Clinical Pathology (CP, Laboratory Medicine) in order to prepare each of our residents for certification by the American Board of Pathology. A core program provides training that will lead to basic competence in general pathology. Elective opportunities are offered to permit the

PATHOLOGY Pathology Residency Program 1959 NE Pacific Street, NE140J Box 356100 Seattle, WA 98195-6100 206-598-4933 FAX 206-598-7321 [email protected] . Pathology Residency Program Welcome The strength of our program lies in the exceptional core training provided by a broad range of cases and

Gynecologic pathology 5% *3 most common non-surgical pathology fellowships completed by trainees. (Gratzinger et al. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2018 Apr;142(4):490-495.) Zynger DL, Pernick N. Understanding the Pathology Job Market: An Analysis of 2330 Pathology Job Advertisements From 2013 Through 2017. Ar

Surgical Pathology 183 2008 Surveys & Anatomic Pathology Education Program PIP Challenges per Shipment Surgical pathology case review for one pathologist 10 Product Information The Performance Improvement Program in Surgical Pathology (PIP) is designed by pathologists for the

Applied Research in Field Crop Pathology for Indiana - 2020 Author: Darcy Telenko, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology . BP-216-WApplied Research on Field Crop Pathology for Indiana -2020 ii ACKNOWLEGEMENTS This report is a summary of applied field crop pathology research tria

Pathology, Chicago Pathology Society Meeting, January 2018. Mir F, Ghai R. Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma. Illinois Registry of Anatomic Pathology, Chicago Pathology Society Meeting, January 2018. Rupcich C, Park JW. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a lymphoepithelial cyst. Illinois Registry

REGISTER OF LEGISLATION ISO 14001 Doc. Ref. Version Date Template Author Page ROL-SAMPLE-14001 1.0 24/08/2004 Mark Helm 2 of 10 Sovereign Certification Limited