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31 S/8/Jf i O , .2. & SJAZZ I M P R O V I S A T I O N :A R E C O M M E N D E D SEQUENTIALF O R M A T OF INSTRUCTIONDISSERTATIONPresented to the Graduate Council of theNorth Texas State University in PartialFulfillment of the R e q u i r e m e n t sFor the Degree ofDoctor of PhilosophyByRobert A. Zwick, B.M.E., M.M.E,Denton, TexasMay, 1987

Zwick, Robert A . , Jazz I m p r o v i s a t i o n : A RecommendedFormat o f I n s t r u c t i o n Doctor o f Philosophy ( H i g h e rE d u c a t i o n ) , F e b r u a r y , 1987, 483 p p . , 26 t a b l e s ,b i b l i o g r a p h y , 167 t i t l e s .The problem w i t h which t h i s study i s concerned i s t h a to f d e v e l o p i n g a recommended s e q u e n t i a l format f o r j a z zimprovisation i n s t r u c t i o n .i s used.The method o f c o n t e n t a n a l y s i sSeventeen s u b j e c t m a t t e r c a t e g o r i e s ( i n s t r u c t i o n a lareas) are e s t a b l i s h e d upon which the data i s a n a l y z e d .Coding i n s t r u c t i o n s are c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a d j u s t m e n t s f o ra d d i t i o n a l emphasis placed on the i n s t r u c t i o n a l areas by therespective authors.By s e l e c t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l areasr e c o r d e d above the median per cent o f emphasis, andc o - o r d i n a t i n g these areas w i t h t h e mean s e q u e n t i a li n t r o d u c t i o n o f each i n s t r u c t i o n a l a r e a , a recommendedformat o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s developed.This study has f o u r purposes.The f i r s ti s t o analyzeand compare e x i s t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l areas t h a t are emphasizedi n the s e l e c t e d t e x t m a t e r i a l s .The second i s t o analyzeand compare the major t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s proposed by theselected authors.The t h i r d i s t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s from thecomparisons o f the s e l e c t e d t e x t m a t e r i a l s .The f o u r t h i st o recommend from these c o n c l u s i o n s a s e q u e n t i a l format f o rthe t e a c h i n g o f j a z z i m p r o v i s a t i o n .The r e c o r d i n g u n i t which determines the per cent o femphasis and i n t r o d u c t o r y sequence o f each i n s t r u c t i o n a larea i s the number o f pages devoted t o the r e s p e c t i v e a r e a .

Adjustments are made to determine as accurately as possiblethe additional e m p h a s i s each author places on the individualareas, resulting in a weighted per cent of e m p h a s i s .Thecoding is done by the principal i n v e s t i g a t o r .The median per cent of e m p h a s i s of instructional areasis found to be eleven per cent.All instructional areasexcept two are recorded above this per cent, and areincluded in the recommended format of i n s t r u c t i o n .The sequential format of instruction r e c o m m e n d s anorganized sequential format of instructional areas that besta c c o m m o d a t e s a study of jazz i m p r o v i s a t i o n , and d e m o n s t r a t e sthe combination and coordination of the per cent of emphasisand per cent of introduction for the instructional areas,providing the art of jazz improvisation with a c o m p r e h e n s i v eformat of i n s t r u c t i o n .

TABLE OF CONTENTSpageLIST OF TABLESvChapterI.INTRODUCTION1Statement of the ProblemPurposes of the StudyResearch QuestionsSignificance of the StudyMethodologyLimitationsBasic AssumptionsDefinition of Key TermsSummary of DesignII.REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE24Jazz, The BeginningJazz in American Music EducationJazz StyleJazz MusicJazz DefinitionsImprovisationIII.METHODS AND PROCEDURES56Overview of the Content Analysis MethodologyResearch DesignIV.ANALYSIS OF DATA75Aebersold, JameyA New Approach to Jazz Improvisation .77Baker, DavidJazz Improvisation: A ComprehensiveMethod of Study For All Players102Benward, Bruce and Joan WildmanJazz Improvisation in Theory andPractice137Carubia, MikeThe Sound of Improvisation156111

Coker, JerryImprovising Jazz170Grove, DickThe Encyclopedia of Basic Harmony andTheory Applied to Improvisation on AllInstruments190Haerle, DanJazz Improvisation for KeyboardPlayers221Kynaston, Trent P. and Robert J. RicciJazz Improvisation254LaPorta, JohnTonal Organization of ImprovisationalTechnigues274Mehegan, JohnJazz Improvisation297Morris, Earl R.Fundamentals of Improvisation331Ricker, RamonNew Concepts in Linear Improvisation . 371V.Russell, GeorgeThe Lydian Chromatic Concept of TonalOrganization for Improvisation389CHAPTER SUMMARY405SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS,DISCUSSION, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHERRESEARCH409APPENDIXA:GLOSSARY OF TERMS427APPENDIXB:DATA TABLES441BIBLIOGRAPHY468IV

LIST OF TABLESTablePageI.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-Aebersold .442II.Sequence 0Instructional Areas-Aebersold .443III.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-BakerIV.Sequence 0Instructional Areas-BakerV.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-BenwardVI.Sequence 0Instructional Areas-BenwardVII.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-VIII.Sequence 0Instructional AreasIX.Emphasis 0X.,.446Carubia,.448-Carubia,.449Instructional Areas-CokerSequence 0Instructional Areas-Coker. .XI.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-Grove.452XII.Sequence 0Instructional Areas-GroveXIII.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-HaerleXIV.Sequence 0Instructional Areas-Haerle.455XV.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-Kynaston . .456XVI.Sequence 0Instructional Areas-Kynaston . .457XVII.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-LaPorta.458XVIII.Sequence 0Instructional Areas-LaPortaXIX.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-Mehegan.460XX.Sequence 0Instructional Areas-MeheganXXI.Emphasis 0Instructional Areas-Morris.462XXII.Sequence 0Instructional AreasMorris.463v451

XXIII.Emphasis of Instructional Areas - RickerXXIV.Sequence of Instructional Areas - RickerXXV.XXVI.Emphasis of Instructional Areas - Russell . .Sequence of Instructional Areas - Russell .vi466

CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONMusic i s an a r t t h a t i s unique i n i t spower t o p r o j e c tt h e v i t a l i t y o f l i f e i t s e l f t h r o u g h images t h a t cannot beexpressed i n words.A h i g h l y p r o f i c i e n t command o f alanguage i s necessary t o achieve t r u e c l a r i t y o fexpression.A person's capacity for creative s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n and spontaneous c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o ni n d i c a t e a p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e use o f a v e r b a l language.Inmusic, the most e x a c t l y e q u i v a l e n t s k i l l i s t h a t o fi m p r o v i s a t i o n ( 1 5 , p. 3 6 ) .For t h e music educator concerned about t h e t o t a lconcept o f j a z z music e d u c a t i o n , j a z z i m p r o v i s a t i o n i s botha p r i o r i t y and a major problem.From the very b e g i n n i n g ,j a z z i m p r o v i s a t i o n was c r e a t e d and developed as an u n i q u e l yAmerican a r tf o r m , and l o g i c a l l y belongs i n American musiceducation (35, p. 12).F u r t h e r m o r e , i n 1967 t h e TanglewoodSymposium r e p o r t e d t h a t "music of a l l p e r i o d s , s t y l e s ,formsand c u l t u r e s belongs i n the c u r r i c u l u m " ( 4 6 , p . 5 1 ) .The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Jazz Educators (NAJE) waso r g a n i z e d i n 1968, and advocated t h e i n c l u s i o n o f " y o u t hmusic" i n s c h o o l s .A 1975 NAJE q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o161 s e l e c t e d music e d u c a t o r s i n t h i r t y - o n e s t a t e s showedt h a t n i n e t y per cent o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e - r e l a t e d t e a c h e r s

taught i m p r o v i s a t i o n (30, p. 52).The NAJE c o n t i n u e s t opromote the acceptance o f j a z z e d u c a t i o n .One o f i t s sevens p e c i f i c aims and purposes i s " t o f o s t e r and encourage thedevelopment and a d o p t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a t h a t w i l l e x p l o r econtemporary c o m p o s i t i o n , a r r a n g i n g , and i m p r o v i s a t i o n "(20,p. 45).Because o f t h e v a l u e o f r e s e a r c h , t h e amount o fl i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e , the p o p u l a r i t y present i n a l l l e v e l so f p r o f i c i e n c y , and t h e c u l t u r a l importance g i v e n byacademia, " j a z z e d u c a t i o n can no l o n g e r be c o n s i d e r e d aninnovation; i tp. 12).r e q u i r e s and m e r i t s e v a l u a t i o n " ( 3 5 ,An o r g a n i z e d approach t o s o l i d i f y the v a l u e andimportance o f j a z z e d u c a t i o n reached a c l i m a x a t t h e MusicEducators N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n ' s (MENC) f i r s t"Jazz N i g h t , "h e l d at S e a t t l e i n 1968. The speaker was composer M e r e d i t hW i l l s o n , and h i s message was, " t h e o l d l a d y has indeedbecome r e s p e c t a b l e " ( 4 2 , p. 1 ) .Ifi n t r o d u c e d i n t h e e a r l i e s t stages o f e d u c a t i o n ,i m p r o v i s a t i o n , l i k e t h e v e r b a l language s k i l l s ,a n a t u r a l and f u l l yskills.Itw i l l becomef u n c t i o n i n g part of a person's c r e a t i v es h o u l d be t a u g h t t h r o u g h an approach t h a t wouldr e s u l t i n a u n i f i e d and more complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f musicas a language, i n t e g r a t i n g ear t r a i n i n g ,sight-reading,i n s t r u m e n t a l and v o c a l t e c h n i q u e s , and t h e o r y ( 1 5 , p . 4 1 ) .The development o f p r o f i c i e n c y i n a music " l a n g u a g e "i n v o l v e s t h e same g e n e r a l process as i t s v e r b a lcounterpart.Over a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e , exposure t o a

particular type of music results in the recognition ofcommon melodic and rhythmic prototypes that characterize thestyle.Beginning with simple rote imitation of the teacherand mastery of elementary principles of notation and musicreading, "the process and discipline of improvisationprovide the sole access to the advanced stages of musicaldevelopment, in which musical conversation within a groupand spontaneous expression of musical ideas as a soloistbecome possible" (15, p. 37).The study of improvisation can be related to anymusical style.Within the broad categories of jazz, Westernclassical music, Indian music, African music, and othermusics from throughout the world, the numerous stylisticvarieties of improvisation are analogous to the variousverbal languages and dialects found in each particularculture.Reading these different styles of music is animportant and necessary stage of development, but if it doesnot lead to a capacity for spontaneous musical expression,it is of little ultimate creative value (15, p. 37).The misconception that improvisation is generallyconsidered as a technique associated solely with organperformance in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries andin contemporary jazz rock music, along with the idea thatthe ability to improvise is innate and predicated on theability to skillfully perform on a musical instrument, hasmade improvisation less popular.This circumstance hasopened the subject for much research, construction of

curriculum and pedagogy, and p h i l o s o p h i c a l development(25, p. 1).Rarely available in the more traditional forms of musiceducation, jazz education has the potential for providingstudents with a quality and variety of e x p e r i e n c e s withmusic, and should result in a change in the approach toteaching i n s t r u m e n t a l p e r f o r m a n c e technique by involvingbeginning and advanced students in i m p r o v i s a t i o n .Theteaching of i m p r o v i s a t i o n should be the very heart ofinstruction in both music teacher education programs andpublic school programs, and should be used in beginningi n s t r u m e n t a l instruction with instruction m a t e r i a l s thatinvolve i m p r o v i s a t i o n (35, p p . 12-13).The approach to teaching jazz i m p r o v i s a t i o n has to varyaccording to the progress of the individual student.Thishas been one of the drawbacks to jazz education, "not enoughone-on-one so the student can rise to his or her fullpotential in m u s i c " (2, p. 17).The lack of ability ofd i r e c t o r s themselves to improvise, or directors lacking them a t e r i a l s or ability to teach students how to i m p r o v i s e ,creates limited o p p o r t u n i t i e s for these students to work onimprovisation.To make the situation even more difficult,many high school and college students have little backgroundin the history of jazz and are unfamiliar with the stylesand performance a c h i e v e m e n t s of jazz greats (35, pp.12-13).Aebersold counters by saying, "I haven't foundanyone who couldn't i m p r o v i s e to some degree.Improvisation

i s not g i v e n t o j u s t a few.needs t o be c u l t i v a t e d "Iti s w i t h i n a l l o f us and j u s t(1, p. 19).A more f o r m a l process o f t e a c h i n g does not i n i t s e l fo v e r t u r n those q u a l i t i e s which have made j a z z a p o w e r f u l l ycommunicative f o r c e and one o f the most l i b e r a t e d forms o fa r t i s t i c expression.S c h u l l e r comments, " e d u c a t i o n andl e a r n i n g are not n e c e s s a r i l y h a r m f u l t o j a z z . . . "p. 44).(40,The s c h o l a r l y study o f j a z z i m p r o v i s a t i o n i s ar e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t development, as l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c thas i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n t h e past twenty years but i s by nomeans c o n s i d e r a b l e .Ever s i n c e i t s b e g i n n i n g s around thet u r n o f the c e n t u r y , t h e m u s i c a l language o f j a z z c o n t i n u e st o be governed by a system o f fundamental agreementsr e g u l a t i n g basic compositional matters, a l l o w i n g performerst o c o n c e n t r a t e on i m p r o v i s a t i o n ( 1 0 , pp. x i - 1 ) .The need f o r t e a c h i n g o f j a z z i m p r o v i s a t i o n has beens t r e s s e d and no l o n g e r seems t o be i n q u e s t i o n .The probleml i e s i n what t o teach and how t o approach the t e a c h i n g o fjazz i m p r o v i s a t i o n (50, p. 28).Jazz i m p r o v i s a t i o n cannotbe t a u g h t i n t h e same manner as h i s t o r y or math, or even t h eb a s i c f i n g e r i n g o f an i n s t r u m e n t ; i tform.i s t o o p e r s o n a l an a r tThe major i n i t i a l problem c o n f r o n t i n g the t e a c h e r i so f t e n simple fear (36, p . 95).Matteson c o n t i n u e s , "Youd o n ' t r e a l l y teach a person t o i m p r o v i s e .You can o n l yguide and show t h e s t u d e n t what he or she has t o work on t odevelop t h a t c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y t h a t they have i n them"(23, p , 14).Konowitz adds,

Improvisation can be taught and the bestimprovisers are musicians who know the basiccomponents of composition and who can manipulatethese elements fluently so that their performanceappears to be completely spontaneous. Thus,so-called spontaneous improvisation is actuallythe rapid alteration, adaptation, and variation ofa broad array of specific techniques over which aplayer has complete control (24, p. 86).The necessity of total involvement on the part of boththe teacher and the student is one of the most importantreasons for using improvisation as a means of musiclearning.If properly handled, improvisation can serve as avaluable adjunct to other educational concepts used inteaching music."It can be the means to an end as well asan end in itself" (5, p . 42).The rules governing the realizations of a figured bassor an improvisation in the style of J.S. Bach are quitedifferent from the rules that determine the correctness ofan improvisation in the be-bop style of jazz or the rulesthat are operative in a score by Lukas Foss or John Cage.Techniques, materials, and approaches to improvisation varyfrom era to era and style to style, and from one type ofmusic to another (5, p. 42).The most profitable approach to the study of scales,modes, chords, and other tonal materials is through jazzimprovisation.Students will more likely be motivated topractice the different kinds of scales in all keys when theycan see their necessity and immediate applicability in animprovised performance.Few jazz works use less than twodifferent scales and most use at least five, with some using

as many as thirty different modes and scales (5, p. 49).Baker continues,Improvisation as a means to and incentive fordeveloping technique cannot be overestimated. Theability to handle a multiplicity of scales,chords, patterns, and melodic lines at all temposand in all keys is an absolute necessity for agood improviser. The demands of much jazzimprovisation are such that one must-develop afacility over the entire range of an instrument aswell as a more flexible attitude with regard towhat is acceptable and proper in terms of sound.Improvisation traditionally has necessitated agood ear and also has provided a means fordeveloping good listening habits (5, p. 50).Improvisation provides 1) a means for learning theinner workings of thematic construction and development; 2)a means of studying musical motion (ii-V7-I); 3) a directway to teach and study articulation; 4) an effective way tofocus on memory problems and develops powers of retention;5) a means of addressing rhythmic problems related to meter;6) the teaching of music reading through carefullycoordinated improvisational exercises and the study oftranscribed solos and melody lines (5, p. 50).Improvisation, the predominant and driving force injazz, can be found in every musical style and culture (32,p . 3).It is the freest form of expression of the humanspirit.The improviser is actually a composer, creatingmelodies, harmonies and rhythms, instantly changing the moodof the music to anything he desires.He can choose toimprovise in various styles, such as classical, folk, rock,or jazz (19, p. 1).

8Hall said,We feel that the development of improvisatoryskills is important. Improvisation was a part ofthe techniques and abilities of many of our greatcomposers, and this aspect of music is notcommonly taught in traditional schools of music.Jazz improvisation is, of course, stylized, but wefeel that the basic procedures and materials wouldbe applicable to any style (20, p. 45).Ostransky said,The best improvisation, like the best notatedmusic, comes to the listener as an organizedpattern, a unified structure. Music, improvisedor written, . . . must have direction and purpose;one must be able to search for and find the samequalities in jazz improvisation that one wouldexpect to find in the best notated music (39,p. 62).Jazz improvisation requires a lifetime of study thatneeds constant reinforcement from musical, emotional,spiritual, and physical stimuli.Jazz artists possess adesire to constantly improve and become still more creative(36, p . 99).The ability to experience a work of music as a fluid,ongoing development of sounds is the key to understandingthe process of improvisation.Depending on the skill andsensitivity of the improviser, each musical idea suggestsits own potential for variation and development (15,p. 37).Improvisation is recognized as an important factor inmusic education, even in the elementary stages.It bringsreason to the support of instinct and quickens theintelligence.Years ago it was said that the art ofimprovisation could never be satisfactorily taught, but this

could hardly stand today.It is one of the most direct waysof teaching music itself, the most natural means of approach(7, p. 993).Improvisation can serve the teaching of virtually everyfacet of m u s i c ."The teaching of form, scales, modes,chords, n o m e n c l a t u r e , instrumental and vocal technique, eartraining, rhythm, meter, a r t i c u l a t i o n , forward motion,theory, melodic construction and d e v e l o p m e n t , and style canall be approached through the use of i m p r o v i s a t i o n " (5,p . 49).Baker continues, ". . . the myth 'either you got itor you ain't' has been used as an excuse for not teachingstudents how to improvi

Coker, Jerry Improvising Jazz 170 Grove, Dick The Encyclopedia of Basic Harmony and Theory Applied to Improvisation on All Instruments 190 Haerle, Dan Jazz Improvisation for Keyboard Players 221 Kynaston, Trent P. and Robert J. Ricci Jazz Improvisation 254 LaPorta, John Tonal Organization of Improvisational Technigues 274 Mehegan, John

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