FIP Education Initiatives

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FIP EducationInitiativesPharmacy EducationTaskforceA Global CompetencyFrameworkVersion onalPharmaceuticalFederationDeveloping the Health Care Workforce of the Future

A GLOBAL COMPETENCYFRAMEWORKfor Services Provided byPharmacy Workforce 2012 by International Pharmaceutical Federation,FIP Education InitiativesDisclaimerPlease note that this is Version 1 (v1) of the FIP GlobalCompetency Framework (GbCF) document. This Version willbe subject to further validation and editing. Feedback onthis document is also actively being solicited, encouraged,and welcomed, please contact Dr Andreia Bruno for furtherinformation at

GbCF v1 04GbCF v1 05THE DRIVE FORDEVELOPING A GLOBALCOMPETENCY FRAMEWORKA competent and capablepractitioner workforce is anessential pre-requisite for all healthcare professions. The capacity toimprove therapeutic outcomes,patients’ quality of life, scientificadvancement and enhancementof our public health imperativesare dependent on a foundation ofcompetence. Before overarchingcapability, or competence, canbe determined, the specificcompetencies that comprise thatcapability must be identified1,2,3.In this case, competencies referto the knowledge, skills, attitudesand behaviours that an individualdevelops through education,training, development andexperience4. Taken together, thesecompetencies can be formulatedinto a framework that cancontribute towards supportingpractitioner development, withinan individual, for effective andsustained performance.Practitioner Development frameworks,containing a structured assembly ofbehavioural competencies have becomeincreasingly popular in professionaleducation, driven by the need fortransparency in the training, developmentand professional recognition of healthcareprofessionals. The evidence to support theirroutine use in professional development isunequivocal5,6,7.One of the first health professions to applythese concepts universally for developinga global competency framework wasmedicine. The World Federation forMedical Education (WFME) has a priorityto ensure that competencies of physiciansare globally applicable and transferable,accessible and transparent. According tothe WFME, international standards can bedefined for basic medical education, takingin account the variations of countries dueto the differences in teaching, culture,socio-economic conditions and healthsystems, among others. Nonetheless, thescientific basis of medicine is universal.FIP Education Initiatives (FIPEd) believessuch guidance is also possible forpharmacy.For these reasons, the FIPEdis now working to developa global competencyframework to support theeducational developmentpharmacy practitioners.More information about the FIP EducationInitiatives and Pharmacy EducationTaskforce, the scope of its activities andhow to become involved is available onpages 15-17.It is important to recognise that the GlobalCompetency Framework for pharmacy isintended to act as a mapping tool (whichby its nature will continue to progress asthe profession evolves). The Frameworkhas a foundation in the outcomes ofinitial education and training, and hencethis document will have interest andapplicability for leaders, educators,regulators and practitioners who areworking towards global harmonisationof the practice-based expectations forour practitioners. This has importantapplications for fostering transnationalcollaboration and enhancing ourprofessional scope of practice, across allsectors and settings. In this document,competencies are described usingbehavioural terminology, and shouldnot be viewed as a functional ‘task list’;competencies that are based on behavioursare useful for developmental purposes,which is the primary intention of the GbCF.The scope of the Framework encompassesfoundation level (or early years) practiceand represents global consensus onthe capability competencies of theoutcomes of registration (licensing) levelsof initial career education and training.There is an implicit assumption that thepharmaceutical sciences are a de factounderlying component of these practicebased competencies; the Framework doesnot seek to replicate the foundations ofpharmaceutical science, but to supportthe translation of pharmaceutical sciencewithin the components of practice,independently of the setting or sector ofone’s practice.Future work will develop competencybased descriptions of more advancedlevels of practice for supporting careerdevelopment.

GbCF v1 06GbCF v1 07DEVELOPING THE GLOBALFRAMEWORKFollowing a literature search (2008) and global survey (2009), 47 documentswere retrieved and grouped into categories (eg, competency frameworks,good pharmacy practice, or regulatory documents). Eight documents wereclosely related to educational development frameworks for practitioners8-18.AUSTRALIA - Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Competency Standards for Pharmacistsin Australia 2003.CANADA - National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. Model Standards ofPractice for Canadian Pharmacists. 2003.INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL FEDERATION - FIP Global Conference on the Future ofHospital Pharmacy, Final Basel Statements. December 2008.NEW ZEALAND - Pharmacy Council of New Zealand. Competency Framework for thePharmacy Profession. August 2006.THAILAND - Thai Pharmacy Council. Standard criteria for pharmacy practitioners 2002.Bangkok: Thai Pharmacy Council. 2002UNITED KINGDOM - Competency Development and Evaluation Group. General LevelFramework, a Framework for Pharmacist Development in General Pharmacy Practice.October 2007.Figure 1 - Domains and illustrative competencies from the GbCF v1 for pharmaceutical servicesUNITED STATES OF AMERICA - The Council on Credentialing in Pharmacy. Scope ofContemporary Pharmacy Practice: Roles, Responsibilities, and Functions of Pharmacistsand Pharmacy Technicians. A Resource Paper of the Council on Credentialing inPharmacy.The Global Competency Framework (GbCF) v1 contains a core set of behaviouralcompetencies synthesised from the above documents that should be generally applicablefor the pharmacy workforce worldwide. The v1 of the framework has been through aprocess of consensus group meetings, content validation meetings and an iterative contentphase to reach this stage. There is further validation work to conduct.ZAMBIA - Background paper on Human Resources Development. Republic of Zambia,Ministry of Health. 1996.A comparative study was conducted to identify common behaviours within the differentframeworks, resulting in a comprehensive table of elements which were further categorizedinto the domains of Pharmaceutical Public Health, Pharmaceutical Care, Organisation andManagement, and Professional/Personal (Figure 1).Findings from the validation of the draft GbCF and meetings with experts, including aForum held with experts from 10 countries during the FIP congress in Hyderabad, provideevidence that at the core, there are shared and common capability attributes across bothsectors and borders. There are similar expectations in the competence and the practice ofpharmacists as medicines experts, certainly in early years of career development.Data gathered for the FIP Global Pharmacy Workforce Report 2012 indicate that there hasbeen no significant increase in the number of countries reporting use or development of newnational competency frameworks since 2009 (available at:

GbCF v1 08NEXT STEPSFOR THE GBCF V1FIPEd wishes to continue to engage witha wider constituency of practitioners inorder to validate this framework to ensureit will meet general needs as a mappingtool. The purpose of this input is toevaluate the relevance and validity of thecurrent version, and to specifically capturereactions to the behavioural competencies.For this reason, an online survey form hasbeen created to widen the engagementwith this new instrument. The survey isavailable at the following address andwe are inviting all pharmacists to engagewith this validation survey. Although allthe materials you will need to respond tothe survey are available online, a printedversion of framework v1 as well as theoperational definitions supporting thework are included for your convenience(page 10-14; 18- 19).Following the success of the firstcompetency forum held at the FIP Congressin Hyderabad 2011, a special interest Forumwas created with expert practitionersworking in the domain of competency-leddevelopment. The Forum will meet at eachFIP Congress to provide opportunity forengagement. If you would like to be partof the Forum please send an email to DrAndreia Bruno at you for taking an interest in thisunique global development project,which we anticipate will result in a validand useful framework for the benefit ofeducators, regulators and practitioners inall countries.GbCF v1 09GUIDANCE ON USEThe GbCF Version 1 can be a starting pointto provide guidance for foundation levelpractice, not only at an individual levelbut also for further development intoadvanced practice. It can also be an aid inproviding an overview of how practice ata foundation level can be translated into‘what’ and ‘how’ students should learnand interact with pharmaceutical careskills during their initial degree, alwayswith country specifications in mind (theGbCF does not imply that there should be a‘single’ global curriculum that would fit allcountries).2.3 Dispensing2.3.1 Accurately dispensemedicines for prescribedand/or minor ailments andmonitor the dispense(re-checking the ely(85-100% of the time)(51-84% of the time)(25-50% of the time)(0-24% of the time)U/CComments:2.3.2 Accurately reportdefective or substandardmedicines to theappropriate rely(85-100% of the time)(51-84% of the time)(25-50% of the time)(0-24% of the time)U/CComments:Acting as a mapping tool for the creation ofcountry specific needs for the developmentof practice and practitioner professionaldevelopment, the GbCF can be attached toan assessment grid (Figure 2) and, togetherwith appropriate assessment tools, canaid countries that do not currently havea competency framework but wish todevelop one. By creating a portfolio, insynergy with other assessment tools,countries can implement the GbCF intopractice, developing education and traininginfrastructures for their practitioners.Figure 2 - Example of the assessment grid for one of the competencies of Pharmaceutical Care Competencies domain (adaptedfrom the GLF assessment grid available at: are several ongoing regional andnational projects looking at outcomesbased frameworks for practitionerdevelopment (inspired by the original FIPwork – GbCF draft version, August 2010).These include the Pharmaceutical Societyof Ireland and national Expert Panels inboth Portugal and Serbia have recentlyconducted studies and initiated countrylevel competency frameworks, using theFIP draft GbCF as a basis for their workforcedevelopment. Organisations in Singapore,Australia and Croatia are implementingpractitioner frameworks linked withthe GbCF; The ‘PHARMINE’ Europeanjoint initiative is also demonstratingtransnational evidence of consensus incompetence and outcomes. The GbCF isalso being used as basis for collaborationwith the Pan-American Health Organization,Pharmaceutical Forum of the Americasand Pan-American Conference onPharmaceutical Education (Technical Groupfor the development of competenciesfor Pharmacy Services). The RoyalPharmaceutical Society of Great Britain alsorecommends the use of frameworks at allstages of a professionals’ career, as nationaldevelopment tools (which are directlylinked with the GbCF).ContactsTo find out more about the project pleasecontact or see Bruno Project Coordinator & ResearcherIan Bates Director Pharmacy Education TaskforceFIP Collaborating Centre 29-39 Brunswick Square London WC1N 1AX UK

GbCF v1 10GbCF v1 11GLOBAL COMPETENCYFRAMEWORK VERSION 1 ABRIDGED2.3.7 Label the medicines (with the required and appropriate information)1. Pharmaceutical Public Health Competencies2.3.8 Learn from and act upon previous ‘near misses’ and ‘dispensing errors’CompetenciesBehaviours2.4 Medicines1.1 Health promotion1.1.1 Assess the primary healthcare needs (taking into account the cultural and social settingof the patient)2.4.2 Appropriately select medicines formulation and concentration for minor ailments(e.g. diarrhoea, constipation, cough, hay fever, insect bites, etc.)1.1.2 Advise on health promotion, disease prevention and control, and healthy lifestyle1.2 Medicines informationand advice2.4.3 Ensure appropriate medicines, route, time, dose, documentation, action, form andresponse for individual patients1.2.1 Counsel population on the safe and rational use of medicines and devices (includingthe selection, use, contraindications, storage, and side effects of non-prescription andprescription medicines)1.2.2 Identify sources, retrieve, evaluate, organise, assess and disseminate relevant medicinesinformation according to the needs of patients and clients and provide appropriateinformation2.4.4 Package medicines to optimise safety (ensuring appropriate re-packaging and labellingof the medicines)2.5 Monitor medicinestherapy2. Pharmaceutical Care CompetenciesCompetencies2.4.1 Advise patients on proper storage conditions of the medicines and ensure thatmedicines are stored appropriately (e.g. humidity, temperature, expiry date, etc.)2.5.1 Apply guidelines, medicines formulary system, protocols and treatment pathways2.5.2 Ensure therapeutic medicines monitoring, impact and outcomes (including objectiveand subjective measures)2.5.3 Identify, prioritise and resolve medicines management problems (including errors)Behaviours2.6 Patient consultationand diagnosis2.1 Assessment ofmedicines2.1.1 Appropriately select medicines (e.g. according to the patient, hospital, governmentpolicy, etc)2.1.2 Identify, prioritise and act upon medicine-medicine interactions; medicine-diseaseinteractions; medicine-patient interactions; medicines-food interactions2.2 Compoundingmedicines2.2.1 Prepare pharmaceutical medicines (e.g. extemporaneous, cytotoxic medicines),determine the requirements for preparation (calculations, appropriate formulation,procedures, raw materials, equipment etc.)2.2.2 Compound under the good manufacturing practice for pharmaceutical (GMP) medicines3. Organisation and Management Competencies2.3 Dispensing2.3.1 Accurately dispense medicines for prescribed and/or minor ailments and monitor thedispense (re-checking the medicines)Competencies2.3.2 Accurately report defective or substandard medicines to the appropriate authorities2.3.3 Appropriately validate prescriptions, ensuring that prescriptions are correctlyinterpreted and legal2.3.4 Dispense devices (e.g. Inhaler or a blood glucose meter)2.3.5 Document and act upon dispensing errors2.3.6 Implement and maintain a dispensing error reporting system and a ‘near misses’reporting system3.1 Budget andreimbursementBehaviours

GbCF v1 12GbCF v1 133.2 Human Resourcesmanagement4. Professional/Personal CompetenciesCompetencies4.1 Communication skills3.3 Improvement ofserviceBehaviours4.1.1 Communicate clearly, precisely and appropriately while being a mentor or tutor4.1.2 Communicate effectively with health and social care staff, support staff, patients, carer,family relatives and clients/customers, using lay terms and checking understanding3.3.1 Identify and implement new services (according to local needs)3.3.2 Resolve, follow up and prevent medicines related problems4.1.3 Demonstrate cultural awareness and sensitivity4.1.4 Tailor communications to patient needs3.4 Procurement4.1.5 Use appropriate communication skills to build, report and engage with patients, healthand social care staff and voluntary services (e.g. verbal and non-verbal)4.2 Continuing ProfessionalDevelopment (CPD)3.5 Supply chain andmanagement4.3 Legal and regulatorypractice4.3.1 Apply and understand regulatory affairs and the key aspects of pharmaceuticalregistration and legislation4.3.2 Apply knowledge in relation to the principals of business economics and intellectualproperty rights including the basics of patent interpretation4.3.3 Be aware of and identify the new medicines coming to the market4.3.4 Comply with legislation for drugs with the potential for abuse3.6 Work placemanagement3.6.1 Address and manage day to day management issues4.3.5 Demonstrate knowledge in marketing and sales3.6.2 Demonstrate the ability to take accurate and timely decisions and make appropriatejudgments4.3.6 Engage with health and medicines policies

GbCF v1 14GbCF v1 15FIP EDUCATION INITIATIVES4.4 Professional andethical practice4.5 Quality Assuranceand Research in thework place4.6 Self-managementFIPEd is the directorate that bringstogether all of FIP’s educationactivities and strengthens ourprojects and partnerships with theWorld Health Organization (WHO)and UNESCO. FIPEd comprisesthe Academic InstitutionalMembership (AIM), the PharmacyEducation Taskforce, and theAcademic Section.FIPEd is working to stimulatetransformational change in pharmaceuticaleducation and engender the developmentof science and practice, towards meetingpresent and future societal and workforceneeds around the world. Advocatingfor the use of needs-based strategieswhere pharmacy education is sociallyaccountable, where practice and scienceare evidence-based and practitioners havethe capabilities to provide the health careservices for their communities.FIP Education Initiatives provides aglobal platform for exchange, mentoringand learning for leaders and academics,focusing on the development of leadershipskills and academic management andpedagogic skills; FIPEd is building,advocating, and disseminating evidencebased guidance, consensus-basedstandards, tools and resources foreducational development for organisationsand practitioners; in addition, FIPEd isdeveloping and facilitating educationrelated policy that supports theadvancement of the pharmaceuticalprofession at global, regional and locallevels.

GbCF v1 016THE PHARMACY EDUCATIONTASKFORCE (PET)The PET was established in November 2007with the endorsement of FIP Executiveto undertake a collaborative tripartiteprogramme of work (with our UNESCO andWHO partners) formulated in the PharmacyEducation Action Plan 2008 – 201019. TheAction Plan aimed to support wider effortsto catalyse country level responses to thepharmacy workforce crisis.GbCF v1 017THE PET DOMAINSOF ACTIVITYA particular focus was to provide evidencebased guidance and frameworks tofacilitate pharmacy education developmentand capacity to sustain a pharmacyworkforce relevant to country-level needs(Figure 3). This work was conducted usinga needs-based approach to educationdevelopment.The ability to scale up the pharmacyworkforce and further develop pharmacyeducation is directly related to the overallcapacity of the education and traininginstitutions and the correspondingacademic workforce. In addition,educational governance and process, andthe challenges related to career, educationand continued training, underpin attemptsto enhance pharmaceutical servicesprovision worldwide. The Taskforcedomains for action, as defined by thewider global constituency through theconsultation events, are:Vision for pharmacy educationCompetency based approaches fordeveloping and sustaining pharmaceuticalservicesAcademic and institution capacity (workforceand infrastructure), andQuality AssurancePharmacy Support WorkforceLeadership DevelopmentIf you would like more information about the FIPEducation Initiatives, please see education.To join our online community of practice, pleasecontact 3 - The needs-based education development cycle.Model FIP- WHO- UNESCO Pharmacy Education Taskforce

GlossaryGbCF v1 018Competency framework – A complete collection ofcompetencies that are thought to be essential toperformance.Health literacy – The ability to read, understand and usehealthcare information to make decisions and followinstructions for treatment.Competencies – Knowledge, skills, behaviors andattitudes that an individual accumulates, develops,and acquires through education, training, and workexperience.Innovation – The translation of ideas into new orimproved services, processes, or systems.Compounding - Preparation, mixing or assembling of amedicine. See manufacturing.Continuing Professional Development (CPD) – Theresponsibility of individual pharmacists for systematicmaintenance, development and broadening ofknowledge, skills and attitudes, to ensure continuingcompetence as a professional throughout their careers.Cost-effectiveness – A financial measure of comparativeefficiency of discrete strategies and methods forachieving the same objective.Counsel – To offer an explanation of the purpose ofthe prescribed medicines; proper administration,including length of therapy, special directions for use,proper storage, and refill instructions; information oncommon adverse effects, potential interactions, andcontraindications to the use of the medicines; andguidance on steps to take given specific outcomes.Cultural awareness and sensitivity – Customs, values,and norms of societies which affects health systemsdynamics, including gender, language and residence.Dispensing – To label from stock and supply a clinicallyappropriate medicine to a patient or caregiver and toadvise on safe and effective use.‘Dispensing Error’ - Any situation where wrong, orincomplete medicine or medicinal device or one whichwas incorrectly labelled which may or may not havecaused harm to a patient, was given to a patient.Evidence-Based practice – Using good quality evidence tomake sound clinical decisions.Good manufacturing practice (GMP) - The part of qualityassurance that ensures that products are consistentlyproduced and controlled to the standards appropriateto their intended use and as required in the marketingauthorisation.Labelling - Identification of a pharmaceutical product,which includes the following information, as appropriate:name; API(s), type and amount; batch number; expirydate; special storage conditions or handling precautions;directions for use, warnings and precautions; names andaddresses of the manufacturer and/or the supplier.Manufacturing – Manufacture of medicinal activesubstances to be used for their pharmacologicalproperties in pharmaceuticals and medical products.Includes – (1) manufacturing biological and medicinalproducts; (2) processing (i.e., grading, grinding, andmilling) botanical medicines and herbs; (3) isolatingactive medicinal principals from botanical medicines andherbs; and (4) manufacturing pharmaceutical productsintended for internal and external consumption in suchforms as ampoules, tablets, capsules, vials, ointments,powders, solutions, and suspensions.GbCF v1 019Pharmaceutical Public health - Public health activitiescarried out by pharmacists to protect the health ofpopulations, such as disease prevention and control andpromotion of healthy lifestyles.Pharmacovigilance – Detection, assessment,understanding and prevention of adverse effects arisingfrom medicines use.Procurement – The processes involved in identifying andsecuring adequate supplies of medicines at affordableprices with an appropriate standard of quality. It includesall activities related to the management of the medicinessupply chain.Pull system - Supply chain driven by demand (orders andconsumption).Push system - Supply chain driven by forecasts ofdemand.Quality assurance – A system of processes andassessments in pharmaceutical manufacturers to ensurequality and integrity of pharmaceutical and medicalproducts.Minor ailments – Conditions which have no significanthealth risk to the patient are usually self-limiting andfrequently become resolved without medication. Suchas diarrhoea, constipation, cough, hay fever, insect bites,etc.Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) - A specific set ofprocedures to be followed routinely.‘Near misses’ - Any situation where wrong or incompletemedicine, medicinal device or one which was incorrectlylabelled which may or may not have caused harm toa patient, would have been given to the patient if anintervention had not been made.Therapeutic monitoring – The regular measurement ofserum levels of medicines requiring close ‘titration’ ofdoses in order to ensure that there are sufficient levels inthe blood to be therapeutically effective, while avoidingpotentially toxic excess.Performance – An effective and persistent observablebehaviour. What an individual actually does as opposedto what they can do.Performance management – Process of optimisingproductivity and quality of work of the workforce.Pharmaceutical Care – The responsible provision ofmedicines therapy for the purpose of achieving definiteoutcomes, to improve patient’s quality of life.Team – The staff (pharmacy or multidisciplinary) or caregroup with which the pharmacist works most closely.

Reference List1. Coombes I., Avent M., Cardiff L., Bettenay K., CoombesJ., Whitfield K., Stokes J., Davies G., Bates I. Improvementin Pharmacist’s Performance Facilitated by an AdaptedCompetency-Based General Level Framework. J. PharmacyPractice and Research 2010; 40 (2): 111-118.GbCF v1 020GbCF v1 02112. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. CompetencyStandards for Pharmacists in Australia 2003. 2003.Available at - http://www.psa.org22. FIP Global Hospital Pharmacy Conference Glossary(2009): t 3/s6723. FIP Quality Assurance Framework for PharmacyEducation (2008): Bates I, McRobbie D, Davies G, Webb D. Why we need adefined career structure in place of informal progression.The Pharmaceutical Journal. 2004; 272: 28313. Pharmacy Council of New Zealand. CompetencyFramework for the Pharmacy Profession. August2006. Available as update version 2009 at - show download.php?id 1363. Bruno, A., Bates, I., Brock T and Anderson C. Towards aGlobal Competency Framework. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 2010;74 (3) Article 56.14. Thai Pharmacy Council. Standard criteria forpharmacy practitioners 2002. Bangkok: Thai PharmacyCouncil. 20024. Bates I., Bruno A. Competence in the Global PharmacyWorkforce. A discussion paper. Int.Pharm.J. 2009, 23: 30-3315. The Council on Credentialing in Pharmacy.Scope of Contemporary Pharmacy Practice: Roles,Responsibilities, and Functions of Pharmacists andPharmacy Technicians. A Resource Paper of the Councilon Credentialing in Pharmacy. 2009 Available at - aryPharmacy Practice.pdf5. Hill L., Delafuente J., Sicat B., et al. Development of aCompetency-Based Assessment Process for AdvancedPharmacy Practice Experiences. American Journal ofPharmaceutical Education. 2006; 70(1): 1-116. Mills E., Farmer D., Bates I., et al. The General LevelFramework – Use in Primary Care and CommunityPharmacy to Support Professional Development.International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2008; 16:325-317. Malson G. Global agreement reached for the future ofhospital pharmacy. Hospital Pharmacist. 2008; 15: 2968. Competency Development and Evaluation Group.General Level Framework, a Framework for PharmacistDevelopment in General Pharmacy Practice.October 2007. Available at - http://www.codeg.org9. International Pharmaceutical Federation. FIP GlobalConference on the Future of Hospital Pharmacy, FinalBasel Statements. December 2008. Available at - http://www.fip.org16. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. Pub.L. no. 101-508, 104 Stat 1388, § 4401.17. World Health Organisation. A Model QualityAssurance System for Procurement Agencies, InteragencyGuidelines. 200718. World Health Organisation. Operational principlesfor good pharmaceutical procurement. Essential Drugsand Medicines Policy, Interagency PharmaceuticalCoordination Group. Geneva, 199919. FIP, UNESCO, & WHO. Pharmacy Education Taskforce,Action Plan 2008-2010.References for the definitions in the glossary obtainedand adapted from the following sources:10. National Association of Pharmacy RegulatoryAuthorities. Model Standards of Practice for CanadianPharmacists. 2003. Available at - standards of practice for CanadianPharmacists.pdf20. 2006 International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)Global Pharmacy Workforce and Migration Report:http://www.fip.org11. Nyoni J., Bwalya C., Hazemba O. Background paperon Human Resources Development. Republic of Zambia,Ministry of Health. 1996; 26-28 & 53-5721. Ashcroft D., Morecroft C., Parker D., Noyce P. PatientSafety in Community Pharmacy: Understanding Errorsand Managing Risk. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences& Department of Psychology, University of Manchester.May 2005.24. International Labour Organization. InternationalStandard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08). Groupdefinitions: Occupations in Health. Draft 4 April 2009.25. United Nations. International standard classificationof all economic activities (ISIC). Revision 4.2008.26. World Bank. Human resources for health 0AcknowledgementsAll individual practitioners who have contributed sofar to this work; PET Team Leads and Advisory Group;PET Community of practice members; all FIP countrymembers who participated in the 2009 Global PharmacyWorkforce Report; FIP Collaborating Centre, London.

nalPharmaceuticalFederationAndries Bickerweg 5P.O. Box 842002508 AE The HagueThe NetherlandsT 31 (0)70 302 19 70F 31 (0)70 302 19

Hospital Pharmacy, Final Basel Statements. December 2008. NEW ZEALAND - Pharmacy Council of New Zealand. Competency Framework for the Pharmacy Profession. August 2006. THAILAND - Thai Pharmacy Council. Standard criteria for pharmacy practitioners 2002. Bangkok: Thai Pharmacy Council. 2002 U

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