Arctic Animals K-3 - Rackspace Technology

5m ago
43 Views
0 Downloads
1.48 MB
24 Pages
Last View : 7d ago
Last Download : n/a
Upload by : Isobel Thacker
Share:
Transcription

Arctic AnimalsK–3 Teacher’s GuideA SEAWORLD EDUCATION DEPARTMENT PUBLICATIONCONTENTSGoals and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2The Arctic—Sitting at the Top of the World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Life in the Deep Freeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5A Frontier That Could Disappear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Arctic Animals Shuffle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Polar Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Seal Scientist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Polar Explorer Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Fresh Floats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Pop-up Seal Pup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Snow Talking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Ice Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18The Hold of the Cold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19What’s For Dinner? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Web Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Pre/Post Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inside back coverNational Science Education Standards Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inside back coverTo the TeacherThe Arctic Animals Teacher’s Guide for grades K–3 was developed at SeaWorld to helpyou teach your students—in an active, hands-on way—about the natural history of theArctic and how people form an important part of this ecosystem. Our goal is to integratescience, mathematics, art, social studies, and language arts. SeaWorld curriculumsupports the National Science Education Standards.The brief background information in this Guide was written for you, the teacher. It willhelp you do these activities with your students. We suggest you also refer to some of thematerials listed on page 24 for more in-depth information. SeaWorld strives to provideteachers with up-to-date information and activities that motivate students to appreciateand conserve wildlife, the oceans, and the natural world.

SeaWorld Teacher’s GuideGoals of the Arctic Animals UnitStudents will explore the natural history of the Arctic and recognize that humansare an interconnected part of this ecosystem.ObjectivesAfter completing the SeaWorld Arctic Animals unit, the student will be able to 1. Find the Arctic Circle on a map or globe.2. Name two countries and the ocean that lie within the Arctic Circle.3. Describe two physical characteristics of the arcticenvironment.4. Place three arctic animals in their habitat.5. List two ways arctic animals keep warm during the arctic winter.6. Explore the cultural diversity of Native Americans that make the Arctic theirhome.7. Express a concern for how human activities may impact the arcticenvironment and the future survival of animals that live there.8. Share their learning experience with friends and family.VocabularyArctic Circle — the imaginary line thatencircles the globe at 66 33" northlatitude. Arctic lands and oceans lieabove this circle. “Arctic” comes fromthe Greek word arktos, meaning bear.blubber — an insulating layer of fatjust below the skin of most marinemammals.camouflage — coloration that allowsan animal or other organism to blend inwith the surrounding environment.food web — a diagram that shows themany complex interconnections of"who eats whom" in an ecosystem.ecosystem — a unit of plants, animals,and nonliving components of anenvironment that interact.hypothermia — a medical conditionthat results when a person's or an animal's body temperature falls belownormal.ice floe — a flat expanse of floating ice.conservation — taking care of ourenvironment by wisely managing itsresources.lair — the shelter of some animals;used for birth and protection. May alsobe called a den.food chain — a straight-line diagramthat shows “who eats whom” in anecosystem.microscopic — very small; only visibleto humans through a microscope.2 1998 SeaWorld, Inc.

Arctic Animals K–3North Pole — the geographic top of theearth. Longitude lines converge here.predator — an animal that eats anotheranimal.permafrost — permanently frozen soilfound only in very high latitudes.sled — a low-running vehicle drawn bydogs, horses, or reindeer. Humans usesleds for transporting loads acrosssnow and ice.pollution — harmful elements thatalter or affect an environment in anegative way, such as chemicals thatpoison water supplies or trash thatclutters the ocean.tundra — a treeless area between theice cap and tree line of arctic regions,with a permanently frozen subsoil.prey — an animal eaten by anotheranimal.The Arctic Circle rings the globe at 66 33" north latitude. North of this imaginary line lie thefrozen lands of the Arctic.veDNLANFINEDESWAYRON WtitRiRU S S I AlaurCnorthmudrARLCIRC EeACTI66 3 3"ANDICELAr c t i c O c e a nSea ofOkhotskNorth PoleGR E E N L A N DBaffin BayChukchi SeaBeaufortSeaGulf of St.LawrenceiSaRkoniveAL A S K Aayen e rgu ve Rive rYuRBering SearHudson BayCA N A DApermanent iceover waterpermanent iceover land 1998 SeaWorld, Inc.tundraSt. LrencGulf of Alaskaawforests andother lands3

SeaWorld Teacher’s GuideThe Arctic—Sitting at the Top of the WorldThe Arctic is the northernmost part ofthe earth.to graze.It’s cold in the Arctic.The Arctic Circle rings the globe at66 33" north latitude. North of thisimaginary line lie the frozen lands ofthe Arctic. Seven countries share theArctic—Canada, Finland, Greenland,Norway, Sweden, Russia, and theUnited States.Ocean water temperatures often staybelow the freezing point of fresh water(0 C or 32 F). Dissolved salts and constant movement of the water keep itfrom freezing solid.The Arctic is not a continent.The North Pole sits on permanentlyfrozen ocean water, not on land. Overall,more than half of the Arctic is frozen icemoving across the surface of the ArcticOcean. No one can put a marker at theNorth Pole; ice constantly shifts anddrifts in a clockwise direction, so markers soon become inaccurate.Much of the soil in the Arctic remainspermanently frozen, too. Calledpermafrost, the top layer of the frozensoil sometimes thaws during the springand summer. The resulting cold, soggy,soil allows plants to grow and animalsOn land, air temperatures averageonly 10 C (50 F) during the warmestmonths. During the winter, weather canbe severe, with the temperatures fallingto -70 C (-94 F). Strong winds can droptemperatures more. The annual snowfallcompares to the snowfall of Chicago;about 30 to 60 cm (12–24 in.). Trees arerare, and plants grow low to the ground.Because the Arctic is at the “top” of theworld, the sun may never rise above thehorizon on some winter days and maynever set below the horizon on somesummer days. For example, inDecember, some days may be 24 hoursdark, but in June some days may be 24hours light.Portage Glacier inthe Kenai Peninsulaof southern Alaskaslowly moves downthe mountainside,releasing decadesold ice and snowto the sea.4 1998 SeaWorld, Inc.

Arctic Animals K–3Life in the Deep FreezePlants cling to ice and frozen ground.Microscopic plants called diatoms liveunder the ice in the Arctic Ocean. Otheralgae grow on permanent ice. Lichens(algae and fungi growing together)cover barren rocks. Mosses, grasses,flowers, and shrubs carpet the tundra.Most plants on the tundra grow onlyankle high, hugging the ground toavoid the cold blasts of arctic winds.Short summers compress growing seasons that sometimes last less than twomonths. Mosses and lichens grow inspongy cushions, soaking up availablemoisture.Animals cope with cold.Shrimps, fishes, seals, walruses, andwhales thrive in the cold, nutrient-richwaters of the Arctic Ocean. Caribou,moose, and musk oxen roam thetundra. Polar bears prowl the ice. Birdssuch as ptarmigans and snowy owlslive year-round in the cold weather.Many other animals visit arctic lands tofeast on summer plants and insects.The red fox and other land predators usekeen senses of smell and hearing to findlemmings and other prey.Some birds, seals, and whales migratesouth during the coldest arctic months.Others stay year-round, protected bythick layers of blubber or dense coats offur. The arctic fox and grouse changecolors; they are brown in summer,white in winter.For thousands of years, people havemade the Arctic home.Today, they include the NorthAmerican Inuits and Aleuts and theSiberian Yupiks. These people hunt,trap, and fish to survive.Native people often follow animalbehavior for successful hunting andfishing. Like polar bears, hunters waitbeside the breathing holes of seals tocatch prey.Warm-blooded marine animals, like thesewalruses, have a think layer of blubber thathelps retain body heat in cold ocean water.Animal hides and fur protect humanskin from the cold. Meals include highenergy blubber and fatty meat for theextra calories required to survive in thecold. On average, the diet of people incold climates has twice as many caloriesas the diets of people in warm climates. 1998 SeaWorld, Inc.5

SeaWorld Teacher’s GuideA Frontier That Could DisappearThe Arctic plays a critical role inglobal health.The Arctic needs you.Ecologists describe the Arctic as amirror that reflects the health of the restof our planet. The land plays a crucialrole in worldwide weather and climatepatterns. Rich habitats support a widevariety of plants and animals.Until the mid-1800s, the Arcticremained unspoiled, isolated from outside exploration by its extreme weatherconditions. But today’s technologygives people easier access to this fragilehabitat. Natural resources like gas, oil,and coal attract developers.Future success depends on wise useof resources.Development during the last 40 yearshas left paved roads crisscrossing thetundra, oil drill rigs dotting the coastline, and underground mines markingthe frozen earth. Cities and constructionsites have sprouted where people couldnever live or work before. The survivalof both people and animals depends onthe intelligent conservation of land andocean resources today.As one of the last frontiers on earth, theArctic needs protection. You can help.Here’s how. Learn all you can about the Arctic.The more you know, the better youcan help. Support other people who work toprotect the Arctic. These are two organizations to consider supporting: American Zoo and AquariumAssn., 7970–D Old GeorgetownRoad, Bethesda, MD 20814 Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute(H-SWRI), 2595 Ingraham,San Diego, CA 92109 Do what you can to help the Arcticright where you live. Recycle everything you can to helpreduce your energy needs. Conserve your use of fuel in carsand for heating and cooling. Support legislation that helps theenvironment locally and globally. Refuse to buy products that aremade from endangered animals. Properly dispose of trash andhousehold chemicals.Arctic Animal ShuffleUse the cards on pages 7, 8, and 9 to help your students get started exploring arcticanimals. Here are some ideas for ways to use these cards in your classroom: Use the facts on the cards to help you prepare lesson plans and lead discussions in class. Copy and cut apart the cards. Distribute a different card to each cooperative learning group. Visit the school library to learn more about the animals. Groups mayeven adopt that animal as their “mascot” while working on the Arctic Animals unit. Copy and cut apart the cards. Distribute a complete set to each student or group ofstudents. Students compare similarities and differences among various animals.6 1995 SeaWorld, Inc.

tundra regions of the northern hemispheregreen parts of plants, occasionally bulbs, roots,and mossesarctic fox, snowy owl, arcticskua, and stoats.Lemmings form animportant part of thearctic food chain.distribution:diet:predators:North Atlantic Oceansmall fishes; includingsand eels,sprats,capelin,andsmall herringgreat black-backedgulls prey onadults. Herringgulls and lesserblack-backed gulls stealeggs and youngdistribution:prey:predators:circumpolar at high northern hemisphere latitudes during the summer. Flies south to winteralong the shores of Antarctica. Travels as far as36,000 km (22,370 mi.) round trip.small fishes, molluscs, and pelagic crustaceansSnowy owls, arctic skuas, stoats, foxes, andweasels may steal eggsand young.distribution:prey:predators: 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.to 38 cm (15 in.) standing,wingspan to 81 cm (31.9 in.)North Atlantic and Arctic Oceansvarious fish species such as herring, spiny eels,salmon, char, smelt, cods, and flatfish in addition to marine mammals, most commonly sealsnonedistribution:prey:predators: 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.more than 4 m (13.1 ft.)size:Somniosus microcephalusSterna paradisaeasize:greenland shark 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.28 to 30 cm (11–11.8 in.) standing,wingspan 53 to 58 cm (20.9–22.8 in.).size:arctic tern 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.10 to 11 cm (3.9–4.4 in.), 17 to 20 g (0.6–0.7 oz.)Fratercula arcticaDicrostonyx torquatussize:Atlantic puffincollared lemmingArctic Animals K–37

8polar bears and killer whalespredators:mostly planktonic swarms of krill and othersmall crustaceansnone, but hunted by humansprey:predators: 1995 SeaWorld, Inc.depending on location and season, amphipods,shrimps, squids, cods, and sculpinspolar bears and killer whalesprey:predators:primarily bottom-dwelling animals such asflounder, octopuses, crabs, shrimps, clams,snails, and sandwormskiller whales and polar bearsprey:predators: 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.widespread and abundant in arctic waters; theybreed and dig out birthing lairs in land-fast ice.distribution:Arctic Ocean and adjoining seasdistribution: 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.to 1.5 m (4.9 ft.) and to 70 kg (154 lb.)Males somewhat longer than femalessize:Males to 4.6 m (15.1 ft.), 1,500 kg (3,307 lb.)Females to 4 m (13.1 ft.), 1,360 kg (2,998 lb.)Phoca hispidaDelphinapterus leucas 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.size:ringed sealbeluga 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.pelagic crustaceans and fishes such as capelin andherring. During the summer they also feed on arctic cod and polar cod found at high latitudes.prey:circumpolar in the Arctic but usually in theBering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seasdistribution:population centers in the northwest AtlanticOcean around Newfoundlanddistribution:18.5 m (60.7 ft.) and 100 metric tons (220,400 lb.)Females generally larger than malessize:to 1.7 m (5.6 ft.) and 130 kg (287 lb.)Males somewhat larger than femalesPhoca groenlandicaBalaenea mysticetussize:harp sealbowheadSeaWorld Teacher’s Guide

Arctic Ocean south to Virginiamolluscs, crustaceans, bottom plantsfishes, whales, sealsdistribution:prey:predators: 1995 SeaWorld, Inc.Polars bears and killer whalesprey on young and injuredadults.prey:predators:squid, polar cod, bottom-dwelling fish, andcrustaceansoccasionally killer whales; polar bears may feedon carcassesprey:predators: 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.molluscs, mainly bivalves such as clamsdistribution:circumpolar in the Arctic above 65 N latitudedistribution: 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.circumpolar with distinct populations concentratedin the Bering, Chukchi, and Laptev Seas andaround northeastern Canada and Greenlandsize:to 4.5 m (14.8 ft.) and 1,500 kg (3,300 lb.)Males usually larger than femalessize:Males to 3.6 m (11.8 ft.) and 1,700 kg (3,748 lb.)Females to 3.1 m (10.2 ft.) and 1,250 kg (2,756 lb.)Odobenus rosmarusnonepredators:walrusmostly ringed and bearded seals, also harp andhooded seals and the carcasses of beluga whales,walruses, narwhals, andbowhead whalesprey:narwhalcircumpolar Arcticdistribution: 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Males to 3 m (9.8 ft.) and to 650 kg (1,433 lb.)Females to 2.5 m (8.2 ft.) and 250 kg (551 lb.)size:Monodon monoceros 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.to 1.8 m (5.9 ft.) and to 91 kg (201 lb.)Ursus maritimusGadus morhuasize:polar bearAtlantic codArctic Animals K–39

SeaWorld Teacher’s GuidePolar CapsOBJECTIVEMATERIALSStudents will identify the ocean andcountries of the arctic region. atlas, globe, or map showingthe Arctic color pencils or markers glueone set per student: 9" paper plate two 8" yarn strings copy of map on page 11BACKGROUNDThe Arctic lies at the top of the world and includes the North Pole. Scientists use the66 33" north latitude line to define the Arctic Circle. The Arctic region includes sevencountries—Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russia, and the United States.The North Pole sits on permanently frozen ocean water, not on land. In fact, more thanhalf the “land” of the Arctic is frozen ice moving across the surface of the Arctic Ocean.ACTION1. Distribute colored pencils or markersand copies of the map on page 11.2. Using the atlas or map of the Arctic,have students write the names of thecountries within the Arctic Circle.Teachers of younger students maywant to prewrite the names andhave students trace letters.6. Students can now put on their polarcaps. You may want to take yourcaps for a walk. Try this song (to thetune of the “Military March”) andthese hand motions (in italics) as youparade around the room:3. Have students identify and color theArctic Ocean blue. Color each country a different color.4. Students cut out their colored maps.They glue them on the bottom of apaper plate.5. Punch a hole on opposite sides of thepaper plate rim. Have studentsthread yarn through holes and tie.10 1995 SeaWorld, Inc.Look at my polar cap on my head.(POINT TO TOP OF HEAD.)It’s the Arctic, so it’s said.(WAG FINGER.)Land of ice and rain and snow.(SHIVER.)Let’s name the animals that we know.Beluga whales swim in the sea.(SWIM.)Puffins fly on the breeze. (FLY.)Polar bears prowl on the land.(CRAWL.)And walruses wallow in the sand.(WIGGLE ON THE FLOOR.)

urR iverBering SeaSeaofOkhotskAmCkonRiveGulf of AlaskaYu 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.BeaufortSeaN o r t h Po l eAr c t i c O c e a nChukchi SeaARCTI Hudson BayBaffin Bay 1995 Sea World, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Saaye nv e rugiRLCIRC EICELANDr

SeaWorld Teacher’s GuideSeal ScientistOBJECTIVEMATERIALSStudents will review their knowledgeof time and clocks during imaginaryseal watching. Diving Time funsheet on page 13 clock teaching tool with movablearms (available at most educationsupply stores)BACKGROUND 3" x 5" cards with one of thefollowing written on each:9 a.m., 9:10 a.m., 9:25 a.m., and10:44 a.m.Scientists in the Arctic study a seal’sbreathing pattern by waiting on the icebeside a seal’s “breathing hole.” This isthe place where seals come up to thesurface to take a breath of air. Oftenthe hole is no larger than the size of aseal’s neck. pencils enlarged image of the ringed sealanimal card on page 8 or colorphoto of a ringed seal from bookor magazine. National Geographic189 (1), July 1991, p. 30 has one.ACTION1. Copy and distribute the Diving Timefunsheet and pencils to students.2. For reading students: Choose one tofour students to read the story at thetop of the page. As times are read,have students pick out the correcttime on the 3" x 5" card. Discuss anyquestion students might have aboutthe story.the hands on the clock teaching tooland count minutes. Students copyanswers on their worksheets.4. After answering questions, askstudents to make believe they arescientists. What will happen in theafternoon? Students can also draw apicture of themselves and the seal atthe research camp.For non-reading students: Read thestory to them as they follow alongon their paper. As a time is read, askstudents to pick the card with thecorrect time. Or show the time onthe clock teaching tool.3. Ask students to answer questions.Students can write answers on theboard and tell how they found theanswer. Younger students can move12 1998 SeaWorld, Inc.DEEPER DEPTHSWatch a dog or cat or any otheranimal’s movements. Havestudents draw or write what theysee. Can students determine apattern? Share the results withthe class.

Seal ScientistMy Day on the IceIt was May 1 and the weather was mild, a warm 1.6 C (35 F). I picked upmy folding chair and walked a short distance from the research camp ontothe ice. I looked at my watch. It was 9 a.m. I began my study of seals.As I walked toward the hole in the ice, a ringed seal rolled over and slippedinto the water. I set up my chair, sat down, and waited quietly. At 9:10 a.m.the seal peeked through the hole to look at me, but slipped back into thewater. I picked up my chair and moved back. At 9:25 a.m. the seal came outonto the ice. It stayed on the ice until 10:44 a.m. Then it dove and stayedunder water for 10 minutes. The next time I saw the seal, it took a quickbreath and dove again. My watch showed 10:55 a.m. I was getting cold. Iwalked back to the research camp for a hot chocolate.12Questions9 36What time did you start your study? a.m.What time did you end your study? a.m.How long did you stay to study the seal? minutes ( hrs. min.)How long did the seal stay under water the first time? minutesHow long did the seal stay under water the second time? minutesHow long did the seal stay under water the third time? minutesHow long did the seal stay under water during the study time? minutesHow long did the seal stay on top of the ice during the study time? minutes 1998 SeaWorld, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

SeaWorld Teacher’s GuidePolar Explorer RelaysOBJECTIVEMATERIALSStudents will discover some of thenecessary equipment a polar exploreruses on an expedition to the Arctic. four orange safety conestwo of each: winter knit hatBACKGROUND ski gogglesTo survive in the harsh cold of the arcticenvironment, polar explorers needwarm clothes, water, a nutritious diet,and emergency first aid for frostbiteand hypothermia. Being properlyequipped and prepared for all weatherconditions can mean the differencebetween survival or injury and death. snow jacket pair of snow boots scarf water bottle lunch box pair of mittens compass backpack first aid kit (bandages) mapACTION1. Divide students into two teams.2. Set safety cones at least 9 m (30 ft.)apart from each other to designatetwo end lines.3. Have each team stand in a line (single file) behind a safety cone on thesame side.4. Near the opposite pylon, line upgear in the following order: hat, goggles, scarf, jacket, mittens, backpack,water bottle, lunch box, compass,map, first aid kit, boots. Each line ofgear should have one of these items.5. Tell students this game is a relayrace. The object is to put on or carryall the gear past the finish line.146. At GO!, each first student runs to theopposite cone, puts on the hat, runsback, and gives the hat to the nextperson in the team line. The nextteam member puts on the hat, runsto the equipment line at the oppositecone, puts on the goggles, runs backto the team, and gives both the hatand goggles to the next team member. The relay race continues untilthe last player in one of the lines iswearing all the items, and crossesthe finish line to win.7. Work with students to create a list ofother items an arctic explorer wouldneed on a trip to the North Pole. 1998 SeaWorld, Inc.

Arctic Animals K–3Fresh FloatsMATERIALSOBJECTIVEone set per student group:Students will investigate the densitiesof fresh water and salt water and willobserve how fresh water floats on topof salt water. one 2-liter plastic soda bottle, cutin half, or a clear plastic tub one 2-oz. food jar (like those forpimentos or baby food) salt water blue food coloring 4" x 6" sheet of plastic wrapBACKGROUNDThe movement of water in the ocean is not only driven by winds and the turn of theearth, but also by masses of cold, salty water formed at the poles that sink to the oceanfloor. As sea water freezes in the Arctic, the salt is “squeezed out.” The newly frozen icefloe is mostly fresh water that floats. The ocean water beneath the ice floe has becomeslightly saltier and more dense. This heavier water sinks to the ocean floor and flows tothe equator. As this water slowly sinks, other surface water replaces it. The cyclerepeats itself as more surface water freezes. Fresh water returns to the ocean as ice floesmelt or rain falls.ACTION1. Fill the bottom half of the plasticsoda bottle with water. Fill the 2-oz.food jar with water.slowly lift the plastic wrap off. Thefresh blue water should rise to floaton top of the salty water.2. Add about 2 tablespoons of salt tothe water in the plastic soda bottle.3. Add 4 drops of blue food coloring tothe water in the 2-oz. food jar.4. Carefully place plastic wrap over topof food jar.5. Holding the plastic wrap and the topof the jar, carefully lower the food jarinto salty water in the soda bottle.Once the jar is settled on the bottom, 1998 SeaWorld, Inc.DEEPER DEPTHSStudents may want to try thisexperiment with variations. Trywater of different temperatures,water with more or less salt, waterin the bottle and jar that is bothfresh or both salt, or ice coloredwith blue food coloring.15

SeaWorld Teacher’s GuidePop-up Seal PupOBJECTIVEMATERIALSStudents will learn that ringed seals diglairs under the snow as a place to givebirth to their young.one set per student: 6" x 8" white construction paper one white cotton ball one cotton swabBACKGROUND 8-1/2" x 11" photocopier paperTo help protect their young from coldweather and predators, ringed sealsbuild lairs under snow drifts. Femaleringed seals give birth in March orApril, usually to one pup. The pupstays in the lair for about six weeks,drinking mother’s milk and growingstronger. The pup lives on its own afterabout two months; able to swim andcatch small fish.for group: colored chalk glue staplers black paintACTION1. Distribute a sheet of white construction paper to each student. Havestudents fold paper in half so thatthe two short ends meet. Staple ittogether on the sides. Leave the endopposite the fold open.2. Have students rip small semi-circlepieces off the top one half inch oftheir papers (open end) to give theeffect of snow drifts. Students mayrip one layer at a time. Save paperscraps.3. Have students tear a small door inthe top paper layer, close to the fold,so that the door swings open andshut. This will expose the lair.4. To make more snow drift images, teara “wave” pattern along an edge of16the photocopy paper. Lay the tornpaper pattern on top of the whiteconstruction paper. Rub the flat sideof the chalk over the paper-edge pattern so that the reverse image showson the construction paper. Move thetorn photocopy paper as needed tocreate overlapping snow drifts.5. Place three or four staples aroundthe lair opening (be careful not tostaple door shut). Use scraps ofpaper to stuff the insides of theconstruction paper envelope. Stapletop shut.6. Distribute swabs, cotton balls, andpaint. Glue cotton ball in lair opening. Dip swab into paint and touchto cotton ball to make eyes and nose. 1998 SeaWorld, Inc.

Arctic Animals K–3Snow TalkingOBJECTIVEMATERIALSStudents will learn how differentcultures view their world and namewhat they see. picture book of Inuits or otherpolar peoples (see Bibliographyon page 24) pencils writing paper crayons, markersBACKGROUNDMost Inuits live in a world covered with ice and snow for at least nine months a year.The English language has only a few words like powder and slush for different kinds ofsnow. The Inuit language has 14 different words. Each word describes a form of snowor snow object. Distinguishing different kinds of snow is important for traveling, forhunting animals, and for building shelters.snow that is spread out—aputsnow block for building—auverkdrifting snow—perksertokfirst snow fall—apingautsnow for melting into water—aniuk, aniosnow that is hard—sitidloraksnow house—iglusnow like salt—pokaktoksnow mixed with water—massaknewly drifted snow—akelroraksnow on clothes and boots—ayaksnow is soft—mauyakit snows—kannertoksnow knife—panarACTION1. Talk with students about differentwords they use in their home. Somefamilies call a sofa a couch. Or abathroom a lavatory. IntroduceInuits and where they live. Discusshow important snow must beto them.2. Use the words above to write or tell astory of an Inuit’s day. What kind ofsnow would an Inuit melt to get adrink of water? What kind would heuse to build a shelter? What kindwould she brush off her clothes?3. Have students draw a picture oftheir story.Dog sleds often run best onsitidlorak or snow that is hard. 1998 SeaWorld, Inc.17

SeaWorld Teacher’s GuideIce PowerOBJECTIVEMATERIALSStudents will investigate how ice expandswhen freezing and how powerful thatexpansion can be. three plastic drinkin

4. Place three arctic animals in their habitat. 5. List two ways arctic animals keep warm during the arctic winter. 6. Explore the cultural diversity of Native Americans that make the Arctic their home. 7. Express a concern for how human activities may impact the arctic environment and the future survival of animals that live there. 8.