Chapter 5. Used Vehicle Sales

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Chapter 5.Used Vehicle SalesDealership Accounting Training Manual Page Publications, LLCJune, 2002, All Rights Reserved.

Topics and Objectives for this Chapter.The primary purpose of City Auto Sales is to sell cars andtrucks. However, NIADA dealers sub-divide these car andtruck sales into different types of car and truck sales.Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to help studentsunderstand the reasoning for these different types of salesentries and to understand how the vehicle sale entry iscalculated.NIADA topicsfor today.Additionally, this chapter will review the basicdocumentation requirements for vehicle sales.Table of ContentsTopic the Car and Completing the Paperwork.Twelve Basic Title Clerk Responsibilities in Completing the Deal.Exercise 1.Eight Elements of a Used Vehicle Sale Entry.Vehicle Sales, Cost of Sales and Inventory.Taxes and Fees Payable.Exercise 2.Used Vehicle Service Contract Income and Contracts Payable.Used Vehicle Finance Income and Finance Reserve Receivable.Exercise 3.Cash Down and Finance Contracts Receivable.Exercise 4.Trade-in Vehicle ACV, Lien Pay-off and Over-Allowance.Used Vehicle Commission Expense and Accrued Payroll.Exercise 5.Reconditioning Expense and Cost of Sales Adjustment.Exercise 6.Accounting for Repossessed VehiclesExercise 7.Page No.13911141517192123252931333537394355

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALES5.1 Selling the Car and Completing the Paperwork.In any vehicle sale negotiation, the buyer (customer) and theseller (City Auto Sales) must reach several mutually agreeabledecisions. These include: Which car or truck does the customer want to buy?Selling price of the vehicle.Trade-in allowance for the trade-in vehicle, if one is involved in the negotiations.First and any other lien pay-off amounts on trade-in vehicle.Cash or finance deal.Amount of down payment monies.Financial institution to finance the purchase.Finance contract terms and conditions (ex. amount of monthly payment, length ofcontract and interest rate charged).Purchase of finance and insurance products, such as accident and health insurance,credit life insurance, or extended service contracts for future repairs.Purchase of vehicle accessories (ex. grill guards or cruise control) to be added to thevehicle before delivery and included in purchase price.Agreed upon dealership repairs to be included in the purchase price of the vehicle.Agreement on customer accommodation items such as advance payment of tag and titleregistration fees.Insurance coverage on the purchased vehicle.Once the customer and the dealership have reached agreement on all sales and financingissues, City Auto Sales’ Sales Manager (acting as the F&I Manager) completes the necessarypaperwork to complete the sale. This documentation is contained in a vehicle sales jacket (aclosed-end folder), shown below in Figure 5-1.Deal JacketYearMakeVINMotor No.Date of PurchasePurchased FromAddressCityStateTitle No.License No.Stock No.Date SoldInvoice No.MileageSold To:Address:CityStatePhone No:Phone No:ZipBill of SaleZipCertificate of TitleOdometer CertificationCity Auto Sales555 NIADA ParkwayCity, ST 12345Received TitlePurchaserFigure 5-1NIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual1[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALESA sample City Auto Sales checklist listing typical vehicle sale documentation is shown in Figure 52 below. It should be similar to checklists used at your dealership.This checklist has a section for City Auto Sales’ Sales Manager and salesperson to complete andthen check off before turning the Deal Jacket into the office. Additionally, there is an office checkoff column for the office staff to use in verifying that the Sales Department has completed alldocumentation to complete the vehicle sale.Using thischecklist and theCity Auto Salesdocuments555 NIADA Parkwayprovided by thesales personnel,City, ST 12345City Auto Sales’Cashier Deal ChecklistInventory Clerkwill complete theNameStock #majority of theDateSalespersontitle and billingSalesperson ChecklistReceivedNeededOffice OKduties.Copy of Both Drivers' LicensesBuyer's Order ApprovedAppraisal SlipCredit ApplicationTag Receipt and/or NumbersTitle to Trade-inInsurance InformationService Pre-Delivery ChecklistBuyer's Guide / As-Is StatementDisclosure Form SignedEmissions TestSales Manager ChecklistTake a fewmoments toreview thischecklist.ReceivedNeededOffice OKContract completed and signed.Title Signed on Car PurchasedCo-Buyer's Form SignedVerification of InsuranceOutside Lienholder(s) RecordedPayoff VerifiedState Lien Form SignedOut-of-State Tax FormConditional Delivery/ Warranty of TitlePower of Attorney - UsedBill of SaleTitle Extension Form SignedOdometer Statement - UsedF&I Waiver SignedMoney and Receipts includedManager Check Request Over/ShortFigure 5-2In summarizing the Office OK section of checklist, there are twelve overall tasks to complete oneach deal.NIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual2[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALES5.2 Twelve Basic Title Clerk Responsibilities in Completing the Deal.Every state has slightly different titling, billing and contract completion requirements. However,there seem to be twelve general responsibilities that new title clerks may use as a guide inlearning their new position. The following items may be considered as additional detail andexplanation of the tasks reviewed in Chapter 4’s office assignments for new vehicle sales.1. Double check documents for accuracy and completeness. Check serial number (V.I.N.) of sold car on all papers.Check for signatures on all contracts and title papers.Make sure monies for car have been deposited and copy of receipt attached to the deal.Trade-in title must be with car papers and odometer statements signed for both autos.2. Separate paperwork into three different groups. Use checklist of necessary forms. Customer papersFinance Company papersDealership papersHint: Do not work on more than one deal at a time.There are numerous forms in even the most routine car sale. Itis not uncommon to have anywhere from six to two dozenpieces of paper in each sale jacket.Because of all this paper, it is not a good idea to work on morethan one sale at a time. If you get a sale mixed up with anothersale, finding missing papers will take far longer than any time you might have saved.Dealerships normally use jackets with sealed ends rather than file folders so that small paperslike receipts will not fall out. With sealed folders, you can easily have more than one sale on yourthings-to-be-done pile or in-basket and not worry about everything getting mixed up.3. Organize customer’s papers for delivery or to be mailed to the customer. Use certified mail withreturn receipt requested. Copy of typed invoiceCopy of buyer’s orderCopy of finance contractCopy of title applicationsCopy of credit life applicationCopy of extended service contractCopy of titleForms designers have made this separating and sorting job much easier for you by printingcopies of the same form in different colors. For example, the top copy of a vehicle sale invoice isnormally white, followed by other copy colors such as yellow, goldenrod, green, or pink. Thesecolored copies are very useful in sorting “who gets which” copy. Forms copies may also belabeled with the intended recipient such as customer, finance company, or dealership copy.4. Organize contract and papers to be mailed or delivered to the finance company. Original copy of contractCopy of title and/or lien holder copies of title applications.NIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual3[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALES Lien copies of credit life insurance policiesLien copy of extended service contractCopy of credit applicationVerification of car insuranceTyped draft for contract amount and daily receipts deposit of same**For those dealers using electronic funds transfers rather than drafts, simply prepare audittrail document to detail the amount of EFT funds in transit.Few things irritate a dealer or office manager more thanhaving finance contracts rejected (or drafts bounce)because of sloppy documentation. The automobile business isvery dependent on good cash flow. Mistakes can stop 5,000to 25,000 in cash from coming into the dealership on a daywhen it was needed for daily operations.Note: For those dealers with Buy Here-Pay Here operations, and affiliated finance companies,these steps may not all be necessary for buy here – pay here customers. Check with your dealerto determine their preferences on this step.5. Organize and file dealership papers in sale folder.Every office manager and dealer has a different opinion about whatought to be kept in a car sale jacket after the sale. At City Auto Sales,they put copies of whatever the office thinks they may need to findagain for this sale. They always keep those documents that arerequired by state or federal law. The document list is typical of manyNIADA dealers. Car sale invoice with all handwritten sales and F&I worksheets attachedCopy of finance company check (or draft) and receipt used to record incoming fundsCopy of trade-in titleCopy of signed trade-in appraisal reportCopies of all sublet or shop internal ROs on vehicleCopy of sale invoice from dealer or auction where vehicle was purchasedCopy of check used to purchase vehicle from dealer or auctionCopy of customer(s) driver’s licenseWe-Owe form signed by both the customer and dealer representativeSigned check request for lien payoff on trade-in vehicleCopy of check used for lien payoffPrevious dealer’s odometer statementCopy of check for title feeCopy of title for sold vehicleCopy of “As Is” warranty stickerCopy of customer down payment check and associated receiptDeal Recap sheet from F&ICopy of credit applicationCopy of verification of insurance and/or agreement to provide insuranceCo-signer noticeCopy of stock card or vehicle print-outIf applicable, copy of sales tax report for vehicleCredit Life and Disability contract copyCopy of signed Buyer’s OrderTransport delivery formNIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual4[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALES Accounting worksheet for posting saleCopy of signed Delivery ChecklistCopy of EFT confirmations, if applicableCopy of videotape of vehicle sale closing, if applicable6. Make up car jacket for trade-in. Copy of bid or signed appraisal slip.Coy of odometer statement.Copy of tile.Note: Trade-in titles are not always readily available or correct. The sales department and theoffice staff must work together in handling title work problems on trade-ins. There are lost,unreadable, non-current, fraudulent or lost titles that must be resolved.The appraisal slip is a form used by the dealer or sales manager to appraise car and truck currentwholesale value. Using this form, the dealer or manager estimates needed reconditioning orrepairs to get the trade-in vehicle ready to sell.7. Update vehicle inventory records for sold and trade-in vehicle. Record trade-in unit on stock card or add vehicle to inventory system.Record cost of sold unit on stock card or in inventory systems.Add needed reconditioning estimates to stock card or inventory system as applicable.See sample stock card for stock number K3459 below in Figure 5-3.USED VEHICLE INVENTORY RECORDSOURCE - 73(0)VEHICLE DESCRIPTIONACCOUNTPY FordMustang convertibleRedYEAR & MAKE:MODEL:COLOR:ActualVIN:VOUCHER NO.STOCK NO.ACCT #K3459KEYAMOUNTKEY6,750.00IUSED CAR INVENTORY1450USED TRUCK INVENTORY1470 REMARKETED VEHICLE INVENTORY1490 TITLE NO.LICENSE NO.PURCH. FROM Mega Auto AuctionINVOICE NO.NOTES PAYABLE - USED VEHICLESDATE RECEIVED2110-5-15-CYRECONDITIONING ON TRADE-IN VEHICLEOPTIONAL EQUIPMENT & ACCESSORIESESTIMATEDDATE6/16/1600.00RO NO.1225012345DESCRIPTIONAMOUNTclean-upbrakesINV ADJMTTOTAL INVTY COST75.00225.006,825.007,050.00APPRAISED BYSales MgrSALES DATAFINANCE & PAYMENT DATA6-30-CYSOLD TO John Q. CustomerADDRESS 161 Willow StreetCity, ST 12345INV #SALESPERSONMitchellCOMMTRADE TAKEN IN:YESNODATE SOLD56415 FIN CODATEORIG AMTCHECK #PYMTSALE AMT 8,500.00LESS O/A8,500.00NET SALEBALANCEOTHER INCOME1,450.000.000.0050.00TOTAL VEHICLE GROSS PROFIT1,500.00VEHICLE GROSS PROFITSERVICE CONTRACT INCOMEFINANCE & INSURANCE INCOMEMAKE & MODELNissan Stanza225K3459ATRADE-IN STOCK NO.YEARCOLORPYBlueTRADE-IN VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN)ActualFigure 5-3This stock card records the May 15 purchase of this Mustang convertible from Mega AutoAuction, the reconditioning work done during June and the June 30, CY sale to John Q.Customer.NIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual5[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALESThe sales recap section in the right corner of the stock card details the profit made on the sale.This hand-written card is still used by some dealers, but has been replaced by computerizedinventory management and sales reports that provide similar information.However, even with computerized vehicle inventory systems, a deal jacket should be prepared foreach trade-in or purchased vehicle for required paper documentation.8. Make up title card for trade-in and/or apply for new title in dealership name.Dealerships are not supposed to be selling cars and trucks that they do not have titles on.Therefore, office staff members should obtain a valid title as quickly as possible. Each state willhave slightly different title application forms and procedures.9. Type check and mail for pay-off on lien on trade-in and request release of lien.See the sample City Auto Sales check below in Figure 5-4. This check is made out to ThirdNational Bank to pay off the remaining balance due on customer Richard T. Polison’s financecontract on his PY Mazda 626. Note the check also includes stock number of the trade-in vehicle(K3459A) on the remittance advice portion of the check.City Auto Sales12601555 NIADA Parkway, City, ST 12345Date:June 30,CY000-000000THE SUM OF 2,475 DOLLARS & 00 CENTSPAYTO THE ORDEROF:Third National Bank784 Broad StreetAppleton, ST 12346CITY AUTO SALESDealerFIRST NATIONAL BANKCITY, ST:0000::0000:000::000CITY AUTO SALES - CITY, ST 12345REMITTANCE ADVICEDATEREF. NO.AMOUNTDISCOUNTCHECK NUMBERCONTROL NUMBER12601K3459ANETCASH DISBURSEMENTS JOURNAL - SOURCE 60Lien pay off on customer Richard T. Polison, bankaccount number E548965 for PY Mazda 626, VIN897654.ACCOUNTACCTS PAYABLE - TRADEACCTS PAYABLE - VEH. LIENNOTES PAYABLE - USED VEH.ACC'T NO.200020502110AMOUNTKEY 2,475.00 2,475.00CASHCASH DISCOUNT EARNED-DETACHED CHECK IS PAYMENT IN FULL OF ACCOUNT SHOWN ABOVE. IF INCORRECT, RETURN WITHOUT ALTERATION.Figure 5-4This stylecheck is a twocopy checkdesigned tobe typed on atypewriter, notprinted on acomputerprinter. Notethe completedaccountingsection on theright corner ofthe check.Computerizedchecks mayappearslightlydifferent, butwill containthe samebasicinformation.Once the bank receives this check, they will release the lien on Polison’s vehicle and send thevehicle title to City Auto Sales after receiving a Lien Payoff Authorization Form signed by thecustomer and the dealership. Each state’s lien payoff authorization form will appear slightlydifferent, but will contain similar information.10. Type checks for tag, title, other municipal or state fees collected from customer.When the customer buys a car, there may be several different taxes and fees on the sale. As anaccommodation to the customer, many dealerships will collect the money for fees from thecustomer and then pay them as required.NIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual6[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALESDealership personnel will become familiar with these tax and fee payment procedures veryquickly as some dealership will send someone to the local courthouse virtually every day. Thiscollection and payment of fees is done as a courtesy to the customer (example, buying a tag) butalso helps the dealership make sure that all state and local regulations are being followed. Insome states, the dealership may collect a small fee from the state (1-2% of the fee collected) forproviding these services.11. Type sales tax check for state.In some states, vehicle sales taxes are required on a per-vehicle basis within 2-3 days of thevehicle sale. In other states, sales taxes are paid monthly (generally by the 20th) for all vehiclessold the previous month. This step is included as a reminder to office staffs in those statesrequiring payments on an individual vehicle sale basis.12. Other forms as necessary. Form 8300 – Report of Cash Payments Over 10,000 Received in a Trade or Business.Form 8807 or Form 720 – Quarterly or Monthly Federal Excise (Luxury) TaxesWhen a customer pays cash of 10,000 or more in a car purchase, Form 8300 – Report of CashPayments over 10,000 Received in a Trade or Business has to be prepared. Your dealershipshould have all the necessary documentation to explain how and why this form is prepared.Additionally, the Luxury Sales Tax is being phased out. Its 2000 threshold is for passenger carswith a sales price over 38,000. Therefore, the majority of NIADA dealer sales will be below thissale amount and will not apply.However, this final item is a reminder to double check with your office manager or dealer to verifythat all documentation and forms required have been completed. Do not assume that you havesuccessfully completed this task until it has been reviewed by the office manager or dealer. If theyhave a question, they can contact the appropriate state or local government agency, state dealerassociation, NIADA or the IRS. Both forms are listed on the IRS website at twelve general title clerk tasks on each vehicle sale are not an exhaustive list and shouldbe reviewed with your office manager or dealer. Additionally, students are referred to threeauthoritative guides: Your state Title Procedures Manual published by theDepartment of Motor Vehicles.The N.A.D.A. (National Automobile Dealers Association) Titleand Registration Book.The R.L. Polk Motor Vehicle Registration Manual.However, these twelve items should give students an idea of theimportance of completing and checking vehicle sale documentation carefully.To test your understanding, complete the exercise on the next page.NIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual7[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALESCONTINUE TO THE NEXT PAGE.NIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual8[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALES5.3 Exercise 1.Q1. List the twelve general title clerk responsibilities for each vehicle sale.Twelve General Title Clerk tasks. your answers with the answers on the next page.NIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual9[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALESExercise 1 Answers.Q1.Twelve General Title Clerk tasks. check documents for accuracy and completeness.Separate paperwork into 3 different groupings. Use checklist for necessary forms.Organize customer’s papers for delivery or to be mailed to the customer.Organize contract and papers to be mailed or delivered to finance company.Organize and file dealership papers in sale folder.Make up car jacket for trade-in.Enter trade-in unit into inventory records and record sale of sold unit.Make up title card for trade-in and/or apply for new title in dealership name.Type check and mail for pay-off on lien on trade-in and request release of lien.Type checks for tag, title and other municipal or state fees collected from customer.Type sales tax check for state, as required.Other forms as necessary.Now, let’s move on to our next topic.NIADA Dealership Accounting Training Manual10[June, 2002]

CHAPTER 5. USED VEHICLE SALES5.4 Eight Elements of a Used Vehicle Sales Entry.Having reviewed some of the basic tasks of title work, its time to review the vehicle sale entry.The easiest way to learn a somewhat complicated entry is to break it

Make sure monies for car have been deposited and copy of receipt attached to the deal. Trade-in title must be with car papers and odometer statements signed for both autos. 2. Separate paperwork into three different groups. Use checklist of necessary forms. Customer papers Finance Company papers Dealership papers

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