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1/18/2010Sistemas AutomóveisFUEL INJECTION SYSTEMSDIESELRui Manuel Vieira Pinto1090039Ano lectivo 2009/20101 - Basic diesel fuel systems2 – Injection pumps3 - InjectorsSistemas AutomóveisFuel injection systems - diesel4 - Inline injection pump5 – Radial rotary injection pump6 – Electronic injection systems7 - BibliographyAno lectivo 2009/20101

1/18/2010Sistemas Automóveis1 - Basic diesel fuelsystemsAno lectivo 2009/2010-Basic diesel engine operation- Diesel engine force air by the intake valveinto the cylinder- High compression ratio heats the air enoughto ignite the fuel)Sistemas AutomóveisBasic diesel fuel systems- Fuel is injected into the cylinder at highpressure- The amount of fuel injected suits to the loadand controls engine speedAno lectivo 2009/20102

1/18/2010- Basic diesel fuel systems- Divided in 2 sections- Low pressure side- Clean the fuel- Deliver fuel to high pressure sideSistemas AutomóveisBasic diesel fuel systems-High pressure side- Raise the fuel pressure highenough to injection stageAno lectivo 2009/2010- Basic diesel fuel system- A lift pump takes fuel from the tank and keeps theinjection pump full with fuel (electric or mechanical, onthe engine or on the injection pump)Sistemas AutomóveisBasic diesel fuel system- A filter removes water and large particles of the fuel- A fuel filter removes extremely small particles- Fuel under high pressure passes along injector pipes(steel, with same length) to injectors by the action ofinjector pump (synchronism with engine cycle)Ano lectivo 2009/20103

1/18/2010- Basic diesel fuel system- Injector sprays fuel into combustion chamber- Direct injection engine- Combustion chamber notdivided- Direct injection oncombustion chamber- Superior efficiencySistemas AutomóveisBasic diesel fuel system- Indirect injection engine- combustion chamber divided- Low noise level- Low production costs- More fuel consumption (10–15 %)Ano lectivo 2009/2010- Basic diesel fuel system- Leak off pipes take excess of fuel back to the tank (alsoremove air from the system)- The combustion pressures are greater in a diesel engine thanin a similar gasoline engine (components stronger and heavier)Sistemas AutomóveisBasic diesel fuel systemAno lectivo 2009/20104

1/18/2010- Basic diesel fuel system- To make cold starting easier- Extra fuel injection- Combustion chamber heatersystem (glow plugs) that can worksome minutes after the enginestartSistemas AutomóveisBasic diesel fuel systemAno lectivo 2009/2010Sistemas Automóveis2 - Injection pumpsAno lectivo 2009/20105

1/18/2010- High injection pressures needed to- Exceed the compressioncombustion chamberpressureinthe- Exceed the combustion pressure in theSistemas AutomóveisInjection pumpscombustion chamber- Break up the fuel into small particlesINJECTION PUMPSAno lectivo 2009/2010- Injection pumps- Sent fuel to each injector- under pressure- In controlled quantities- At the right timeSistemas AutomóveisInjection pumpsfunction of engine speed and loadAno lectivo 2009/20106

1/18/2010- Injection systems- Types- Inline pump injection- Individual injection pumps- Pump pipe injector (PLD)- Unit injector (UI)- Common rail- Radial plungers injection pumps- Axial plungers injection pumpsSistemas AutomóveisInjection pumps- the next sections will analyze the inline pump and the radial rotaryinjection pump- PLD, UI and Common rail basic analysis is made in electronicinjection sectionAno lectivo 2009/2010Sistemas Automóveis3 - InjectorsAno lectivo 2009/20107

1/18/2010- Sprays fuel into combustion chamber- Mechanic type- Electric types- Electromagnetic – solenoid valveSistemas AutomóveisInjectors- Piezo electricAno lectivo 2009/2010-Mechanic type (typical)- Fuel injection pressure exceed the injector spring- The needle valve rises and fuel is sprayed incombustion chamberSistemas AutomóveisInjectors- When injection ends, the pressure drop causes thereturn of needle valve to the initial position- Some of them can be tuned (spring strength adjust)Ano lectivo 2009/20108

1/18/2010- Electromechanic type- Electronic control unit sendselectric signal to electro-valve- A solenoid electric valve allowsfuel to pass to injector nozzleSistemas AutomóveisInjectors-Injection made in typical way(already explained)- In figure the injection pumpand the injector are a same unitAno lectivo 2009/2010- Electric piezo Injectors- Electromagnetic injector valvereplaced by electric piezo control- Piezo effect - mechanicaldistortion causes electric currentand vice-versa (Ex. quartz)Sistemas AutomóveisInjectors- Injector control valve movementwith a 1 mm3 fuel precisionAno lectivo 2009/20109

1/18/2010Sistemas Automóveis4 - Inline injectionpumpAno lectivo 2009/2010-Traditional inline injection pump- Have a pump element (plunger, cylinder) foreach engine cylinder- Pump elements in line disposalSistemas AutomóveisInline injection pumpAno lectivo 2009/201010

1/18/2010-Traditional inline injection pump- Body- Crankcase- Camshaft- Feeding pump (or not)- Pushers (or not)- Visit window-Gear rack- Pump elements (plungers,cylinder, gear)- Feeding collector- Retention valves- Automatic speed regulatorSistemas AutomóveisInline injection pumpAno lectivo 2009/2010- Camshaft- It have the same rotation as the engine camshaft(one turn for two turns of the crankshaft)-Causes an linear movement on the plungers-Plungers- Push the fuel in the direction of the injectorSistemas AutomóveisInline injection pump- Gear rack-Causes an rotation movement on the plungersthat is function of the accelerator pedal- Pump elements- Control the amount of fuel that goes to theinjectorAno lectivo 2009/201011

1/18/2010- Basic operation- The eccentric on the camshaft causesconstant linear movement of the pushers- the plungers, by the action of thepushers, push the fuel in the direction ofthe retention valveSistemas AutomóveisInline injection pump- the pressure is high enough to open theretention valve and the fuel is conductedby pipes to the injectors- the amount of fuel is controlled by thegear rackAno lectivo 2009/2010- Basic operation-The gear rack causes an rotation movement to the plunger that isfunction of the accelerator pedalSistemas AutomóveisInline injection pumpAno lectivo 2009/201012

1/18/2010- Basic operation-The plunger has cannelures around it self to fuel flow, and theposition of the rack determines the position of the plunger thatdetermines the amount of fuel injectedSistemas AutomóveisInline injection pumpAno lectivo 2009/2010- Basic operation- The end of injection occurs when the cannelure of the plungerreaches a position that makes connection between the cylinder andthe feeding collector, balancing the pressureSistemas AutomóveisInline injection pumpAno lectivo 2009/201013

1/18/2010Sistemas Automóveis5 – Radial rotaryinjection pumpAno lectivo 2009/2010- Radial rotary injection pump- Used on small diesel engines- Low volume and weightSistemas AutomóveisRadial rotary injection pump- High efficiencyAno lectivo 2009/201014

1/18/2010- Radial rotary injection pump- It will be studied the VR BOSCH radialrotary injection pump- One pump element for all the engineSistemas AutomóveisRadial rotary injection pumpcylinders- Presence of internal sensors (fueltemperature, rotation angle)- Has a pump control unit, independentfrom the engine control unitAno lectivo 2009/2010- Components- Low pressure side- Fuel pump (actuated by VRpump shaft)- Pressure regulator valve (toavoid high pressures caused bypump high rotation in enginehigh speed)Sistemas AutomóveisRadial rotary injection pump- Overflow valve (let fuel passesto tank when a default pressure isachieved, air automatic bleed offmade easily)Ano lectivo 2009/201015

1/18/2010- Components- High pressure side- High pressure electro-valve- Controlled by pump control unit- Determines the injection flow- Determines the injection durationSistemas AutomóveisRadial rotary injection pumpAno lectivo 2009/2010- Components- High pressure side- Fuel high pressure caused by radial plungersSistemas AutomóveisRadial rotary injection pump- In figure: 3 possibleplungers disposalAno lectivo 2009/201016

1/18/2010- Basicoperation-Distributor functions- Send fuel to plungers- Time duration in close positionof electro-valve determines theinjection flowSistemas AutomóveisRadial rotary injection pumpAno lectivo 2009/2010- Basicoperation-Distributor functions- Send fuel to injectors- The plungers are pressed bycamSistemas AutomóveisRadial rotary injection pump-Fuel high pressure generated- Distributor rotates to injectorflow positionAno lectivo 2009/201017

1/18/2010- Basicoperation-Advance elements- Change the injection moment- Analyses crankshaft positionand rotation angle sensorSistemas AutomóveisRadial rotary injection pump-Rotate cam causing delay oradvance on injection- Controlled by control unit(hidraullic control with electrovalve)Ano lectivo 2009/2010Sistemas Automóveis6 – Electronicinjection systemsAno lectivo 2009/201018

1/18/2010- EDC (Electronic Diesel Control)- UI (Unit Injector)Sistemas AutomóveisElectronic injection of Diesel Engines- PLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)- Common RailAno lectivo 2009/2010- Main objective- Reduce air pollution caused bydiesel combustion- Fuel quantity injection electroniccontrolSistemas AutomóveisElectronic injection of Diesel EnginesAno lectivo 2009/201019

1/18/2010- Used on VOLVO trucksSistemas AutomóveisEDC (Electronic Diesel Control)- Electronic control of the fuel injectionAno lectivo 2009/2010- Mechanical governor replaced by a fuelelectromagnetic control device controlled by theelectronic control unitSistemas AutomóveisEDC (Electronic Diesel Control)Ano lectivo 2009/201020

1/18/2010- Electronic control unit- Receives sensors information- Calculate the amount of fuel to be injected infunction of engine load- Generate failure codes (if necessary)Sistemas AutomóveisEDC (Electronic Diesel Control)- Sends orders to the fuel control deviceAno lectivo 2009/2010- EDC components (sensors and input signals)- Test socket- Accelerator pedal sensor (potentiometer)- Contact of the brake pedal- Contact of the clutch pedal- Turbo load pressure sensor (electric signal in proportion of theturbo pressure atmospheric pressure)- Air temperature sensor in admission (NTC resistance)- coolant temperature sensor (NTC resistance)- 2 x Rotations sensor- Velocity sensorSistemas AutomóveisEDC (Electronic Diesel Control)Ano lectivo 2009/201021

1/18/2010- EDC components (actuators and output signals)- Diagnosis lamp (blinks to give failure code – Ex. coolanttemperature, turbo charge, air temperature inadmission, tension on the alternator belt )Sistemas AutomóveisEDC (Electronic Diesel Control)- Electromagnetic fuel control device- Cut of injection (In emergency situations done by apneumatic valve that acutates in injection pump)Ano lectivo 2009/2010- EDC electronic control unitSistemas AutomóveisEDC (Electronic Diesel Control)- By default from factory:- Speed limit- Maximum constant rotations- Programmed constant speed(maximum and minimum)Ano lectivo 2009/201022

1/18/2010- EDC electronic control unit- Special functions:- Constant speed programmer (Keeps thesame speed independent of the load)- Constant rotations programmer (Enginekeeps constant rotations independent ofthe load – Ex. winch)- Stop engine by start key instead of amechanical way- Maximum rotations limited in coldrunningSistemas AutomóveisEDC (Electronic Diesel Control)Ano lectivo 2009/2010-Electromagnetic fuel control device (components)- Composed by an electromagnet that controls the injectionpump rack (see in line pumps)Sistemas AutomóveisEDC (Electronic Diesel Control)- Position sensor that inform the electronic control unit aboutthe pump rack and determines the intensity of the electriccurrent in the electromagnet- Rotations sensor (2x) – One in the electromagnetic fuelcontrol device (principal) and another (reserve) given by thetachometerAno lectivo 2009/201023

1/18/2010- Used on VOLVO trucks, VW automobile dieselengines, CATERPILLAR enginesSistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)- Injector units controlled by the electronic controlunitAno lectivo 2009/2010- Electronic control unit- Calculates and controls the amount of fuel thatwill be injected (duration of injection)Sistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)- Calculates and controls the injection angleAno lectivo 2009/201024

1/18/2010- Electronic control unit - sensors and cut switchs- Velocity sensor- Crankshaft rotations sensor- Accelerator pedal sensor- Identification of cylinder sensor- Clutch pedal switch- Brake pedal switch- Air temperature sensor in admission- Coolant temperature sensorSistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)Ano lectivo 2009/2010- Injection process- Electric signal sent to the electric valve of theinjector unit closes itSistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)- Fuel return system closes and injection pumpmovement causes high pressureAno lectivo 2009/201025

1/18/2010- Injection process (cont.)- Injection of fuel in cylinder when injector opens(about 400 bar)Sistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)- During injection, pressure reaches 1600 bar(caused by injector nozzles)- Injection ends when the electric signal stopsopening the electric valve (spring) and return,reducing the pressureAno lectivo 2009/2010-Injection angle- Definition: Rotation angle of crankshaft inreference with Top Dead Center (injection point) –18⁰ before or 6⁰ after the TDCSistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)- Crankshaft rotations sensor information is used todetermine when electric valve of fuel should openor closeAno lectivo 2009/201026

1/18/2010- Cylinder balance (to cause smooth and regularlow speed) – only occurs in low speed- Electronic control unit determines, in eachinjection, the speed and acceleration of theengine wheel in order to determine if there isthe same power in each cylinderSistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)- If not the electronic control unit compensatesby the duration of injectionAno lectivo 2009/2010- Fuel amount limit- Electronic control unit determines the amountof fuel to inject with restrictions such as:Sistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)- Speed limit- Rotations limit- Toxic gases limit- High temperature limit- Engine protectionAno lectivo 2009/201027

1/18/20101 - In the rise of plunger (returnspring plunger control) the electricvalve is open (input of fuel in thecylinder)2 - Plunger control pushes plungerdown, the fuel returns while theelectric valve is open3 –an electric signal is sent to theelectric valve closing it, the pressureof fuel rises until overcome deinjector resistance - injection4 – Injection ends when electric valvecuts off (opens) and pressuredecreasesSistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)Ano lectivo 2009/2010- Notes about injection- Superior injection pressure (2000 bar) incomparison with inlines and rotary pumpsSistemas AutomóveisUI (UNIT INJECTOR)- Plunger always completes its course, howeverthe amount of fuel depends of the electric valvecontrolled by the electronic control unit- As seen before there are limits to the amountof fuel injectedAno lectivo 2009/201028

1/18/2010- Pumpe pump, Leitung pipe, Duse injector- Used on MERCEDES BENZ trucksSistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)- to comply with new rules of gases emissionAno lectivo 2009/2010- Engine controlled by an electronic module(microcomputer) programmed- Electromechanical injection systemSistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)Ano lectivo 2009/201029

1/18/2010-Electronic module (PLD)- Injection angle determined by anencoder information (assembled on theengine wheel) that measures the pistonspeedSistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)- Sensors information PLD programparameters ADM (administrationmodule) determines the beginning andduration of injectionAno lectivo 2009/2010- ADM (administration module)- Data acquirer of maximum and minimumvalues of- Engine rotation- vehicle speed- torqueSistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)- Interaction with other modules (CAN) as- Brake system (ABS)-PLD- Automatic transmissionAno lectivo 2009/201030

1/18/2010- ADM (administration module)- Control cabin equipment- Control of accelerator pedal (If it fails, vehiclechange to low speed and ADM rotationmanagement takes control)Sistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)- Due to functions parametrization characteristicthere are several possible functioning modes tovehicles-If failure, the PLD impose a 1300 rpm constantvalueAno lectivo 2009/2010- Electromechanical fuel injection componentsSistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)Ano lectivo 2009/201031

1/18/2010- Electromechanical fuel injection stage 1 - Admission-The cam position makesspring pull down theplungerSistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)- The electromagnetic valvespring allows the cylinderto be filled with fuel bypump actionAno lectivo 2009/2010- Electromechanical fuel injection stage 2 - previous course-The cam pushes up theplunger- The electromagnetic valveremains open and the fuelreturns (plunger pressure ishigher than the pump’sone)Sistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)Ano lectivo 2009/201032

1/18/2010- Electromechanical fuel injection stage 3 - injection-The electromagnetic valvecloses (energized by controlunit)Sistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)- The plunger keeps it’supside movement- The fuel is sprayed by theinjector in combustionchamber (up to 1600 bar)Ano lectivo 2009/2010- Electromechanical fuel injection stage 4 – residual course-The electromagnetic valveopens (deenergized by thecontrol unit)Sistemas AutomóveisPLD (Pumpe Leitung Duse)- The plunger keeps it’supside movement- The fuel returns to thetankAno lectivo 2009/201033

1/18/2010- The fuel is pressurized in a distribution pipe (rail)Sistemas AutomóveisCOMMON RAIL- The distribution pipe (rail) is common to allcylinder- Injection is made with electromagnetic valves (upto 1400 bar)Ano lectivo 2009/2010- Components- Tank- Pipes- Water separator filter- Manual pump (to bleed off air),- Water sensor - water may cause cavitation, afrequent cause of structural damage- Bleed off screwSistemas AutomóveisCOMMON RAILAno lectivo 2009/201034

1/18/2010- Components- Low pressure circuit- Gear pump (5 to 13 bar) ensures fuel supply to mainfilter and to high pressurepump- Filter- Security pressure valve- Fuel control electro-valve(control the amount of fuelby ECU to high pressurepump)Sistemas AutomóveisCOMMON RAILAno lectivo 2009/2010- Components- Fuel control electromagnetic valve- PWM (pulse wavemodulation) control- Rail fuel quantitycontrolled by opening time(more rail pressure meansmore open timeSistemas AutomóveisCOMMON RAILAno lectivo 2009/201035

1/18/2010- Components- High pressure circuit - rises the fuel pressure tolevels that allow pulverization- Plungers (3 or more) pump- Retention valve to avoid railfuel discharge- Security valve (returns fuelto tank)- distribution pipe (rail)- High pressure pipes- InjectorsSistemas AutomóveisCOMMON RAILAno lectivo 2009/2010- Components- Plungers pump- Fuel transfer to rail, pipes andinjectors- Gear pump (by enginemechanical distribution- No engine synchronism neededSistemas AutomóveisCOMMON RAILAno lectivo 2009/201036

1/18/2010- Components- Injectors- Injection duration controlled byECU (sensors information)- Fuel quantity depends ofelectro-valve opening time, fuelpressure and injector typeSistemas AutomóveisCOMMON RAILAno lectivo 2009/2010Sistemas Automóveis6 - BibliographyAno lectivo 2009/201037

1/18/20102 - http://www.asme.org/ (American Society of mechanical engineers)[Consult. Nov. 2009].3 - njection systems/index.html[Consult. Nov. 2009].Sistemas ies/History/Landmarks/10001.pdf[Consult. Nov. 2009].Ano lectivo 2009/2010Sistemas Automóveis4http://www.google.pt/imgres?imgur

FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS DIESEL RuiManuelVieiraPinto 1090039 Sistemas Automóveis Anolectivo2009/2010 Fuel injectionsystems-diesel Sistemas Automóveis . - PLD, UI and Common rail basic analysis is made in electronic injectionsection Sistemas Automóveis Anolectivo2009/2010 3 -Injectors. 1/18/2010 8 Injectors Sistemas Automóveis

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the rear bracket(s) on the fuel injection pump. Note: Loosening the high-pressure injection line nuts on the fuel injection pump may make rotating the pump easier. 5. Rotate the fuel injection pump until the dial indicator reads 2.5 mm (0.098 in.). 6. To "advance" the injection timing, rotate the top of the fuel injection pump away from the .