Five-Story Wood-Frame Structure Over Podium Slab

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DESIGNEXAMPLEFive-Story Wood-FrameStructure over Podium SlabDeveloped for WoodWorks byDouglas S. Thompson, pe, Se, SeCBSTB Structural Engineers, Inc.Lake Forest, CA FRA-419 Five-Over-One TechDoc July2014.indd 12/2/15 9:36 AM

FRA-419 Five-Over-One TechDoc July2014.indd 22/2/15 9:36 AM

Free design and engineering support fornon-residential and multi-family wood buildingsWoodWorks provides freeresources that allow engineers,architects and others to designand build non-residential andmulti-family structures outof wood more easily and atless cost. This includes freeone-on-one project assistanceas well as educational eventsand online resources such asCAD/REVIT details, case studies,and Continuing Education Units.For tools and resourcesrelated to multi-storywood buildings, andlook under Building Types,Multi-Residential/Mixed-Use.Five reasons to choose woodfor your next project:Wood typically provides more value—in terms of its beauty,design flexibility and environmental attributes—for less cost thanother major building materials, all while meeting fire, safety andother code requirements.1. Wood costs less – In addition to lower material costs,wood building systems typically cost less to install than othermaterials. Wood construction is fast, and wood’s relative lightweight reduces the need for foundation capacity andassociated costs.2. Wood structures meet code – The International BuildingCode recognizes wood’s safety and structural performancecapabilities and allows its use in a wide range of buildingtypes, from multi-story condominiums and offices to schools,restaurants, malls and arenas.3. Wood performs well in earthquakes and highwinds – Because wood-frame buildings are lighter and havemore repetition and ductility than structures built with othermaterials, they are very effective at resisting lateral and upliftforces.4. Wood is versatile and adaptable – Wood’s designflexibility lends itself both to traditional and innovative uses.With the exception of major members that are made to specoff site, wood can be adapted in the field, allowing quicksolutions if changes are required. Wood is also well suited toadditions and retrofits, and wood systems can be dismantledwith relative ease and the materials used elsewhere.5. Using wood helps reduce your environmentalimpact – Wood grows naturally and is renewable. Lifecycle assessment studies also show that wood buildingshave less embodied energy than structures made from steelor concrete, are responsible for less air and water pollution,and have a lighter carbon footprint.For more information, visit: FRA-419 Five-Over-One TechDoc July2014.indd 12/2/15 9:36 AM

Table of ContentsPART I – OverviewOverview. 4Codes and Reference Documents Used. 5Factors that Influence Design. 5Species of Lumber. 5Grade of Lumber. 5Moisture Content and Wood Shrinkage. 6Condition of Seasoning. 6Location of Shear Walls. 6Support of Floor Joists. 7Given Information. 7PART II – Structural and Non-structural1. Seismic Height Limitation . 102. Fire and Life Safety. 10a. Height and Area Allowances. 10b. Fire Resistance. 11c. Fire Retardant-Treated Wood. 123. Vertical Displacement (Shrinkage) in Multi-Level Wood Framing. 14a. Comprehensive Shrinkage Estimation. 15b. Quick Shrinkage Estimation. 16PART III – Seismic Design4. Two-Stage Design for Seismic Lateral Analysis. 20a. Stiffness Determinations. 20b. Period Determinations. 21c. Design of Flexible Upper Portion. 23d. Design of Rigid Lower Portion. 235. Seismic Design of Flexible Upper Portion and Rigid Lower Portion. 24a. Seismic Design of Flexible Upper Portion. 24b. Assumption of Flexible Diaphragms. 30c. Flexible vs. Rigid Diaphragm Analysis. 30d. Flexible Upper Portion Redundancy Factor. 31e. Seismic Design of Rigid Lower Portion. 312 Table of Contents FRA-419 Five-Over-One TechDoc July2014.indd 22/2/15 9:36 AM

6. Shear Wall Design Example. 31a. Determination of Lateral Loads to Shear Wall. 31b. Determination of Shear Wall Sheathing and Nailing. 33c. Shear Wall Cumulative Overturning Forces. 33d. Load Combinations using 2012 IBC. 34e. Load Combinations using 2012 ASCE 7-10. 34f. Shear Wall Chord (Boundary) Members. 35g. Example Compression Member Capacity Determination. 39h. Determine Resisting Moments and Uplift Forces. 40i. Shear Wall Tie-Down System Components. 417. Considerations with Continuous and Discontinuous Anchor Tie-Downs. 458. Shear Wall Deflection, Tie-Downs and Take-Up Devices. 46a. Continuous Tie-Down Assembly Displacement. 46b. Shear Wall Deflection. 51c. Story Drift Determination. 54d. Load Path for Rod Systems. 56e. Proprietary Software for Continuous Tie-Down Systems. 589. Discontinuous System Considerations and the Overstrength (Ω) Factor. 58a. Anchor Forces to Podium Slab. 58PART IV – Wind vs. Seismic Design with Wind Controlling10. Use of Gypsum Board for Lateral Resistance. 6011. Use of Cooler Nails vs. Screws for Gypsum Board Fastening. 6112. Wind Loading Analysis – Main Wind-Force Resisting System. 61a. Determination of Design Coefficients for Transverse Direction. 62b. Determination of Design Coefficients for Longitudinal Direction. 6413. Seismic Loading Analysis. 66a. Design Base Shear. 6614. Wind and Seismic Forces to Typical Interior Transverse Wall. 67a. Determination of Shear Wall Fastening. 68b. Determination of Shear Wall Chord (Boundary) Forces and Members. 69c. Determination of Shear Wall Uplift Forces. 7115. Wind and Seismic Forces to Typical Interior Corridor Wall. 72a. Determination of Shear Wall Fastening. 73b. Determination of Shear Wall Chord (Boundary) Forces and Members. 74c. Determination of Shear Wall Uplift Forces. 753 Table of Contents FRA-419 Five-Over-One TechDoc July2014.indd 32/2/15 9:36 AM

Part 1 – OverviewThis design example illustrates the seismic and wind design of a hotel that includes five stories of wood-frameconstruction over a one-story concrete podium slab and is assigned to Seismic Design Category D. The gravityload framing system consists of wood-frame bearing walls for the upper stories and concrete bearing walls forthe lower story. The lateral load-resisting system consists of wood-frame shear walls for the upper stories andconcrete shear walls for the lower story. Typical building elevation and floor plan of the structure are shown inFigures 2 and 3 respectively. A typical section showing the heights of the structure is shown in Figure 6. Thewood roof is framed with pre-manufactured wood trusses. The floor is framed with prefabricated wood I-joists.The floors have a 1-1 2 inch lightweight concrete topping. The roofing is composition shingles.This design example uses the term “podium slab” which, while not a term defined in the 2012 InternationalBuilding Code (IBC) or 2013 California Building Code (CBC), is included in the commentary to §510.2 in the2012 IBC (509.2 in the 2009 IBC). Also referred to as pedestal or platform buildings, this type of constructionhas a slab and beam system that is designed to support the entire weight of the wood superstructure. Section510.2 of the 2012 IBC outlines the use of horizontal building separations, which allow a 3-hour fire resistancerated assembly to be used to create separate buildings for the purposes of allowable height and area. This issimilar to the concept used for fire walls.When designing this type of mid-rise wood-frame structure, there are several unique design elements toconsider. The following steps provide a detailed analysis of some of the important seismic requirements of theshear walls per the 2012 IBC and 2013 CBC.This example is not a complete building design. Many aspects have not been included, specifically thegravity load framing system, and only certain steps of the seismic and wind design related to portions of aselected shear wall have been illustrated. The steps that have been illustrated may be more detailed thanwhat is necessary for an actual building design but are presented in this manner to help the design engineerunderstand the process.DisclaimerThe information in this publication, including, without limitation, references to information contained in otherpublications or made available by other sources (collectively “information”) should not be used or relied uponfor any application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, codecompliance and applicability by a licensed engineer, architect or other professional. Neither the Wood ProductsCouncil nor its employees, consultants, nor any other individuals or entities who contributed to the informationmake any warranty, representative or guarantee, expressed or implied, that the information is suitable for anygeneral or particular use, that it is compliant with applicable law, codes or ordinances, or that it is free frominfringement of any patent(s); nor do they assume any legal liability or responsibility for the use, application ofand/or reference to the information. Anyone making use of the information in any manner assumes all liabilityarising from such use.4 Overview FRA-419 Five-Over-One TechDoc July2014.indd 42/2/15 9:36 AM

Codes and Reference Documents Used2012 International Building Code (IBC)2012 National Design Specification (NDS ) for Wood Construction – ASD/LRFD2008 Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SDPWS-2008)American Institute of Steel Construction Steel Construction Manual – Thirteenth Edition2013 California Building Code (CBC)This design example focuses on the IBC and NDS requirements. Where there is a difference between the IBCand CBC, a comment and reference is made.Factors That Influence DesignPrior to starting the seismic design of a structure, the following must be considered:Species of LumberThe species of lumber used in this design example is Douglas Fir-Larch (DF-L), which is common on the westcoast. The author does not intend to imply that this species needs to be used in all areas or for all markets.Species that are both appropriate for this type of construction and locally available vary by region, and alsocommonly include (among others) Southern Yellow Pine (SYP) and Spruce-Pine-Fir (SPF).Grade of LumberThe lower two stories of the wood-frame structure carry significantly higher gravity loads than the upper twostories. One approach is to use a higher grade of lumber for the lower two stories than the upper two stories.This approach can produce designs that yield a consistent wall construction over the height of the building.Another approach would be to choose one grade of lumber for all five wood-frame stories. This approachproduces the need to change the size and/or spacing of the studs based on the loading requirements. Sill platecrushing may control stud sizing at lower stories. For simplicity, this design example illustrates the use of onelumber grade for all floor levels.Figure 1. Typical Grade Stamp(b)Notes for Figure 1:(c)a. Certification Mark: Certifies grading agencyquality supervisionb. Mill Identification: Firm name, brand or assignedmill number(d)(a)(e)c. Grade Designation: Grade name, numberor abbreviationd. Species Identification: Indicates species byindividual species or species combinatione. Condition of Seasoning: Indicates conditionof seasoning at the time of surfacing5 Codes and Reference Documents/Factors That Influence Design FRA-419 Five-Over-One TechDoc July2014.indd 52/2/15 9:36 AM

Moisture Content and Wood ShrinkageFrom a serviceability and performance perspective, the most significant issue related to multi-story wood-frameconstruction is wood shrinkage—which is impacted by the moisture content (MC) and, more specifically,whether the wood used is “green” or “kiln dried.”The availability of both types is largely dependent on the region and associated market conditions. Typically, woodused in construction in the U.S. southwest is “green” (S-GRN) and kiln dried (KD) wood is relatively rare, whilethe opposite is true in other parts of the country. The engineer should consider the availability of kiln dried lumberin the area of the proposed construction. To help designers looking for this information, WoodWorks offersfree one-on-one project support as well as a wide range of online resources. For assistance on a project, or visit the WoodWorks website at: ondition of SeasoningThere are three levels of wood seasoning (drying), which denotes the moisture content of the lumber at thetime of surfacing. The identification “stamps” are as follows:S-GRN over 19% moisture content (unseasoned)S-DRY, KD or KD-HT 19% maximum moisture content (seasoned)MC 15 or KD 15 15% maximum moisture contentThese designations may be found in the grade stamp.Unseasoned lumber (S-GRN) is manufactured oversized so that when the lumber reaches 19 percent moisturecontent it will be approximately the same size as the dry (seasoned) size.Heat treated (HT) lumber is lumber that has been placed in a closed chamber and heated until it attains aminimum core temperature of 56 C for a minimum of 30 minutes.The word “DRY” indicates that the lumber was either kiln or air dried to a maximum moisture content of 19 percent.Kiln dried (KD) lumber is lumber that has been seasoned in a chamber to a pre-determined moisture content byapplying heat.Kiln dried heat treated (KD-HT) lumber has been placed in a closed chamber and heated until it achieves aminimum core temperature of 56 C for a minimum of 30 minutes.Moisture content restrictions apply at time of shipment as well as time of dressing if dressed lumber is involved,and at time of delivery to the buyer unless shipped exposed to the weather.Engineered wood I-joists were used in this design example; however, given the short span of the floor joists androof joists, sawn lumber could have been used. In this case, the joist shrinkage perpendicular to grain wouldneed to be included in the overall shrinkage calculation. Also, sawn lumber joists can be supported in joisthangers (see Figure 5) so as not to contribute to the overall building shrinkage. For this design example, sawnlumber is used for the stud-framed walls.For further explanation of moisture content and wood shrinkage, see §3.Location of Shear WallsThe lateral force-resisting system in this design example uses both interior and exterior walls for shear walls (seeFigure 3). The seismic force-resisting system for the transverse direction (north-south) utilizes the interior wallsbetween the hotel guest rooms. A seismic design of a selected interior shear wall in the transverse direction isillustrated in this design example. The seismic force-resisting system for the longitudinal direction (east-west)utilizes the long interior corridor walls located at the center of the structure, with shear walls on both sides ofthe corridor in addition to shear walls on the exterior walls and shear walls at the bathroom walls.4 FRA-419 Five-Over-One TechDoc July2014.indd 66 Factors That Influence Design2/2/15 9:36 AM

Related to the lateral force-resisting system in the longitudinal direction for structures similar to this designexample, it is recognized that some structural engineers may only utilize the interior corridor walls and notplace shear walls on the exterior walls for similar building configurations. Engineers using such layouts haveused rigid diaphragm analysis to distribute lateral forces to the shear walls and followed the requirements ofSDPWS 2008 § for Open Front Structures. While the code does not explicitly prohibit the eliminationof exterior shear walls for wood-frame structures, the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) inthe 2012 IBC SEAOC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Volume 2 has recommended that designers not removeall shear walls from an exterior wall line without careful consideration of the horizontal diaphragm deflectionsand overall building performance. In SDPWS 2015 §, the provisions for open front diaphragms have beenclarified to include some design considerations and reiterate that ASCE 7 story drift requirements for seismicdesign forces apply to all edges of the structure.Support of Floor JoistsThis design example uses balloon framing. The floor joists are supported in joist hangers hung from the topplates (see Figure 5). The wall studs and posts have a simple span between the top of the sole plate and thebottom of the lower top plate.For wood-frame structures built with regular platform constructio

1. Wood costs less – In addition to lower material costs, wood building systems typically cost less to install than other materials. Wood construction is fast, and wood’s relative light weight reduces the need for foundation capacity and associated costs. 2. Wood structures meet code – The International Building

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